1 Wednesday, 3 June 2009
2 [Open session]
3 [The accused entered court]
4 --- Upon commencing at 9.03 a.m.
5 JUDGE PARKER: Morning.
6 Ms. Nilsen.
7 MS. NILSEN: Good morning, Your Honours. The next witness will
8 be Mr. Rexhep Krasniqi.
9 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you.
10 [The witness entered court]
11 JUDGE PARKER: Good morning, sir.
12 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Good morning.
13 JUDGE PARKER: Could you please read aloud the affirmation that
14 is shown to you now.
15 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I solemnly declare that I will
16 speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
17 WITNESS: REXHEP KRASNIQI
18 [Witness answered through interpreter]
19 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you. Please sit down.
20 I think Ms. Nilsen has some questions for you.
21 MS. NILSEN: Thank you, Your Honours.
22 Examination by Ms. Nilsen:
23 Q. Good morning witness.
24 A. Good morning.
25 Q. Could you please state your full name and birthday for the
2 A. My name is Rexhep Krasniqi. I was born on the 5th of May, 1945
3 in Pagarush village.
4 Q. Where are you from?
5 A. I am from Prizren.
6 Q. And could you be more precise, where in Prizren are you from?
7 A. From Dushanove.
8 Q. Do you still live in this village, Dusanovo?
9 A. Yes, I do.
10 Q. Mr. Krasniqi, did you provide a statement to the Office of
11 Prosecution in 1999?
12 A. Yes.
13 Q. On the front page of that statement it says 12th of March, 1999.
14 As far as I know, that date is not correct. Do you know when this
15 statement was made?
16 A. Yes, it should be the 12th of April, not March.
17 Q. Thank you.
18 MS. NILSEN: If we could please put on the screen
19 65 ter number 02378. That's the April -- 12th of March statement, both
20 the Albanian and the English version of the 1999 statement. And zoom in
21 on the first paragraph there, the first page, or the second page, sorry.
22 This is the 2004 statement. You still have the 2004 statement, the
23 Albanian version, which is not the correct statement, usher, it's 1999
24 statement, Albanian version on the left side. Yes. This is the correct
25 version. Could you get page 2 and the first paragraph there. So the
1 witness is able to read the first paragraph. And also the same on the
2 English version. Thank you. It was the correct page it was just in this
3 version I would also like to have on the second page first paragraph. So
4 the English page is page 30, I'm told, sorry. In e-court.
5 Q. Mr. Krasniqi, I wonder if you are able to read the sentence
6 there, the first paragraph starting with:
7 "Then there our Serbian colleagues told us ..."
8 It's in the middle there.
9 A. No, no, I cannot read it. Can you speak in a louder voice,
11 MS. NILSEN: It's still not the correct page --
12 JUDGE PARKER: The problem is one that is occurring from time to
13 time, there seems to be a habit of putting the different translations of
14 the one document in one package as one exhibit, and therefore it becomes
15 impossible to bring up more than one until they are separated, which is
16 what is having to happen at the moment. It would be better, of course,
17 for your next trial, Ms. Nilsen, if they were put separately into
19 MS. NILSEN: I will keep that in mind, Your Honours.
20 JUDGE PARKER: It's all part of life's rich experience.
21 MS. NILSEN: Thank you. If we still are able to turn on page 2
22 on the English version there on the right side, then I think we are
23 there. Yes, exactly.
24 Q. Are you still not able to read, Mr. Krasniqi, the sentence saying
25 "then our Serbian" -- or saying something about your Serbian colleagues?
1 It is supposed to be on that page.
2 A. I didn't say -- it was not our friends that said that.
3 Q. No, I'm asking if you are able to see it to read a sentence. And
4 if you --
5 A. No, no, no. I can hardly read it.
6 Q. Okay. But is it correct that you said back in 1999 -- or I can
7 read the English version here:
8 "Then our Serbian colleagues told us that they would kill us if
9 NATO started bombing them."
10 As I understand you have some corrections to this sentence,
11 Mr. Krasniqi, that it was not your Serbian colleagues who told you this;
12 is that correct?
13 A. It was the army. Not our colleagues.
14 Q. All right. Thank you. Except from the error in this sentence
15 and also the error regarding the date of this 1999 statement, are you
16 satisfied that this information in the statement is a correct reflection
17 of what you remember?
18 A. It is correct.
19 Q. Did you also in September 2004 give a statement where you made
20 some additional information?
21 A. Yes, it is correct.
22 Q. Have you read through both of these statements so that you are
23 satisfied of -- that they are to the best of your knowledge and belief?
24 A. Yes, I have read through them.
25 MS. NILSEN: Thank you. Then I would seek to tender those two
1 statements, Your Honour, they are already in the same 92 bis package of
2 65 ter 02378.
3 JUDGE PARKER: They will be received as separate exhibits.
4 MS. NILSEN: Thank you, Your Honours.
5 THE REGISTRAR: The 1999 statement, Your Honours, will be
6 assigned P00848, and the 2004 statement will be assigned P00849.
7 MS. NILSEN:
8 Q. Mr. Krasniqi, did you also testify on the 16th of October, 2006
9 in the Milutinovic et al. case?
10 A. Yes, three years ago when I was here for the first time.
11 Q. Exactly. Have you been given a chance to review this transcript
12 before you came to court today?
13 A. No, I didn't meet anyone.
14 Q. But, did you speak to the language assistant before you came to
15 court today, I mean, last week, and got the opportunity to read through
17 A. Yes.
18 Q. Thank you.
19 A. Yes, the statement I gave, yes, I read it.
20 Q. Thank you. I'm glad to hear that. If I asked you the same
21 questions today that you were asked back in 2006, would you provide me
22 with the same answer then, Mr. Krasniqi?
23 A. Yes, to my recollection and ability, yes.
24 MS. NILSEN: And I seek to tender also this transcript into
25 evidence, Your Honours. It's 65 ter number 05032.
1 JUDGE PARKER: It will be received.
2 THE REGISTRAR: That will be assigned P00850, Your Honours.
3 MS. NILSEN: I would now read the court summary for the witness,
4 and after that I have just a couple of questions for the witness.
5 The witness lives in Dushanove village, north-west of Prizren
6 town with his wife and four children. The witness has described that on
7 28th of March, 1999, there was a buildup of Serbian military in his
8 neighbourhood. The witness has described uniforms worn by the Serb
9 forces and the vehicles used by them.
10 The witness and his brother had 60 displaced people from the
11 neighbour villages staying in their houses. When the police came to the
12 witness house and smashed the front door on the 28th of March, 1999
13 After being assaulted and threatened, all of the people that
14 lived in the house were told to go to Albania. Everyone left the house
15 and went into the yard where the witness and other family members were
16 beaten and robbed.
17 The witness has testified that he saw houses being burned by the
18 Serb forces. They all eventually set off on foot for the Albanian
19 border. The streets were sealed off, causing everybody to go in the same
20 direction in a long convoy.
21 The witness has described seeing a few young men on a tractor on
22 their way to Albania
23 jumped off the tractor and ran away, but the police fired automatic
24 weapons at them, and these young men were immediately killed.
25 At the border, Serbian police confiscated all the identity
1 documents of the civilians.
2 And this is the end of the court summary.
3 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you.
4 MS. NILSEN:
5 Q. Mr. Krasniqi, you have explained in your statement from 1999 that
6 during your six-hour walk towards the Albanian border there were many
7 check-points along the way. I would like to ask you, who were in charge
8 of these check-points? Who were manning them?
9 A. The police.
10 Q. And then you mean the Serbian police?
11 A. Yes, yes, of course, the Serb police. There was no one else
13 Q. And what did you have to do at these check-points? What did they
14 require from you?
15 A. We didn't dare turn our heads right around or left because they
16 would have killed us if we dared do that.
17 Q. Did they ask you for anything at these check-points?
18 A. Whatever we had on us, they took away from us. First they took
19 away whatever we had in our yards and we were left with nothing. We
20 simply were in a convoy of people and trucks.
21 Q. Did you have to stop at each and every of these check-points?
22 A. Yes, they stopped us at every one of these check-points.
23 Q. You also have in your statement explained what happened in the
24 last check-point, before you reached Albanian border. Did you have any
25 documents confiscated before you passed this last check-point?
1 A. Yes, but not ours because there was not time for us. They drove
2 us away from work by force, but they took away the others' documents.
3 Q. Did you personally -- were you personally confiscated any
4 documents? Did you personally have to give away any documents at this
6 A. No.
7 JUDGE PARKER: Mr. Djurdjic.
8 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Thank you. The witness answered
9 this for the second time, therefore I have no reason to object any
11 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you.
12 MS. NILSEN:
13 Q. Did you see what kind of document were confiscated from the
15 A. The ID cards, the licence plates, everything. They confiscated
16 them from these people. They also confiscated their cars when they had
17 cars with them.
18 Q. You said in your statement back in 1999, the last paragraph, that
19 you would go home right now if you thought it was safe. When did you
20 finally return back to Kosovo?
21 A. I returned to Kosovo on the 20th of June, 1999. After NATO
22 troops entered Kosovo.
23 MS. NILSEN: Thank you, Mr. Krasniqi. Your Honours, I have no
24 further questions for this witness.
25 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you very much, Ms. Nilsen.
1 Mr. Djurdjic, do you cross-examine?
2 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour.
3 Cross-examination by Mr. Djurdjic:
4 Q. Good morning, Mr. Krasniqi. My name is Veljko Djurdjic, I'm a
5 member of the Defence team of the accused Vlastimir Djordjevic. With me
6 is Ms. Marie O'Leary, a member of the team.
7 Mr. Krasniqi, you said you were born in Pagarusa, can you tell us
8 what municipality that is?
9 A. Yes, I can. Pagarusha is part of Malishev municipality.
10 Q. Thank you. How many brothers and sisters did you have?
11 A. We are three bother brothers and two sisters. One is dead so now
12 there are only two brothers and two sisters.
13 Q. Thank you. Did your parents live in Pagarusa back in 1999?
14 A. No.
15 Q. Thank you. Do you have some property or land in Pagarusa?
16 A. No, we do not.
17 Q. Does your father hail from Pagarusa?
18 A. Yes, from Pagarushe.
19 Q. What was his occupation?
20 A. He was a farmer. He worked in agriculture.
21 Q. Thank you. What happened with his land?
22 A. We sold our father's land, and we went to Dushanove, to Prizren.
23 We bought a new place.
24 Q. Thank you. When was that that you went to Dusanovo and bought
25 land there?
1 A. It was on the 11th of March, 1968 [as interpreted].
2 Q. Thank you.
3 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] The witness said 1969, I believe,
4 whereas we have 1968 in the transcript.
5 Q. Mr. Krasniqi, who did you buy the land from in Dusanovo?
6 A. We bought the land from Nesahit Recani, from him.
7 Q. One of your brothers died, but was he still alive in 1999?
8 A. Yes, he was.
9 Q. Did one of your brothers work at Prizren Trans?
10 A. No, no.
11 Q. Thank you. You mentioned one brother in your statement as having
12 been with you. Did you live together?
13 A. No, we were -- we lived separately. Of course, we were in the
14 same compound.
15 Q. What was your brother's name, the one who lived with you?
16 A. The one who is dead, Mehmed Krasniqi; the other is
17 Shefqet Krasniqi; and you know my name, Rexhep Krasniqi.
18 Q. Thank you. What was Mehmed's occupation?
19 A. Odd jobs, whatever he could find. He was a bricklayer.
20 Q. It says here that your other brother was Rexhep Krasniqi. Let's
21 correct that. One of your brother's name is Mehmed Krasniqi, and what
22 was the other brother's name?
23 A. Shefqet Krasniqi.
24 Q. Thank you. What was Shefqet's occupation?
25 A. He worked in the construction business. Now, he is not working.
1 Q. Thank you. Did all of you live in the same compound but in
2 different houses?
3 A. Yes, that's correct.
4 Q. Thank you. Mr. Krasniqi, what schooling do you have?
5 A. Eight years of schooling.
6 Q. Thank you. I can see that you worked in Printex for a number of
7 years. What jobs did you work at?
8 A. Yes, in the textile industry where they produce threads, the
9 weaving sector.
10 Q. What were your jobs there?
11 A. We called the place "batere" where the cotton was processed. The
12 first process.
13 Q. Thank you. Do you know who was general manager of Printex in
15 A. Mile. In our workshop, it was Mile who was the manager.
16 Q. Thank you. But what about the entire company, the entire factory
17 of Printex?
18 A. Faruk Mermeri.
19 Q. In 1999?
20 A. He was a general director. Mile was the manager of our workshop.
21 Q. Thank you. Who was the general manager before Faruk Mermeri?
22 A. They were rotated; Sadedin was one. There were many there,
23 because I worked there for 34 years so we had several general managers.
24 Luftim Demiri was another one.
25 Q. I'm surprised to hear that you don't know that back in 1999 it
1 was Vojkan Zecovic who was the general manager.
2 A. It is possible. We didn't have contact with him. If he is a
3 person who moved there from another factory, then it can be him as well.
4 But I cannot tell you for sure.
5 Q. No, he was at the factory from the establishment of Printex, and
6 he was there even when Demiri, the legendary director, was at the head of
7 the enterprise.
8 A. Yes, that's correct, he was. Faruk Mermeri as well, many of
10 Q. Tell me about that estate where you lived. Did the yard have a
11 wall around it?
12 A. Yes, it was.
13 Q. Will you tell me what was it made of, this fence? How tall was
15 A. It was built of concrete blocks.
16 Q. Thank you. How high was it?
17 A. 1.80 metres high.
18 Q. Thank you. Will you tell me, when did you do your military
19 service and where?
20 A. I completed my military service in Niksiq. From there we were
21 transferred to Bosnia
22 returned again. I completed it in 1969.
23 Q. Thank you. What was the name of your street in Dusanovo in 1999?
24 A. Boulevard i Rinise, 154. The names are now being changed, but it
25 is in my statement, the name of the street I gave.
1 Q. Thank you. How far is your street from the main road to
3 A. Not more than 200 metres. That should be the distance. I didn't
4 measure it, but it should be about 200 metres.
5 Q. Thank you. And it runs parallel to the road, doesn't it?
6 A. We call it the Transit Road
7 going to Jakova and to the town. That's the part I was referring to when
8 I said 200 metres far.
9 Q. Yes, I'm just saying your street runs parallel to the road.
10 A. [No interpretation]
11 Q. To get on to the main road you have to turn left into a
12 side-street and then --
13 A. You have to take a turn.
14 Q. Thank you. Can you see the road from your house, the
15 Djakovica-Prizren road?
16 A. Yes, you can see it, but there is a house right in front of our
17 house that impedes the view, blocks the view.
18 Q. Thank you. But within those 200 metres, are there any more
20 A. Yes, there are. From the main road to the road where my house
21 is, there is a row of houses; and then where my house is, there are other
23 Q. Thank you. Do you know Uni Hakic [phoen]?
24 A. No, not in my neighbourhood. Perhaps there is someone by that
25 name, but there are many people residing there, so I don't know all of
1 them by names.
2 Q. Dusanovo is part of Prizren, isn't it?
3 A. Yes, it's part of Prizren.
4 Q. Thank you. And it is on a plain?
5 A. It is adjacent to Prizren. It's a neighbourhood of Prizren.
6 It's not separate from it.
7 Q. Yes, I agree with you. I'm just saying that this part of Prizren
8 is on level ground. Your neighbourhood Dusanovo is in the field of
10 A. It is a plain.
11 Q. Thank you. From Dusanovo, can you see Bazdarana?
12 A. Yes, but now you can't see it because there are higher blocks of
13 flats that block the view.
14 Q. You mean Ortokol. And when were you able to see Bazdarana from
15 Dusanovo? In which year?
16 A. Now, you could not see it. You could see it then. Now there are
17 many more houses built there, so you cannot see it.
18 Q. I'm asking you when were you able to see it?
19 A. You could see it about 30 years ago when these apartment blocks
20 were not built there.
21 Q. Thank you, that's what I was asking. Is it right that from
22 Dusanovo you cannot see the barracks that are situated by the road from
24 A. Yes, that's correct. Now you cannot see them.
25 Q. You could see it 30 years ago?
1 A. Yes, you could see them very well then.
2 Q. Thank you. When did you stop working at Printex?
3 A. I stopped working in 2004 because the factory was closed down and
4 we remained jobless.
5 Q. I mean in March 1999, did you continue working there up to the
6 moment when you left Dusanovo?
7 A. I worked there until the bombing started. And when I returned
8 from Albania
9 Q. Thank you. Tell me, did you notice before the 24th of March that
10 people were leaving Prizren, going away?
11 A. Before the 24th? Can you please repeat your question?
12 Q. Did you notice that people were leaving Prizren before the
13 24th of March, 1999?
14 A. No, I didn't notice that.
15 Q. Thank you. Did you notice that anyone left Dusanovo before the
16 24th of March?
17 A. No.
18 Q. Thank you. Now, in terms of ethnic structure, what kind of
19 people live in Prizren, and what languages do they speak?
20 A. They were Serbs.
21 Q. What about Turks?
22 A. No, there weren't any Turks. There were Gorans, Albanians, and
23 Serbs living together.
24 Q. Did you ever go into the building of the municipal assembly of
1 A. Are you referring to the old one or to the newly built one?
2 Q. Sorry, when I talk, I talk always about 1998 and 1999, because
3 that's the relevant period for us. I'm asking you questions up to 1999.
4 Did you ever go into the town hall, or to the SUP building, or the survey
5 department building, any building of the local administration?
6 A. Yes, I went to the municipal office because whenever we needed a
7 document to be issued to us, we had to refer to that office.
8 Q. Thank you. And you never saw a notice, a board on the municipal
9 building written in the Turkish language?
10 A. Sir, when we would go to the municipal building, we could use the
11 three languages, the Serb language, Albanian language, and Turkish. We
12 could use the three of them.
13 Q. Thank you, that is why I'm asking, because the Turkish language
14 could be used as well. And you said a moment ago the Turks lived in
15 Prizren in large numbers.
16 A. Yes, there are still there.
17 Q. Thank you. And one of the towns' languages is Turkish. But tell
18 me about the village of Mamusa
19 What is the majority population of Mamusa?
20 A. Turkish is also spoken in Mamusha village. I mentioned Mamusha
21 in terms of the people who were droven [as interpreted] away from there
22 and who had to come towards our neighbourhood.
23 Q. Thank you. The majority population of Mamusa are the Turks; am I
25 A. The population is mixed, Albanians living there, Turks too. A
1 new municipality has been formed there, but they still live there
3 Q. Thank you.
4 A. You are welcome.
5 JUDGE PARKER: Ms. Nilsen.
6 MS. NILSEN: Your Honours, I'm sorry to interrupt, I would just
7 like the witness to clarify a bit regarding the Turks he is mentioning in
8 Prizren. On the question from my learned colleague he said that there
9 were no Turks living in Prizren, and then he was confronted that he said
10 that there was living a large number of them. I'm not sure whether he is
11 talking about Mamusa or Prizren. If the witness could clarify that.
12 Thank you.
13 JUDGE PARKER: Mr. Djurdjic, the witness did give two quite
14 contradictory answers about Turks living in Prizren. Perhaps you might
15 determine which is correct. Were there Turks living in Prizren or were
16 there not, and were they living in large numbers, if there were.
17 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Your Honours, I believe that
18 everything entered on to the record is the result of the
19 cross-examination. From the answer that there were no Turks to the other
20 answer that there were Turks in large numbers. I think Ms. Nilsen should
21 deal with it in redirect if she wishes. In my view, everything is clear.
22 When I asked him the question about boards, he answered clearly what the
23 situation was in Mamusa, and now I moved on to another place. If you
24 think this requires clarification, I will seek it.
25 JUDGE PARKER: You carry on then, Mr. Djurdjic. We put the
1 problem to you. If you think it's best left as it is, carry on.
2 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Thank you.
3 Q. Am I right, Witness, that a considerable number of people of
4 Turkish ethnicity lived in Prizren in 1999?
5 A. I cannot hear very well.
6 Q. Can you hear me now?
7 A. Yes, it's better now.
8 Q. Witness, am I right that there was a considerable number of Turks
9 living in Prizren? I mean Turks by ethnicity, by origin.
10 A. This would be my answer, those who speak Turkish I consider them
11 Turks. I don't know their exact number, the exact figure of Turks living
12 there. I only know that those who speak Turkish are Turks.
13 Q. Thank you. And am I right that in all public buildings in
14 Prizren there were signs in three languages; in Albanian, in Serbian, and
15 in Turkish?
16 A. Yes, that's how it was.
17 Q. Thank you. And concerning Mamusa, I told you that the Turks were
18 the majority population there in 1999; is that correct?
19 A. Yes, that's correct. There are more Turks living there.
20 Q. Thank you. From those people who arrived on the
21 26th or 27th March to Prizren, did you hear that there had been fighting
22 in that area?
23 A. When they came from Mamusha on the 27th in the evening, I didn't
24 hear anything about that. And you probably know, sir, that Mamusha is
25 not very far from Dushanove; it's about 17 kilometres or so.
1 Q. Yes. And how far is Pirane from Prizren, or from Dusanovo,
3 A. About 10 kilometres far.
4 Q. What about Mali
5 A. Krusa e Madhe, it's about 15 kilometres away. It's a little bit
6 further on the road to Gjakove.
7 Q. What about Landovica?
8 A. 3 kilometres from our village Xerxe.
9 Q. How far is Celine?
10 A. Celina is closer than Xerxe.
11 Q. And until the 28th of March, you did not hear that in all these
12 villages or in areas overlooking these villages, fighting was going on?
13 A. There weren't any fighting in our neighbourhood. On the other
14 parts, you can hear the noise of the military vehicles. You could hear
15 the firing on a daily basis. Shelling, tanks, all sorts of weapons.
16 Q. And how do you know whose weapons those were?
17 A. We knew that because when the forces would target the villages
18 that were further away, they would use the 105 millimetre weapons,
19 whereas they would use smaller calibre weapons for the villages that were
20 closer to our neighbourhood.
21 Q. And how do you know that?
22 A. I know because the 105 millimetre cannons are used for distant
23 targets. I know this from the time I served my military service. And
24 you can tell the difference from the sound as well.
25 Q. What was your specialty in the army?
1 A. Infantry.
2 Q. And where did you see a cannon?
3 A. Well, I cannot tell you exactly when I saw a cannon for a first
4 time. I've been going to Belgrade
5 types of weapons and weaponry, so I can tell the difference. That I
7 Q. Thank you. And how do you distinguish -- even if I accept that
8 you distinguish between weapons by sound, but how can you distinguish who
9 is firing those guns?
10 A. I know that the military forces always attacked the people, and
11 that's why I knew where they were firing, where they were positioned. It
12 was only the army and the police that had those types of weapons.
13 Q. Thank you. If you wanted to fight, could you do it on your own,
14 against yourself?
15 A. You cannot fight against yourself. I served in the army, but I
16 never pointed my weapon at a civilian. Only those who used their weapons
17 against the civilians know the reasons why they did that.
18 Q. Tell me, do you know what the KLA is?
19 A. I saw KLA members after I arrived in Albania on television.
20 Otherwise, I didn't see them.
21 Q. When you saw them, what were they doing?
22 A. I saw them on television defending their people, defending their
23 own houses, defending their homeland.
24 [Trial Chamber and registrar confer]
25 JUDGE PARKER: Would you like a break at the present time,
1 Mr. Krasniqi?
2 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] No, no, I'm willing to continue,
3 Your Honour.
4 JUDGE PARKER: Well, do let us know if you are feeling unwell,
5 won't you?
6 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I will do that.
7 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you.
8 Yes, Mr. Djurdjic.
9 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation]
10 Q. Can you explain to me how was it that they were defending their
11 own houses and defending their homeland?
12 A. Please, I'm here to discuss my statement, and I can tell you
13 everything related to my statement. I can give you an answer, but I
14 don't think the questions you are making now are relevant.
15 JUDGE PARKER: We'd be grateful if you would help us by answering
16 these questions, Mr. Krasniqi. We have to decide in the light of many
17 things that are being considered in this trial what is relevant, and what
18 is relevant goes beyond your own particular experience. So we'd be
19 grateful to hear your answers. They will help us.
20 Mr. Djurdjic is trying to explore a number of issues wider than
21 the content of your statement perhaps. So it would be appreciated if you
22 could help him by giving some answers, and that in turn will help us.
23 Yes, Mr. Djurdjic.
24 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation]
25 Q. Witness, I was asking you about something from your statement
1 since you provided an answer or two in that regard. Therefore, I would
2 kindly ask you to answer my previous question. How were they defending
3 their homeland and houses? In which way?
4 A. I will try to answer your question. If, for example, you are
5 attacked in your own house, you have to defend yourself. So our houses,
6 wherever they stood in fields, on hills, they were attacked; and the KLA
7 was there to protect these houses, to protect that land. I don't know
8 what other answer I can give you.
9 Q. Were you present during --
10 A. No, I was not.
11 Q. Where did you get that information from then?
12 A. But it is -- everything is clear to everyone. Everything was
13 done in the light of day.
14 Q. Thank you. Can you tell me who was a member of the KLA in
15 Dusanovo, or who were members?
16 A. I cannot tell you this because simply I don't know.
17 Q. How come then you don't know that they were not active?
18 A. I'm telling you, sir, that if what happened to others happened to
19 me, I would have also taken up arms and protected my own home.
20 Q. Thank you. Where did you watch television, in Albania?
21 A. We had the television set there, we could follow what was
22 happening in our country, in Kosova.
23 Q. In which town were you, and when did you watch television?
24 A. I was in Kruja.
25 Q. Where were you accommodated?
1 A. We were distributed to different private homes.
2 Q. When did you arrive at Kruje?
3 A. We arrived in Kruja on the 28th after we left Dushanove at 5.00,
4 and on the 29th we arrived in Kruja.
5 Q. Thank you. At what time did you leave Dusanovo?
6 A. At 5.00. 4.00 or 5.00 we left. We were actually forced to leave
7 and go towards the border.
8 Q. At what time did you reach the border crossing?
9 A. [Previous translation continues] ... hundred. At 1100.
10 Q. Thank you. How many kilometres are there between Dusanovo --
11 A. They say 18, but I think 16, around about the same figure. I
12 think 18 kilometres.
13 Q. Thank you. In Dusanovo, were there any Serb families there?
14 A. Yes, there were.
15 Q. Which families do you know of?
16 A. I know their names. There were about 40 households that lived
18 Q. Do you know anyone's last name?
19 A. Boge, Nebojsa, Nidjivki [phoen] there were many of them.
20 Q. There were many Rexheps and Shefqets, but I would like to know
21 their last names.
22 A. Sir, I don't know their surnames because we didn't use to call
23 them by their last names. We called them by their first names. It's
24 not -- we spent a lot of time with them, in fact, but we called them by
25 their first names.
1 Q. Between the 24th of March of 1999, and up to the time when you
2 departed, was there any bombing in --
3 A. Yes.
4 Q. Was Prizren struck from the air?
5 A. Yes, it was struck.
6 Q. Can you tell us where the bombs landed?
7 A. The bombs landed in Spilje [phoen], in Kasama [phoen], the
9 Q. Did I hear you correctly as having said Svilene?
10 A. Yes. It's the same. We are talking about the same bombing.
11 Some may call it Spilje, some may spell it differently, but it's the same
13 Q. I wanted to make sure. You said that the barracks were bombed.
14 Were the barracks in town?
15 A. It was in the outskirts of Prizren, on the road to Suhareke.
16 It's on the right-hand side.
17 Q. Yes, you understood what I meant. Can you tell me who was the
18 chief of police in Prizren of the police station?
19 A. No, I don't know.
20 Q. Thank you. Where is the Printex factory?
21 A. The Printex factory is below the railway.
22 Q. In the industrial part?
23 A. Yes, that's correct.
24 Q. When did you see tanks on the Printex factory compound?
25 A. I saw them on the 23rd of March when we went to work.
1 Q. What did the tanks look like?
2 A. The tanks were the tanks of the army of green colour, the army
4 Q. How many tanks did you see?
5 A. I didn't count them. I couldn't give you an accurate figure, but
6 I would say about 15.
7 Q. Thank you. Before the war in 1999, what kind of uniforms did
8 police wear in Prizren?
9 A. The police had kind of dark blue uniform. I'm talking about the
10 period before the war. After the war, they had the same but they had
11 also camouflage colours.
12 Q. After what war?
13 A. During the war. I'm saying they had this camouflage uniform.
14 Q. Can you describe the uniform for me?
15 A. How can I describe it? How can I describe it here? I don't know
16 how. You show me something, I can tell you.
17 Q. Let's try it this way: What does camouflage uniform mean to you?
18 A. By this I mean that it is not a solid colour, but it's a colour
19 with patches. How can I say it to you? It is different from the
20 uniforms of the army. It's not the same. It's a mixture of colours.
21 Q. Very well. You said they had patches, but what were the hues,
22 the colours of the fabric?
23 A. How can I explain it to you now? Some were of lighter colours,
24 some were of darker hues. Patches were of a darker colour compared to
25 those of the army. How can I say? I don't know how.
1 Q. And what was the colour for the army?
2 A. It was of green, and the patches were bigger.
3 Q. Thank you. And did you see any other uniforms apart from the
5 A. You are asking me to distinguish the colours. When we were
6 forced to leave the houses, I saw dark colours, black colours, masked
7 faces. All sorts of colours. It was only on the day that they attacked
8 us, they forced us to leave the houses. I saw people dressed in black
9 colours and wearing masks.
10 Q. All right. Are you trying to tell us that apart from these two
11 types of uniforms there was a third one you just mentioned?
12 A. Yes, there was.
13 Q. Will you tell me, these persons wearing the dark or black
14 uniforms, what kind of insignia did they have?
15 A. Didn't have any insignia.
16 Q. And who did the black uniformed troops belong to? Which
18 A. The police, of course.
19 Q. Based on what are you saying that?
20 A. Even though I could answer the question you are asking of me, I
21 may say that usually they stayed with the police forces, but I think they
22 were even more dangerous because I think they belonged to special
23 intervention units. At least, this is what people said.
24 Q. So you don't know that? Somebody told you?
25 A. Nobody told me this. Nobody told me. But we lived through all
1 these things. It doesn't matter whether it was the police, the army, the
2 Arkan's forces, however, we suffered from them. They beat us up, they
3 forced us it to leave, they killed us, so for us it doesn't matter what
4 unit they belonged to.
5 Q. You just said Arkan's forces. What kind of forces were they, and
6 where did you see them?
7 A. I didn't see these forces, but whenever we saw that force was
8 being used, we thought that these forces belonged to Arkan, to this or to
9 that, so I couldn't say that these forces belonged to me for example,
10 because I didn't have such forces.
11 Q. Thank you. Have you ever heard or did you see that the KLA's
12 military police wore black uniforms?
13 A. I saw the KLA uniforms only on television.
14 Q. On the 27th of March in the morning, what were you doing?
15 A. On the 27th of March, I went out to the main street, and I heard
16 the noises of the shelling and nothing else. Nothing in particular.
17 Q. When exactly when you got out into the street?
18 A. We went out several times. Whenever we heard there was a
19 commotion, a noise, we wanted to see what was happening, where the
20 population was going.
21 Q. Thank you. But tell me, that morning, what were you doing before
22 you went into the street? What was going on?
23 A. I woke up in the morning after sleeping. I went out. I did the
24 same thing that everybody does when you go out, trying to meet someone.
25 Q. Thank you. What was the time when you got up?
1 A. Sir, please, I don't remember when I woke up this morning. How
2 can I remember when I woke up ten years ago?
3 Q. Thank you. And who were you supposed to meet?
4 A. We didn't have particular meetings, you know. I didn't have
5 anyone to meet. I simply went out to see what was going on outside.
6 Q. You answered me "trying to meet someone"?
7 A. Yes, but I mean, you come across some neighbours, some friends
8 from another neighbourhood, from your neighbourhood, you ask what he is
9 doing, what has he been doing and so on. Things like this.
10 Q. Thank you. Was it already day?
11 A. I'm not clear about your question. Are you asking me about the
12 morning or about the evening?
13 Q. I'm asking you that morning and when you got out into the street,
14 had it dawned already?
15 A. No, it was daylight. We don't wake up in the night.
16 Q. Thank you. How far did you go from your house?
17 A. From my street to the main street, I already explained earlier
18 on, it is only 200 metres.
19 Q. Just give me a brief answer. I don't know where you went when
20 you left your house. When you left your house, where did you go?
21 A. When I left my house, as usual, even today, I go out, walk around
22 for 200 metres, go to the main street that links Prizren with Gjakove.
23 Q. Thank you.
24 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Your Honour, I think it's time for
25 the break.
1 JUDGE PARKER: We must have a break now, Mr. Krasniqi, it will
2 give you time to improve your feeling. We will resume in half an hour
3 and the court officer will assist you during the break. We will resume
4 at 11.00.
5 [The witness stands down]
6 --- Recess taken at 10.32 a.m.
7 --- On resuming at 11.01 a.m.
8 [The witness takes the stand]
9 JUDGE PARKER: Please sit down.
10 Yes, Mr. Djurdjic.
11 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour.
12 Q. Witness, we reached the moment when you got out of your house and
13 went to the main road. Can you tell me if you ran into anyone? Did you
14 talk to anyone?
15 A. Yes, I spoke with my neighbours.
16 Q. Where did you meet up, and where did you talk?
17 A. Well, we exchanged greetings, discussed if they saw anything on
18 TV, what were the news, what was going on. That sort of talk.
19 Q. And what did you do then?
20 A. I then went back home. They went back to their own homes, to
21 their own work.
22 Q. Thank you. And what did you then do in your own house?
23 A. The usual work I do at home.
24 Q. Thank you. Was the situation completely normal at the time?
25 A. No, it wasn't completely normal.
1 Q. Yes, but tell me what was going on.
2 A. Of course, the situation was not normal. You could hear noises
3 on all sides, people would say -- would tell us what was going on. There
4 was fighting. It wasn't normal.
5 Q. Thank you. But you said you went back home, you talked to
6 people, exchanged whatever you exchanged, and then you went back home?
7 A. I did go back home.
8 Q. Thank you. And what happened then?
9 A. I did my usual work around the house, and on the evening of the
10 27th, we went out to the place where we usually stayed together, on the
11 main road, saw the convoys of people coming towards us, people that had
12 been expelled from Mamusha village. We knew some of the people in that
13 convoy. We invited them to stay in our village because there was nothing
14 going on in our village. They stayed that night, in our village. And on
15 the following day, big forces came, they positioned themselves on the
16 main crossroads. So I think I'm answering your questions.
17 Q. You are not answering my question. I don't want to hear you
18 telling stories. We came to the point when you came back home from that
19 intersection, and I'm asking you what happened then at your home. What
20 was going on? Let's not waste time, please answer my questions as
21 briefly as possible.
22 A. I think I answered your question. When I came back home, I did
23 my usual work around the house. There were shelling and gun-fire that
24 was heard. There was no other discussion at the time.
25 Q. Thank you. What kind of work did you do, and what was the time?
1 A. I told you, it was morning when I went out. I returned home, did
2 some work in the garden. I could hear the sound of gun-fire. That's
4 Q. What happened then?
5 A. We stayed in the house until the evening, then we went out to the
6 same place, to the main road, and we saw the convoy of people coming from
7 the direction of Mamusha.
8 Q. Witness, I'm not asking you about the evening of the 27th. I'm
9 asking you about the morning of the 28th, and as far as I understand, you
10 are answering now questions about the morning of the 28th. I'm not
11 interested in the evening of the 27th. I'm interested in that morning of
12 the 28th.
13 You went to the centre, you came back home, you did some work in
14 your house. What happened then?
15 A. Sir, I think you are mixing up the questions. I thought you were
16 asking me about the 27th when we invited these people to stay in our
17 village. On the 28th, we were first out together with these refugees
18 that came from Mamusha. So please tell me now, are you interested in the
19 morning of the 27th or the morning of the 28th, because I'm not clear?
20 Q. The morning of the 27th was not my question. My question was
21 about the morning of the 28th.
22 A. Sir, now I will answer your question about this date. On the
23 28th we woke up earlier than on other dates because we had refugees. We
24 had to prepare some food for them. So it was normal to wake up earlier
25 than usual.
1 Q. And then what did you do?
2 A. We talked. We discussed the way they were expelled from their
3 village, what happened there. Because in our village there was no police
4 presence until the 28th, that's why we talked about the situation in that
5 village, what made them flee, what else happened, if anyone was killed
6 there, and so on.
7 Q. And then?
8 A. In the evening -- now, do you want me to tell you word by word
9 everything that we discussed until that evening, or what happened that
11 Q. Witness, I am being interpreted very well, and you understand
12 perfectly well what I'm saying. We are talking about the morning of the
13 28th. I'm asking you only about that, nothing else. And please continue
14 to answer my question. What were you doing on the morning of the 28th?
15 You started answering and then I asked you, and then what?
16 A. On the 28th we woke up early in the morning. We talked with the
17 guests staying at our house, discussing the situation in that village.
18 That's all.
19 Q. Yes. You told me that already. And I asked you what happened
20 then, what did you do afterwards?
21 A. Sir, this was not ten days ago. This was ten years ago.
22 Q. Yes, but I'm asking you on the basis of your statement what
23 happened later. Do you know?
24 A. I really don't know what answer to give you. You have the right
25 to ask me, and I have the right to answer your question. If you are
1 asking me now what happened on the 28th in the evening, I will answer
2 that. I don't know what else to tell you about the morning.
3 Q. I'm not interested in the evening of the 27th or the 28th. I
4 don't know which dates you are talking about now. I'm asking you about
5 the morning, what happened in the morning, and you are telling me for the
6 third time that you talked to your neighbours, and I'm asking you what
7 happened after that. What did you do?
8 JUDGE PARKER: The witness has told you, Mr. Djurdjic, that he
9 remembers nothing specific on the morning of the 28th except at having
10 risen early, helping with the feeding of the people that had stayed
11 overnight. He then talked to them about affairs in their village. Now,
12 that's what the witness remembers about the morning of the 28th. He can
13 remember something about the evening of the 28th, if you want to learn
14 something about that.
15 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Your Honour, I'm sorry, but I'm
16 asking questions on the basis of the statement that I have in front of
17 me. I'm not interested in just any date. I'm interested in the morning
18 after that evening, and I'm coming back to that morning for the third
19 time because that's when the events began, and the witness keeps coming
20 back to the night.
21 JUDGE PARKER: There may be some confusion because of your
22 persistence with the particular date, Mr. Djurdjic. Would you like me to
23 try to cut through it?
24 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] I would be very happy if you did.
25 JUDGE PARKER: You've told us, Mr. Krasniqi, that police came to
1 your village. Are you able today to remember what date that was?
2 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes. The police came on the 28th.
3 On the 27th we offered shelter to the people who came to our village. On
4 the 28th, the police forces entered our village in the afternoon at
5 around 4.00 or 5.00 p.m. So I can tell you now about this part of the
6 day because retelling here word by word the discussions I had with the
7 refugees in the morning, and telling the counsel what I ate that morning
8 and all these other small things I did, I wouldn't be able to say
9 everything exactly how it happened, in what consequence.
10 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you. I think we all understand that,
11 Mr. Krasniqi. Perhaps you can tell us when you first were aware of
12 police in your village. What did you see or hear that afternoon?
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] On the 28th, since the counsel
14 wants to know what happened, as I said earlier, on the 27th, these
15 refugees came to our village, stayed in our houses. On the 28th we woke
16 up, we discussed the situation in their village, we had something to eat,
17 and we all shared the same concern, what was going to happen, what was
18 going to happen with us, where we would end up.
19 And at around 4.00 or 5.00 p.m., there was noise at the gate to
20 the yard. The police entered forcefully into the yard. They didn't ask
21 us anything. They ordered us to raise our hands in the air. They
22 started beating us. They beat my wife, my daughter, my brother, myself.
23 They beat up some refugees. One of them cut a small girl in her throat
24 nearly killing her. So if the counsel is interested in these things, I
25 can tell him everything that happened. I cannot recall everything I ate
1 that day, but these things I recall very well.
2 JUDGE PARKER: We've now moved on, Mr. Krasniqi, to the afternoon
3 at about 4.00 or 5.00 in the afternoon. And you tell us that at that
4 time the -- there was a noise at the gate to your yard, and the police
5 forcefully came into the yard.
6 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes, that's correct.
7 JUDGE PARKER: Now, I understand Mr. Djurdjic would like you to
8 tell us what happened after that.
9 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] When the police entered the
10 village, they positioned themselves on the crossroads of the
11 neighbourhood with a tank. They entered my yard forcefully. They didn't
12 ask us anything. They made us raise our hands in the air, pushed us
13 behind the wall, took our money, beat us up, and told us that there was
14 no place for us there in the village, that we had to go to Albania.
15 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour.
16 Q. Mr. Krasniqi, I don't want you to repeat the statement that we
17 already have. I want you to answer my questions. Is it correct that you
18 spent four or five hours at home that afternoon?
19 A. That's correct, I was at home.
20 Q. Thank you. From that time when you went out in the morning and
21 when you talked to the people until 1600 hours, did you spend all that
22 time at home?
23 A. Yes, I was at home, sir. We had refugees staying with us, as I
24 said, and we stayed there in the house together until the police forces
1 Q. Thank you. How do you know then what happened with the Serbian
3 A. I don't know if anything happened to the Serb families. When the
4 NATO bombing started, the following day in the morning we saw that their
5 houses were empty. I don't know where they went to.
6 Q. Thank you. And how do you know that the house -- that the
7 village was surrounded because you stayed at home all the time?
8 A. I knew that because as of the 27th when they had expelled people
9 from Mamusha, there was continuous movement of police and army forces, so
10 we knew that we had them all on our sides.
11 Q. Tell me what you personally knew about the movements of the army
12 and the police.
13 A. I don't know how to describe this to you, sir. You keep asking
14 me the same questions. I told you several times that I would usually go
15 out to the main street. Not only the time of the war, but on every-day
16 basis almost. So I was able to see this constant movement. And when
17 there was increased movement, we could tell that we were in danger. And
18 now you are asking me why I went out to the main road.
19 Q. That's not what I asked you. I just said that you went out in
20 the morning, and this was happening at 4.00 or 5.00 p.m. How did you
21 gain any personal knowledge considering that from the morning until 4.00
22 or 5.00 p.m.
23 A. Not at 4.00 or 5.00 in the morning, sir.
24 Q. 4.00 or 5.00 p.m. what?
25 A. I didn't even mention 4.00 or 5.00 in the morning. It was 4.00
1 or 5.00 p.m. on the 28th when the forces entered the village. I never
2 mentioned the morning of the 4th -- the morning of the 27th or the 28th,
3 4.00 or 5.00 in the morning.
4 Q. Well, I cannot explain all of that to you now. It's all in the
5 transcript. But my question was, and please try to focus, you stated
6 that in the morning, you went out onto the main road, then you went back
7 home, and then until 4.00 or 5.00 p.m., you did not leave your home.
8 A. That's correct. And I keep saying the same thing.
9 Q. You did not leave your home in that interval?
10 A. No, I didn't leave my house. I would go out to the gate and from
11 there I could see the movement of the police and other forces on the
12 road. And when they entered the village, it was around 4.00 or 5.00 p.m.
13 Q. From your gate, where did you see the police entering the
15 A. As I said, sir, the main road is very close to the gate to my
16 yard, and the crossroads where they positioned themselves is not further
17 than 50 metres from the gate to my yard, and I could see them.
18 Q. Witness, your street runs parallel to the main road, and you say
19 there are a number of buildings between your house and the main road.
20 Your gate facing the street does not provide a view of the main road?
21 A. You cannot see the road.
22 Q. Thank you. And how, then, are you able see to that your village
23 is surrounded by the forces?
24 A. Sir, as I said earlier, the main road is only 200 metres away
25 from my house. The first road turning to the right is very close to my
1 house. That's a crossroads and that's where they positioned themselves
2 with the tanks, with everything. That crossroads is only 50 metres away
3 from my house. Whereas the main road, the Prizren-Gjakove Road is 200
4 metres away.
5 Q. I accept that you saw what you just told me, but how did you
6 see -- how were you able to see that your village was surrounded by any
7 forces, since you have stated that?
8 A. On both sides of the street there are sidewalks, broad sidewalks,
9 and you can see everything that goes on. You can see even if someone is
10 walking, let alone large number of military forces.
11 Q. And your street?
12 A. In my street.
13 Q. What were you able to see from your gate? Can you describe that
14 for me?
15 A. I saw movements of police forces, and I withdrew, went back to my
16 yard. I entered my yard. I talked with my family, telling them that
17 there is a large police presence and something is going to happen
18 probably. Before I ended my conversation with the family, the police
19 forces entered my yard. They forced the door open and entered my yard.
20 They were about 20 policemen.
21 They didn't ask us anything, only ordered us to raise our hands
22 up, beat up our family members, and drove us out of the family together
23 with those refugees that we sheltered on the 27th that I mentioned
24 earlier. They maltreated us in the yard. So you asked me earlier how do
25 I know. This is how I know. I'm telling you. Since you were not there
1 to experience what I went through, you don't have the right to ask me
2 about the things which I went through.
3 Q. Thank you. You say you were in the yard when the 20 policemen
4 entered it. Who was in the yard with you?
5 A. My family members and those refugees that I took in the day
7 Q. Which of your family members were there?
8 A. Myself, my wife, my two daughters, two sons, my daughter-in-law,
9 and their small daughter.
10 Q. And how many people from Mamusha were there that you had taken
12 THE INTERPRETER: The witness is answering in B/C/S.
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] There were 28 people there together
14 with my family members, and we were all seated.
15 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation]
16 Q. Were they in the yard when the police came?
17 A. Yes, they were in the yard.
18 Q. Am I right in saying that the police told you to leave the yard
19 and go out into the street immediately?
20 A. Yes, they did many bad things to us, but I'm not in a position to
21 describe to you in detail what we experienced that day. They beat up all
22 of us, but as I said, I am not in a position to tell you everything they
23 did to us that day.
24 Q. Witness, I don't think anyone beat you up, and that's why you
25 cannot tell us what took place on that day. I put to you that you set
1 out to Kukes because of the fear of being bombed and the fear of war?
2 A. Sir, I don't have an answer for your question, which seems to me
3 a very provoking one. I didn't leave because of the NATO air-strikes. I
4 left because of what the Serb forces did to my family and to myself
5 personally. Not because of NATO bombing. Only because of the Serb
6 forces and only because of what they did to us in my yard.
7 Q. Then answer my question, please. How long did the 20 policemen
8 stay in your yard before you left?
9 A. If I got you right, when the policemen entered my yard by force,
10 they didn't give us any time to get ready. They forced us to leave in 10
11 minutes. They entered by force and forced us to leave the house.
12 Q. Was it daylight when you were forced to leave the yard?
13 A. Sir, it was 4.00 or 5.00 in the afternoon. It was still
14 daylight. When they entered the yard, as I told you, I'm repeating it,
15 they didn't ask our opinion. They cut the eight-month baby by the throat
16 and forced us to leave without asking our consents. They simply ordered
17 us to leave and go to Albania
18 there is no place for you to stay in Kosova, go to Albania.
19 Q. And you went on foot; am I correct?
20 A. We were forced to leave, as I told you. They did not allow us to
21 go back and fetch our identity cards, documents, so we joined the column
22 and went to Albania
23 Q. Which road did you take from your house?
24 A. The same road, the main road which was 200 metres away from my
25 house. We joined the column and started to walk in the direction of
2 Q. Did you turn from the main road?
3 A. Yes. We turned left towards Prizren and then straight to
5 Q. Witness, I'm asking you which road you took through Prizren to
6 Vrmnica. Where did you reach the main road?
7 A. From my street to the main road, there are only 200 metres.
8 From -- we met the neighbours and together with went to the main road
9 linking Prizren, that road goes in the direction of Morine, in the
10 direction of the border.
11 Q. I believe you understand what I'm asking you. You followed the
12 main road, and now I'd like to know which road you took through Prizren
13 to Vrmnica. Which road did you use to go through Prizren?
14 A. Why are you not asking me where we went? We went to Prizren,
15 then we took the road that goes towards the industrial plant and that
16 road goes to Dragash-Vermice. You know it better than I. Why are you
17 provoking me, sir?
18 Q. Witness, I'm not trying to provoke you. In order to reach
19 Vrmnica from Dusanovo, one can take two roads through Prizren. I'm
20 asking you which one you took so that I could ask you the next question.
21 I'm not doing this without a reason.
22 A. When you enter through the main road, that road which links
23 Prizren-Gjakove, you enter the city. We turn on the right, and we went
24 to -- before entering the city, we entered that street. We couldn't
25 enter the city because the police didn't let us. We went that road that
1 goes to Vermice. I don't know how else can I explain to you other than
2 take you by the hand and take you to the place.
3 Q. You needn't do that, Witness. I know the road itself. Did you
4 go through the industrial area next to your factory eventually reaching
5 the hygiene company on the road to Vrmnica?
6 A. Yes, we did.
7 Q. You could have said so a while ago.
8 A. I told you, but you mix it all up with your questions.
9 JUDGE PARKER: We understood the witness to tell us that sometime
10 ago, Mr. Djurdjic. Your questions are not clear either to us or to the
11 witness and they often lead him in a wrong direction in answer. So your
12 last comment was not well justified. If you could carry on, please.
13 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Your Honour, I'm trying to be as
14 clear as possible without any hidden intentions. There are only two
15 roads, one through the centre of town and the other one that was
16 confirmed by the witness --
17 JUDGE PARKER: Mr. Djurdjic, we got through the town, we know the
18 road, could you move on from there, please, whatever your next question
19 may be.
20 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation]
21 Q. The tractor you described in your statement, where did you see
22 that along your route?
23 A. The tractor I saw when we returned above the school, there is the
24 railway which is parallel to the main asphalt road, we were about 150
25 metres down before the tractor -- before we went to the tractor. I saw
1 two, three young lads who, upon seeing the police, tried to flee. The
2 police shot them killing two of them, and I am proving it to you, if you
3 believe me, that when we approached that tractor, we saw them falling
4 down in the middle -- in the place between the railway and the road. I
5 hope you understand me, sir. We simply saw them. We didn't dare to do
6 anything because I am afraid they would have done the same to us.
7 Q. How far were you from your house when this incident took place?
8 A. About 1200 metres, I would say, from my house to this place.
9 Q. How much time did it take you to cross that distance?
10 A. When you walk alone, it might take 15 minutes; but if you are
11 part of a convoy, as I was, it might have taken longer.
12 Q. Where were the policemen that you say opened fire at those young
14 A. The policemen were in that place below the school. I'm sure you
15 know the place better than I. I'm telling you, you don't seem to believe
16 what I'm saying, you may verify it for yourself.
17 Q. The school is on the left-hand side of the road going the way you
18 were taking?
19 A. On the left side of the road that goes to Prizren is a school
20 where our kids go.
21 Q. Thank you. Did the convoy or the column occupy the whole road
22 along the entire distance you travelled?
23 A. Yes, it occupied the whole road.
24 Q. Thank you. The young men you referred to, why did they begin to
25 flee, if you know?
1 A. I didn't talk with them. I was far from them. I didn't meet
2 them, but usually the young men fled the police forces because they took
3 them to the barracks, and they never returned them. They used them to do
4 something for them or kill them, I don't know.
5 Q. These men were on a tractor that was part of the column; am I
7 A. Yes. They jumped off the tractor when they went to that place I
8 mentioned between the railway and the road; the police killed them.
9 Q. Witness, the railroad is to the right of road in the direction of
10 where you were going; right?
11 A. Yes, that's correct.
12 Q. Did they run across the tracks, and did you see them do that?
13 A. No, no, they didn't manage to because there is an empty space of
14 20, 30 metres between the road and the railway tracks; and it was in that
15 space that they were shot at by the police and killed. So they didn't
16 manage to cross the tracks.
17 Q. Thank you. And the policemen were next to the school?
18 A. Yes, they were next to the school, in the school, in the main
19 road where I turned to Prizren. As I said, the entire neighbourhood was
20 surrounded by police.
21 Q. What time was it when it took place?
22 A. I said to you, it was about 4.00, 5.00 in the afternoon.
23 Q. Thank you. You haven't mentioned coming across a check-point.
24 Where was the first check-point you came at?
25 A. The first check-point was in our street.
1 Q. What were they doing there, the people manning the check-point?
2 A. They were police, army forces there, moving about. There were
3 tanks placed at every intersection with cannons 105 millimetres. They
4 were above the tanks.
5 Q. Thank you. Where was the next check-point after that?
6 A. The second was in the school. As I said, at every intersection
7 in our neighbourhood there were forces, even in front of the houses
9 Q. Thank you. So the second check-point was in the school itself?
10 A. Yes, yes. At the school. The third was at the school.
11 Q. Thank you. And the next check-point after that?
12 A. Every 50 metres, every 20 metres there was one.
13 Q. And what occurred at those check-points?
14 A. The worst you can say occurred there. They took people out of
15 the convoy in groups sometimes, and we don't know who the policemen were,
16 and I don't know what happened to them. We know nothing what happened to
17 them after that.
18 Q. Did anyone stop you at the check-points?
19 A. We were part of the convoy. We didn't leave the column, the
20 convoy, because otherwise we might have been shot.
21 Q. Thank you. Save for the tractor, as you were walking down the
22 main road, did you notice anything else happening?
23 A. Yes. We saw people being taken out of the convoy and not
24 returning. We saw villages burned down, houses burned down or houses in
25 flames. All such things.
1 Q. Thank you. At the border you saw a policeman you knew from
3 A. Yes, Nebojsa.
4 Q. Where was his house in Dusanovo?
5 A. [Previous translation continues] ... the school.
6 Q. Did you know whether he continually resided in his house in
7 Dusanovo throughout this period?
8 A. Nebojsa, yes, he lived there all his life. I found him there.
9 Q. We are talking about Nebojsa Ognjanovic [phoen]; am I correct?
10 A. I don't remember that, to tell you the truth. I only know that
11 he was working in the customs. He was a policeman there.
12 Q. Yes. His brother was a customs officer at the border crossing.
13 A. No, no, Nebojsa himself worked at the customs.
14 Q. Very well. Witness, where did you give your first statement?
15 A. My first statement was given in Kruje in April. The date of the
16 statement, I don't remember, but when you said that it was the
17 12th of March, I remembered it was not on that date, but it was on the
18 12th of April.
19 Q. I was not the person to say that, but it was rather my learned
20 friend. In any case, who was present on the occasion when you gave that
21 statement? Who did you give the statement to?
22 A. When we were there, the place where we were staying, there were
23 two persons, a man and a woman, and the interpreter, a lady, asked me --
24 I didn't know -- asked me something I didn't know I was supposed to give
25 an interview. I thought she was asking me for someone. And she said to
1 me that this gentleman wants to ask you why you are here and what
2 happened to you and so on. And that was how it came that I gave this
3 statement. She asked me as you are asking me now about these events, and
4 I told them what I'm saying now, these things. Nothing more than what
5 I'm saying here.
6 Q. Thank you. When did you sign that statement?
7 A. I signed it on the 10th or the 13th of December, 1999.
8 Q. Where did you sign it?
9 A. At the house.
10 Q. In Dusanovo?
11 A. Yes.
12 Q. Who was present?
13 A. To tell you the truth, I don't remember.
14 Q. On that occasion, it was the first time you saw that statement?
15 A. Yes, it was the first time.
16 Q. Thank you. Was the same person present the second time around as
17 the first time when you gave the statement?
18 A. No, it was not the same person.
19 Q. Who was there with you the second time when you signed the
20 statement in your house?
21 JUDGE PARKER: Yes, Ms. Nilsen.
22 MS. NILSEN: Your Honours, the witness has already replied to
23 that question.
24 JUDGE PARKER: He has. He has no recollection, Mr. Djurdjic.
25 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Very well. He does not remember.
1 Q. But do you remember how many people came to your house on that
2 occasion when they brought your statement with them?
3 A. The first time around, there were two of them; and the third time
4 there were three of them in 2004 when some corrections were made on
5 19th of September, 2004.
6 Q. Thank you. When were you born?
7 A. I was born in Pagarusha.
8 Q. No. When were you born?
9 A. When I was born?
10 Q. Yes.
11 A. I was born on the 5th of May, 1945.
12 Q. Your personal identification number says that you were born on
13 the 10th of May, 1945.
14 A. Sir, every document that was issued to me was with a date I gave
15 you, the 5th of May, 1945. All the documents that were issued to me bear
16 this date.
17 Q. You never told anyone that there was a mistake in terms of your
18 ID number. You never tried to correct that?
19 JUDGE PARKER: Mr. Djurdjic, is there any issue about the
20 identity of this witness?
21 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Your Honour, having in mind the
22 statement that was signed and the problems surrounding the year of birth,
23 I'm not convinced that the procedure that was followed was valid. That's
24 why I'm asking these questions.
25 JUDGE PARKER: It's not going to assist this Chamber whether the
1 witness was born on the 5th or the 9th of May, 1945, Mr. Djurdjic. There
2 are some issues in the evidence of the witness that are quite material to
3 the question of what occurred in the village and by that means to the
4 question of the guilt or innocence of your client. Could I suggest you
5 concentrate on those instead of an issue such as whether there is a for
6 or five-day error about the date of birth of this witness.
7 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Your Honour, I'm at the very end
8 of my cross-examination, but I'm not certain whether this witness gave
9 this statement in the first place. The only thing I know is that he is
10 sitting here testifying. We've just confirmed that the statement of the
11 12th of April was not signed as originally stated but that it was signed
12 when they visited him at his house.
13 Concerning the first statement, there is no name of the
14 interpreter, on the second one there is. The signature on the statements
15 from 1999 in April and December seem to me to be different. That's what
16 I wanted the witness to explain. That was the gist of my questions, and
17 I guess he has provided some answers.
18 JUDGE PARKER: Why have you taken the long way around it,
19 Mr. Djurdjic? The witness has looked at the statement has said it is
20 his. Now, if you think it is not his signature and you have some basis
21 for that, ask the witness if it is his signature instead of troubling
22 about an error on the date of birth of the witness. If you want to
23 question the signature, please do so.
24 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Well, Your Honour, I don't know
25 how to follow this up. The statement that mistakenly stays the
1 12th of May [as interpreted] in 1999 was not signed on that day but later
2 as the witness says. And then there's the second statement of December
3 1999 that he signed. I wanted to ask him about that and he provided some
4 answers. Had I put it another way, he probably would not have provided
5 me with those answers. I apologise for having gone the roundabout way.
6 In any case, I would I like to thank the witness, since this is the end
7 of my cross-examination.
8 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you, Mr. Djurdjic.
9 Ms. Nilsen, do you re-examine?
10 MS. NILSEN: Your Honours, I would just like to ask the witness a
11 question regarding the statement he gave in 1999.
12 Re-examination by Ms. Nilsen:
13 Q. Mr. Krasniqi, you have already clarified that that statement you
14 gave in 1999 was given in April; is that correct?
15 A. Yes. It was more like an interview. It was not read back to me.
16 However, in December 1999 they showed me the statement, read it out to
17 me, and I signed it.
18 Q. Exactly. On the very top of the first -- the second page of the
19 statement from April 1999, it says that it is an informal statement of
20 you. Did you have that impression also, as you said, you didn't read
21 through it?
22 A. Yes, that's correct. It's like a conversation they had with me,
23 an interview. I didn't sign anything at that stage. When I returned
24 home after the war, sometime in late 1999, in December, they came, they
25 showed me the statement, read it back to me, and I signed it.
1 Q. Thank you, Mr. Krasniqi.
2 MS. NILSEN: Your Honours, I do not have any further questions
3 for the witness.
4 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you.
5 Mr. Krasniqi, you'll be pleased to know that that completes the
6 questions for you. The Chamber would like to thank you for your
7 assistance here, to the trouble you've taken in coming to The Hague
8 again. And we will give consideration to your evidence in due course.
9 So you may now, of course, return to your ordinary affairs, and the court
10 officer will show you out and you go with our thanks.
11 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you.
12 [The witness withdrew]
13 JUDGE PARKER: Ms. Kravetz.
14 MS. KRAVETZ: Good morning, Your Honours. The next witness is
15 General Maisonneuve. I don't know if Your Honours prefer to start now
16 with the witness. I think we -- yes, we're still 20 minutes before the
18 JUDGE PARKER: I think we should use the 20 minutes that we have.
19 MS. KRAVETZ: That's fine.
20 [The witness entered court]
21 JUDGE PARKER: Good afternoon, general.
22 THE WITNESS: Good afternoon, Your Honour.
23 JUDGE PARKER: Would you please read the affirmation on the card
24 shown to you.
25 THE WITNESS: I solemnly declare that I will speak the truth, the
1 whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
2 WITNESS: JOSEPH MAISONNEUVE
3 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you very much. Please sit down.
4 Ms. Kravetz has some questions for you.
5 MS. KRAVETZ: Thank you, Your Honour.
6 Examination by Ms. Kravetz:
7 Q. Good morning, Witness, could you please state your full name for
8 the record?
9 A. Joseph Omar Michel Maisonneuve.
10 Q. Thank you. Sir, I understand that you are a retired
11 Lieutenant-General from -- with the Canadian forces; is that correct?
12 A. That's correct.
13 Q. For how long did you serve with the Canadian forces?
14 A. Exactly 34 years and ten months.
15 Q. And while you were in active service, did you spend sometime in
17 A. Yes, I did, probably a total of about 3 months on the ground in
19 Q. And when was that?
20 A. I deployed about the middle of December, 1998, and left in March,
21 middle of March, 1999.
22 Q. And what was your function in Kosovo during that period when you
23 were deployed there?
24 A. I was head of the regional centre that was based in Prizren in
25 the south part of Kosovo.
1 Q. And to which --
2 A. With the OSCE, pardon me, yes.
3 Q. Okay. Sir, did you provide a statement to the
4 Office of the Prosecution in relation to your work with the OSCE in
5 Kosovo during this period?
6 A. Yes, I did.
7 Q. Have you recently had the chance to review your statement?
8 A. Yes, I have.
9 Q. And having we viewed your statement, are you satisfied that the
10 information contained within this statement is true and accurate to the
11 best of your knowledge and belief?
12 A. Yes, I am.
13 THE INTERPRETER: Interpreter's note: Kindly pause between
14 questions and answers for the sake of interpretation and the court
15 reporter. Thank you.
16 MS. KRAVETZ: My apologies for that, we'll try to remember to
18 Your Honours, the statement is 65 ter number 02772, and I seek to
19 tender it into evidence. This statement has a series of attachments
20 which we also seek to tender. I do wish to point out that attachment
21 number 1 has already been admitted into evidence. This is Exhibit P836,
22 so we do not seek to tender it again. There are three further
23 attachments which we do not intend to tender. These are attachments 4,
24 11, and 12 to this witness statement. We have notified Defence of that,
25 and I understand -- I see my learned colleague is on his feet, so I
1 understand he has an observation to make in this regard.
2 JUDGE PARKER: Mr. Djurdjic.
3 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour. I have no
5 I would like to propose, as in the case of Mr. Ciaglinski, that
6 those exhibits, which were admitted in the Milutinovic case through this
7 witness, and across the bar table, be admitted in this case as well as we
8 did in the case of the previous witness. Hence, I have no objections to
9 what Ms. Kravetz just said. Rather, I propose that we should follow the
10 practice we had with the previous witness as this proved more efficient.
11 If I understood correctly, the Milutinovic case transcript will be
12 admitted into evidence here.
13 JUDGE PARKER: Do you have any concern about that proposal,
14 Ms. Kravetz.
15 MS. KRAVETZ: No, Your Honour, I was just going to move to the
16 prior testimonies of this witness. I was just referring to the statement
17 and the attachments earlier, not to his prior testimony.
18 JUDGE PARKER: Very well. First we will receive in evidence the
20 THE REGISTRAR: Statement under 65 ter 02772, Your Honours, will
21 be assigned P00851.
22 JUDGE PARKER: Now, is there a list of these exhibits or are you
23 going to move each one separately?
24 MS. KRAVETZ: We would prefer to have the exhibits be part of the
25 same exhibit numbers, so they've all been uploaded as one exhibit. If it
1 will assist Your Honours, we can split them up and I can tender each one
2 of them separately, but that was not our intention. They form one single
3 exhibit presently in e-court.
4 JUDGE PARKER: Separate. It is more practical if it is separate,
5 Ms. Kravetz.
6 [Trial Chamber and registrar confer]
7 JUDGE PARKER: Looking at the list on the screen of the court
8 officer, there seem to be a large number. Is that something that can be
9 dealt with administratively during our next break, Ms. Kravetz?
10 MS. KRAVETZ: I was just going to suggest that, Your Honour. I
11 think that's the best way to proceed; it's a lengthy list.
12 JUDGE PARKER: Very well. We'll do that. Already the first of
13 those exhibits has been be exhibited in this trial. The remainder will
14 be received, and the court officer, in liaison with you, will identify
15 them and allocate numbers during the break. Thank you very much.
16 MS. KRAVETZ: That's fine. That's fine, Your Honour.
17 Q. Sir, did you previously testify before this Tribunal in the case
18 of Milosevic?
19 A. Yes, I did, in 2002.
20 Q. Have you had the chance before coming to court today to review
21 the transcript of your testimony in the Milosevic case?
22 A. Yes, I have.
23 Q. Did you also testify in the case of Milutinovic et al., in 2007,
24 in March 2007?
25 A. Yes, I did.
1 Q. And have you had the chance to review that transcript before
2 coming to court today?
3 A. Yes, I have.
4 Q. And sir, if you were asked today the same questions that you were
5 asked in your prior testimony in the Milosevic case and Milutinovic case,
6 would you provide the same answers today?
7 A. Yes, I would.
8 MS. KRAVETZ: Your Honours, I seek to tender both of these
9 transcripts. The Milosevic transcript is 65 ter 02815, and I ask that
10 that be received.
11 JUDGE PARKER: It will be received as an exhibit.
12 THE REGISTRAR: That that will be assigned P00852, Your Honours.
13 MS. KRAVETZ: Milutinovic transcript is 65 ter 05199, and I ask
14 that that be received.
15 JUDGE PARKER: It will be received.
16 THE REGISTRAR: That will be assigned P00853, Your Honours.
17 MS. KRAVETZ: Thank you. I will now proceed to read the in-court
18 summary for this witness.
19 The witness is a retired Lieutenant-General in the
20 Canadian Armed Forces. In November 1998 he was sent to Vienna to assist
21 in the formation of the OSCE Verification Mission in Kosovo, KVM. He was
22 later deployed to Kosovo and became the head of the KVM's regional centre
23 in Prizren. The witness describes his staff with the KVM in Kosovo. The
24 witness states that throughout KVM's time in Kosovo, Serb forces
25 perpetrated frequent acts of intimidation, killings, as well as
1 occasional shelling of villages with T-55 tanks, mortars, and Howitzers.
2 He describes the coordination between MUP and VJ forces on the
3 ground during joint operations. The witness met with several Serbian
4 government officials during his time in Kosovo, and he describes these
6 The witness also gives an account of the Racak incident of
7 15 January 1999
8 relation to this incident. The witness and other KVM personnel arrived
9 in Racak after the incident took place, and he describes his observations
10 in the village, including having seen bodies in the village.
11 Once the NATO bombing campaign began, the witness became head of
12 the KVM refugee task force in Albania. He coordinated with the Albanian
13 government and various organisations in order to obtain the testimony of
14 refugees coming into Albania
15 obtained by his team during their interviews with the refugees. There
16 were reports of systematic expulsions, mass killings, removal of ID
17 cards, and widespread burning and plundering of Kosovo Albanian villages.
18 That is the end of the in-court summary, Your Honours.
19 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you.
20 Q. Sir, we have some minutes before the break, so I want to move to
21 some aspects of your prior -- your statement and the attachments to your
23 MS. KRAVETZ: And, Your Honours, I would ask with your leave that
24 the usher provide a hard copy of the statement and the attachments, given
25 that they are quite numerous, in order to ease reference of the witness.
1 If that could be handed to the witness, please. Thank you.
2 Q. Now, sir, you stated earlier that during your time in Kosovo, you
3 headed the KVM or the OSCE's regional office in Prizren. Just very
4 briefly, could you explain what was the mandate of your office during the
5 time you were there in Kosovo?
6 A. Basically, my mandate was within the boundaries of the regional
7 centre which essentially followed along the boundaries of the -- of the
8 southern region of the Prizren region of Kosovo, about one-fifth of the
9 territory of Kosovo. The mandate was essentially to verify the accord
10 between president Milosevic and Mr. Holbrooke that had been followed with
11 a couple of subaccords with respect to the situation of the authority
12 forces in Kosovo and the promotion of stability, if you wish, in the
14 The idea was to ensure that there was a climate of normalcy as
15 much as possible to enable a final political solution to be found to the
17 Q. You referred to a couple of subaccords to the main
18 Milosevic-Holbrooke Agreement, and one of these is attached to your
19 statement in the bundle you have before you is marked as MM1. And I
20 would ask you to turn to that.
21 MS. KRAVETZ: This is, Your Honours, P836.
22 Q. Now, I would like to start with paragraph 1 of this agreement.
23 Are you familiar with this document, sir?
24 A. Yes, I am.
25 Q. You've had the chance to recently review it?
1 A. Mm-hmm. Mm-hmm.
2 THE INTERPRETER: Could the Prosecutor please slow down and the
3 witness as well. Thank you very much.
4 MS. KRAVETZ:
5 Q. Sir, we are reminded again to pause between question and answers.
6 Since we are speaking the same language today, we need to stop before you
7 answer the question. And I'll try to remember to do the same.
8 Point 1 of this agreement, this understanding between KDOM and
9 MUP or the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Serbia, indicates that
10 all check-points will be dismantled and that FRY authorities will
11 establish 27 observation points and that one-third of these observation
12 points will be manned initially. Could you explain to the Court your
13 experience in implementing this first paragraph of this agreement?
14 A. Essentially the mission, my portion of the mission tried to
15 establish freedom of movement throughout our territory, throughout the
16 area that we were covering. And to ensure that there were indeed no
17 check-points. We frequently encountered them nevertheless, and at these
18 check-points, of course, we tried to ensure the authorities were treating
19 those that were being stopped with respect and with reasonable, if you
20 wish, a reasonable approach.
21 So this was -- this was an issue throughout my time in Kosovo.
22 Q. Now, with relation to the check-points that you said that you
23 frequently encountered, who would usually be manning these check-points?
24 A. Usually the MUP police.
25 Q. Now, the paragraph I referred to here in this agreement refers to
1 observation points and one-third of these observation points being manned
2 initially. Could you explain if you ever participated in any sort of
3 verification with regard to that aspect, with respect to the observation
4 points, the establishment of observation points?
5 A. Mm-hmm. Well, there's a fine line, I guess, between an
6 observation point and a check-point. Presumably an observation point is
7 where the observers or the people that are manning the observation point
8 are strictly observing, whereas presumably those who are doing -- in a
9 check-point, they would actually stop vehicles and personnel, and, you
10 know, check -- do document checks and so on.
11 So as I say, a fine line between that. We saw check-points
12 frequently. Observation points, I guess, if you really think of a
13 vehicle just being stopped with a couple police standing outside, that
14 would count as an observation point where people would be observing what
15 is going on. So that happened, I think, routinely. And my verifiers
16 indeed verified that and saw it quite often.
17 In terms of ensuring that there were exactly 27, and I, frankly,
18 don't think we, certainly in our area, did not pay attention to that --
19 to the letter.
20 Q. Mm-hmm. And here it indicates that only one-third of these
21 observation points were manned. How was that specific aspect verified?
22 A. It was not frankly. And this is one of the issues. Because the
23 mission was -- took, you know, was only on the ground for a few months,
24 we never had a chance to actually develop specific verification standards
25 that could be given to our regional centre to -- and passed on to our
1 personnel to ensure that they could go and check and make sure that, you
2 know, the numbers that were specified were actually the numbers that were
3 on the ground and so forth. So we never got to that point.
4 Q. Whenever you would observe or come across check-points or
5 observation points, would this information be sent up to headquarters,
6 the KVM headquarters in Pristina?
7 A. Yes, it was.
8 MS. KRAVETZ: Your Honour, I see that it's the time for the break
9 or I'm one minute ahead, but.
10 JUDGE PARKER: On some views it could be called even three
11 minutes, but I take the hint, Ms. Kravetz.
12 MS. KRAVETZ: I'm looking -- I'm looking at my clock here on the
14 JUDGE PARKER: We take the hint, but we will resume at five
15 minutes to 1.00. We must have a break now to enable tapes to be rewound,
16 and we'll resume at five past 1.00.
17 [The witness stands down]
18 --- Recess taken at 12.28 p.m.
19 --- On resuming at 1.00 p.m.
20 JUDGE PARKER: While the witness is coming in, we understand the
21 group of exhibits is taking a little longer to resolve than expected. We
22 will continue leaving it to be resolved once we adjourn for today.
23 Thank you.
24 MS. KRAVETZ: And just on that point, Your Honour, I had
25 indicated when I was tendered the statement that there were three
1 attachments that I did not seek to tender. I understand from
2 Your Honours' instructions that those three attachments will not be
4 JUDGE PARKER: I understood that you were accepting
5 Mr. Djurdjic's suggestion that all the be exhibits should be received.
6 MS. KRAVETZ: I have to double-check. I believe that those were
7 not used in the Milutinovic case, but I will have to double-check that.
8 JUDGE PARKER: Check that, if they were used in the Milutinovic
9 case, they should be received. That's where we are at.
10 MS. KRAVETZ: Okay. Thank you.
11 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] The Defence agrees with any
12 decision about exhibits if they have been used before, our proposal
14 JUDGE PARKER: You're in a very cooperative mood, Mr. Djurdjic.
15 [The witness takes the stand]
16 JUDGE PARKER: Yes, Ms. Kravetz.
17 MS. KRAVETZ: Thank you, Your Honour.
18 Q. Sir, before we -- at the break, we were discussing attachment 1
19 to your statement, which is the agreement between KDOM and the
20 Serbian MUP, also known as the Byrnes-Djordjevic agreement. Before we
21 turn back to that, I just wanted to clarify and answer you gave earlier
22 when I was asking you about the mandate of your office. You said that
23 you understood the mandate to be the verification of the implementation
24 of the Milosevic-Holbrooke Agreement and subsequent accords.
25 How did you understand you were to carry out this mandate?
1 A. We carried that out through patrolling. Patrolling widely
2 throughout the region. By ensuring that we had good contact and regular
3 contact with all the authorities and all the parties in the area, the
4 local people as well. We ensured that we created a climate of trust and
5 of normalcy, as I said before. And we ensured the protection of human
6 rights by, you know, being there when there were incidents going on and
7 so forth.
8 Q. Okay. Very well. If we could now turn back to the document you
9 have there before you, and if we could focus now on number 2 of that
10 document, which refers to incidents of increased tension:
11 "The police will have the right upon not to find KDOM/OSCE to
12 perform patrol duties and armour vehicles with machine-guns et cetera.
13 An [indiscernible] which will be used exclusively in self-defence with
15 Could you tell us, based on your experience on the ground, how
16 this point of the agreement was implemented, if it was at all? And I'm
17 specifically interested in the notification aspect of this clause of the
19 A. This -- an aspect I would say that the -- in terms of
20 notification, seldom were we notified when there would be patrols in
21 armoured vehicles outside of the normal zones. There were some patrols
22 that we were used to doing that we knew that the MUP would be doing, and
23 there was no problem. That went on regularly. And some of those were in
24 armoured vehicles.
25 But if there was a -- it they were patrolling areas that they
1 wanted to do without -- in areas that were not their regular one, I
2 guess, we seldom were notified of those.
3 Q. Now, you just mentioned earlier that part of your duties included
4 contact with authorities and all parties. Now, with respect to this
5 specific issue of notification, was this a matter you raised with MUP
6 authorities when you -- when it wasn't complied with?
7 A. Whenever there were issues of -- of -- issues with the
8 authorities, we definitely raised them. I can't remember any specific --
9 any specific issues or points that were raised from that point of view
10 after ten years, of course.
11 Q. Mm-hmm. Now, if we could look at paragraph 3 of this agreement,
12 it speaks about police withdrawal of its stationary forces, and there are
13 a series of localities which are listed there. When you arrived to
14 Kosovo, were you provided with any sort of base-line of the numbers of
15 police forces that were to be on -- or were authorised to be on the
16 ground in your area of responsibility?
17 A. No, we were not.
18 Q. And how were you able to verify whether this aspects of the
19 agreement was complied with, the withdrawal of police from the stationary
21 A. Again this is an aspect that we did not get to appoint where we
22 would receive the standards and the base-line, if you wish, of forces
23 that were meant to be in the region.
24 Q. So are you saying that you were not able to verify whether there
25 had been a compliance with paragraph 3 of this agreement because you were
1 not provided with the information by the MUP, would that be an
2 understanding of the situation on the ground?
3 A. That's correct. So because of that we went from the
4 understanding that the forces that were there on the ground, we wanted to
5 ensure that there was no reinforcement while we were deployed.
6 THE INTERPRETER: Please slow down for the interpreters.
7 Thank you.
8 MS. KRAVETZ: My apologies again for that. I know we are going a
9 bit fast.
10 Q. And how were you able then to ensure whether there were any
11 reinforcements of MUP units on ground?
12 A. We -- we continued patrolling. We ensured that we had good
13 contact with the authorities. And, of course, we were also in contact
14 with the locals who would tell us if they saw an increased presence in
15 particular areas to enable us to follow through. So through this
16 programme of patrolling, this programme of contact with the authorities
17 and with the locals, we had a pretty good sense of whether major forces
18 were actually -- would actually have come into the province.
19 Q. And when you are talking about major forces coming into the
20 province, are you speaking about regular MUP units, or other types of
21 police units?
22 A. I would say all types of units, regular and perhaps special.
23 Q. Did you frequently observe special types of police units on the
24 ground when you were conducting your verifications?
25 A. On a few occasions we did report some special units, and we
1 noticed that they were special units because they were usually dressed in
2 different types of dress, different types of uniforms, than the regular
3 MUP units which were in dark blue uniforms.
4 Q. Mm-hmm. And when you were -- on the occasions that you observed
5 these units, was there anything -- anything else different about them
6 other than their uniform from their regular police units that you had the
7 opportunity to see?
8 A. I would say that the -- their behaviour was reportedly at times
9 more arrogant and in fact they -- usually these special units would be
10 quite scary for the locals. The local people were usually quite afraid
11 of them thinking that perhaps they were members of special units that
12 were brought in for special duties. So just by their behaviour and by
13 the fact that they would be in a particular area that had the -- often
14 the impact of -- or the effect of scaring the locals or worrying the
16 Q. And on the occasions that you were able to come across these
17 special units, would you -- would they be carrying any sort of task that
18 would be different from regular police units that you were familiar with?
19 A. I can think of one of the Rogovo incident, for example, where
20 they were usually in -- when I saw them they were, of course, looking at
21 the postmortem and what had happened in the area. I don't know exactly
22 what involvement they had during the actual incident, but certainly when
23 I came upon the scene, they were -- they were around, and they were
24 looking after, you know, the aftermath of the incident.
25 Q. Now, I would like to ask you a question - now that we are
1 speaking about MUP units - a question about your statement. And this is
2 at paragraph 18, on page 6 of the statement in the English; and I believe
3 it's page 5 on the B/C/S. You refer to VJ and MUP, and you say there
4 were frequent intimidations, killings, and occasional shelling of
5 villages by T-55 tanks, mortars, and Howitzers and by the VJ. And then
6 you say MUPs were the front-runners in any action and the VJ appeared to
7 have colluded or provided heavy fire support on several occasions.
8 Can you explain how it is that you came to that conclusion that
9 MUP were the front-runners in any action and VJ seemed to be providing
10 heavy fire support?
11 A. Mm-hmm. In both the instances where I personally witnessed the
12 events and those that were reported to me by my verifiers, which I take
13 as being true reporting and accurate factual reporting, it seemed to us
14 or the tendency was for us to see an increased presence of MUP which
15 would deploy out of their -- out of their barracks and be on the scene.
16 And then usually the VJ would stand a little further out and seemed to
17 provide - and again this is a sense of an assessment of the manner in
18 which operations would be conducted - the VJ would seem to provide a kind
19 of perimeter to the activity.
20 So this is what I mean about the -- about the precursors. The
21 MUP were usually the front-runners, they would arrive on the scene. And
22 then eventually the VJ would deploy in kind of a perimeter position.
23 This is, in fact, the assessment that I made with respect to the Racak
24 incident specifically.
25 Q. We will move to the Racak incident in a minute. Before getting
1 to that, just to clarify the answer, you said that you saw an increased
2 presence of MUP which would deploy out of their barracks and be on the
3 scene. Were these occasions when you saw increased presence of MUP out
4 of barracks, were these sort of deployments authorised or as you
5 understood pursuant to the agreements, the agreement we just saw and the
6 other agreements that were signed and gave you a mandate for
8 A. No, they were not. Though, I must add that they were often
9 provoked into these -- into these deployments. Specifically, for
10 example, in an incident near the small town of Randubrava, which is near
11 Prizren, which happened fairly close to the end of my time in Kosovo,
12 there was an incident of some firing and entire company of MUP actually
13 deployed to -- to look after -- to react to the activity; and after some
14 discussion and some negotiations, they returned to their barracks. But
15 this is kind of the -- very often they were provoked into doing that.
16 Q. Now, in situations like this based on the terms we saw of the
17 agreement we were just looking at, and moving specifically to
18 paragraph 2, would this be an instance where the requirement would be
19 provide prior notification to you before carrying out such type of
21 A. I would say this would be an instance where they should provide
22 advanced notice. Although, I will again couch that by saying that there
23 are times when, if provoked, it would be understandable; and since my
24 verifiers were on the ground and often I was as well, that it would be
25 understandable that the deployment would happen and that we would make
1 contact on the ground with the MUP forces.
2 Q. Now, in relation to this provocation in paragraph 18, again, this
3 is the same paragraph I was reading from earlier, you say:
4 "Generally when provoked or perceived to be provoked, the
5 reaction of the VJ and the MUP was disproportionate to the provocation or
6 alleged attack by the KLA."
7 Can you explain what you mean by that statement?
8 A. Yes. I would say in this case, this was a regular reaction by
9 the authority forces. That sometimes a fairly minor incident, although
10 it's difficult to say what's a major incident and what's a minor
11 incident, but let's just say that the usual reaction from the VJ and the
12 MUP was usually quite disproportionate, that is, much stronger than the
13 provocation or attack by the other side. That seemed to be the typical
14 reaction there.
15 Q. And can you give us an example of what you mean when you say it
16 was disproportionate or much stronger?
17 A. Certainly. Coming back to the Randubrava incident, the incident
18 was in the small, small town. There seemed to be a couple or three --
19 some fighters that were taking actually pot-shots, and that -- and from
20 that small incident, an entire company of MUP was deployed on the ground
21 in armoured vehicles. So an entire company of course is about
22 100, 120 personnel. So that's an example of the type of reaction.
23 Q. Okay. Thank you. And do you recall the date of this incident
24 that you are referring to, just approximately when it happened?
25 A. I think it was towards the end of February. I believe it was
1 towards the end of February.
2 Q. That would be --
3 A. 1999. It might even have been --
4 THE INTERPRETER: Could the speakers kindly not overlap.
5 MS. KRAVETZ:
6 Q. Sir, I would ask to you look at the screen and wait for the
7 cursor to stop before starting your answer, so that we cannot overlap
8 between question and answer. So I was just asking you about the date of
9 the incident.
10 A. I would say that it was probably towards the end of February 1999
11 or it may even have been in March of 1999.
12 Q. Thank you. And when you talk about entire company of MUP
13 deployed to the ground, are you speak being regular police officers or
14 these special units that you were describing earlier?
15 A. These would have been regular police units.
16 Q. Thank you. Now, you mentioned -- referred to the Racak incident;
17 and I know it's also discussed in your statement in previous testimony.
18 I have a couple of questions just to clarify some aspects of your written
19 evidence on this incident.
20 In paragraph 34 of your statement, you say that when the
21 incident -- Racak incident took place, you were in Pec/Peja and that you
22 returned later that afternoon after receiving reports from your
23 personnel. Do you recall what exactly you were told had happened in
24 Racak and when it was, I mean, which date you are referring to
1 A. Yes, on the 15th of January, 1999, we had been at a meeting of
2 the entire KVM in terms of a meeting of the operational commanders and so
3 on, and so all the representatives of the different regional centres were
4 meeting in Pec/Peja and we were, you know, discussing issues and
5 coordinating work. During that -- during the day on the 15th, we
6 received reports that there was a -- an action going on in the area of
8 At this point, Racak was outside of my Regional Centre 1. It was
9 in Regional Centre 5's area. And Regional Centre 5 had no commander at
10 the time. They had -- they had a deputy commander, but the commander had
11 not been deployed yet into the regional centre. So at this point,
12 General Drewienkiewicz, General DZ, asked me if I would be able to
13 actually deploy to Regional Centre 5's area - and, of course, the deputy
14 commander was with me in Pec/Peja, so he was aware of this - and to see
15 if I could take a couple of my patrols from my area and deploy there to
16 Racak, which is what I did at the end of the day on the 15th.
17 Q. Now, just going back a little bit, you say that during the day of
18 the 15th, you received report that there was an action going on. From
19 whom did you receive these reports?
20 A. From the verifiers of Regional Centre 5, from those that were on
21 the ground.
22 Q. So were there verifiers actually at Racak at the time when this
23 action was happening?
24 A. Yes, there were.
25 Q. And what did they tell you was going on in Racak?
1 A. They were reporting that there was a -- there was some firing
2 going on. That there was -- there seemed to be an attack going on in the
3 village. Now, I don't remember exactly what the tenure of their comments
4 was, but that there was an action going on in the village of Racak
5 MS. KRAVETZ: I see my learned colleague is on his feet.
6 JUDGE PARKER: Mr. Djurdjic.
7 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] I'm trying to find the passage
8 that you discussed right now with the witness about RC 5 verifiers in
9 Racak. If I could just get a reference, the number of the paragraph,
10 because I don't see anything like that in paragraph 34.
11 MS. KRAVETZ: That was additional information that the witness
12 provided, and I was asking for him to elaborate on what was in paragraph
13 34 of the statement and this is additional information that the witness
14 just provided. Paragraph 34 is on page 8 of the B/C/S.
15 JUDGE PARKER: It's in elaboration of paragraph 34, Mr. Djurdjic.
16 Additional information.
17 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour. But in
18 that case, I believe it would be in keeping with the rules for direct
19 examination of a live witness, and I don't believe such leading questions
20 are appropriate.
21 JUDGE PARKER: Take notice, please, Ms. Kravetz.
22 MS. KRAVETZ: Yes. I was just asking him to elaborate on what
23 was in the statement. That's all. And I don't believe I put a leading
24 question, but I do take Your Honours's guidance. Thank you.
25 JUDGE PARKER: We are grateful. Just carry on.
1 MS. KRAVETZ: Yes, Your Honour.
2 Q. Sir, you told us that you went to Racak that day. What, if
3 anything, were you able to observe in the village when you arrived?
4 A. Well, I arrived in the dusk, dusk was falling at this point and
5 so I decided to go directly to -- to the hospital to see -- to meet there
6 with the folks that were on the ground from Regional Centre 5. And
7 indeed we -- they had begun to -- they had begun to -- to bring out some
8 of the casualties. Some of the local people who had been shot and hurt.
9 So that was the -- that's what I observed that night in -- on the night
10 of the 15th.
11 Q. And were the observers who were on the ground from
12 Regional Centre 5 able to provide you any additional information to what
13 they had seen happening at Racak that day?
14 A. Yes. Yes. That was indeed the time when I was told about the
15 action going on in the city of Racak, that some of my -- some of these
16 personnel from Regional Centre 5 had been on the hills and had seen tanks
17 firing into -- into the town, that had seen personnel or MUP personnel
18 going into -- into the city, into the town.
19 But that's the point at which I was told exactly what had
20 happened. I was told what had happened generally, I mean, in the city of
21 Racak, in the town of Racak.
22 Q. You say that your -- the personnel, KVM personnel was from
23 Regional Centre 5 had been up on the hills and was able to observe this.
24 Had they been -- did you receive any reports of whether there had been
25 any outgoing fire from Racak to this tank position that you said was
1 firing into the village?
2 A. No, actually and this is one thing that we couldn't really
3 understand. By our understanding, Racak had not been a stronghold of the
4 KLA. This seemed to be to us something that was very, you know, very
5 unprovoked; and so we could not understand why there had been such a huge
6 presence and a huge action in Racak, why this had happened.
7 Q. Now, you refer to having arrived to the village and seeing
8 casualties brought out. Do you recall approximately how many victims you
9 saw, and if you can say anything about the victims, the age, whether
10 female or male?
11 A. I believe at one point in my statement I do give some details of
12 the -- of the casualties; but I do remember, myself, being in the
13 hospital and seeing a woman and a young girl that were brought in exactly
14 at the time that I was there.
15 Q. Did you later return to Racak at any point in the following
17 A. Yes. After giving direction to my verifiers and to those of
18 Regional Centre 5 to maintain a presence, as much as possible overnight,
19 I returned to my headquarters and came back in the morning. My verifiers
20 came onto the ground at 7.00, and then I arrived about 9.00 into the
22 Q. And who accompanied you on that second occasion when you visited
23 the village?
24 A. I was accompanied as usually but my driver and actually by a
25 young lady who was my Serbian interpreter because I had intended also to
1 go visit the brigade commander from the brigade responsible for that area
2 to find out what happened, to liaise with him.
3 Q. Now, what were you able to observe when you arrived at 9.00 a.m.
4 in the village on 16th?
5 A. When I arrived, I went into the village and was able to observe a
6 couple of bodies before, you know, I wanted to actually go and see a few
7 bodies on my own, and then to get a sense of what was going on in the
8 village. Of course, I also spoke to my verifiers and then made my way in
9 towards the meeting.
10 Q. Were you able to meet with the brigade commander that day, the
11 brigade commander in charge of that area?
12 A. No, I was not. When I arrived at the meeting, I was greeted by
13 the liaison officer from the brigade, and I had a discussion with him and
14 he told me, and I think this is in the statement, about the fact that his
15 brigade commander was not available.
16 Q. Now, the minutes of this meeting are an attachment to your
17 statement. This is attachment 8, and I would ask you to please turn to
19 MS. KRAVETZ: And this is in e-court page 83 of the English, and
20 page 99 of the B/C/S.
21 Q. Are you on that page?
22 A. Yes, I am.
23 Q. Now, the notes of this meeting indicate that a Lieutenant-Colonel
24 Pera Petrovic was present. Is this the person that you were referring to
25 as being the liaison officer of the brigade?
1 A. Yes, it is.
2 Q. And what was the purpose of this meeting that you had at the
3 brigade headquarters with Colonel Petrovic?
4 A. The aim of the meeting was to find out why this activity, this
5 incident had taken place, why vehicles, tanks, and so on had been firing
6 into what we thought was a completely empty village, a village of
7 civilians. And this seemed to me to be a disregard for the agreement,
8 keeping the troops in barracks and also keeping the situation normal.
9 Q. Now, the minutes record you saying, and this is at the top next
10 to "M," which I understand stands for your name --
11 A. Mm-hmm.
12 Q. -- record you saying:
13 "Your tanks, heavy artillery, mortars, and AV moved out of
14 barracks one week ago in complete violation of the agreement and are
15 still out and VJ will not cooperate with KVM."
16 Are these tanks and heavy artillery mortars that you are
17 referring to equipment that had been deployed to the area of Racak one
18 week before? Or where exactly had this deployment been made in violation
19 of the agreement, if you recall?
20 A. Now, this, you have to bear in mind that this brigade and this
21 area was outside of my regional centre, so these statements came as a
22 result of my discussions with Gil Gilbertson who is the deputy head of
23 the Regional Centre 5. They had their observers -- their verifiers had
24 observed these deployments outside of the barracks by the VJ and MUP.
25 So in this case, I'm sorry, by the VJ. And so this is -- this is
1 what I'm referring to. I had received that information from
2 Mr. Gilbertson who was with me at this meeting. I do recall, though,
3 that there was one particular area where there was a deployment of --
4 seemed to be a deployment of artillery pieces near the road near Racak
5 that had been contested by the KVM and, I believe, protested by
6 Regional Centre 5. This is before Racak.
7 Q. Mm-hmm. And this deployment of artillery pieces near Racak, this
8 was not an authorised deployment?
9 A. From my understanding, no, it was not.
10 Q. Was the VJ -- did the VJ have any artillery positions in the
11 Stimlje area that were authorised pursuant to the agreements, if you
12 recall? I know this was not your specific area of responsibility, but
13 based on what you know from that area?
14 A. I cannot recall.
15 Q. Thank you. That's fine.
16 Now, if we go down a bit further in these notes, we have
17 Colonel Petrovic indicating that "Stimlje was done by the MUP with PRAHA
18 AVs and one tank don't know how they were dealing with it." Based on
19 what you were able to observe of how the MUP operated, did they usually
20 have any tanks at their disposal when they carried out action?
21 A. Well, as I said earlier, it seemed to us that they regularly
22 enlisted the support of tanks. Now, we knew pretty well that the MUP had
23 no tanks within their inventory, so we certainly thought that the tanks
24 were provided by the VJ. But it seemed routine to us throughout my time
25 there that the VJ and MUP would work in coordination.
1 I believe, as I said in one of my statements, my assessment is
2 that they each had their chain of command, direct chain of command to
3 each other, parallel chain of command, I should say, the MUP and the VJ;
4 but they definitely coordinated regularly during actions.
5 And, of course, as a military man, this is just a regular and
6 routine procedure that you would never have two forces, friendly forces,
7 which are working on the same side operating in the same zone without
8 ensuring that you have good coordination to make sure that there are no
9 engagement of friendly forces, any friendly fire.
10 Q. Now, you had told us earlier that your observers had seen tank
11 firing into the village. When you went there on the 15th or on the 16th,
12 did you see any evidence that a tank had been deployed in the area?
13 A. There is one incident, of course, that I've spoken about on a
14 couple of occasions, and that is in my statement, where one of the
15 verifiers specifically had told me that he stood beside a tank that had
16 been firing into a house, that had been occupied by civilians, and when
17 that tank actually stopped firing, that they went into the house and
18 helped the people to come out. And I subsequently, on the 16th, went to
19 that hill where the tank had been reported and saw tank tracks on that
21 Q. Now, the minutes here record you asking "who coordinated tank
22 fire on civilian houses where no persons were firing back." Is this the
23 same incident that you are just speaking about that your observers were
24 able to see happening?
25 A. That's correct.
1 Q. Now, you raised with Colonel Petrovic at this meeting that this
2 had been an unauthorized move from barracks and the notes have an
3 exclamation point and the answer that is recorded here from
4 Colonel Petrovic is "we are authorised for the staffs, my commander will
5 see you in the evening." What did you understand based from this meeting
6 had been the VJ involvement in this action?
7 A. I certainly thought that in his view, in Petrovic's view, the
8 movement out of barracks and the firing and so on had been from what he
9 thought were normal tasks. I also understood that at this point that I
10 would have a chance to meet the commander on the Sunday evening, and I
11 don't know exactly what day of the week this was, but. So he certainly,
12 I think, felt that this was a -- that this was an authorised and normal
13 activity, where we felt that it was not. That it was unauthorized.
14 Q. Now, if we turn the page, we have --
15 MS. KRAVETZ: And this is page 84 in e-court of the English, and
16 page 100 of the B/C/S.
17 Q. The third line from the top, if you could just explain what is
18 written there. It starts with "If provoked with SA..."
19 A. Yes. This -- the point I was trying to make here that
20 proportional force should be used in any reaction to an incident, i.e.,
21 if you are provoked with small arms, then you would use small arms. SA
22 was my note writer's abbreviation for small arms. Trying to make the
23 fact that artillery use in this case was disproportionate use of force.
24 Q. You refer to, you say like Racak and Petrovo. Do you recall
25 exactly had happened at Petrovo, you have been explaining what occurred
1 in Racak but.
2 A. No, I don't, unfortunately.
3 Q. Okay. That's fine. I understand that that same day you also met
4 with representatives from the local MUP; is that correct?
5 A. Yes, I did.
6 Q. And the notes of these -- this meeting is -- are also attached
7 and they are attachment 13, that's MM13.
8 There are three copies of the notes of this meeting attached to
9 your statement. I understand that the operative one is the last one
10 which is the signed version; is that correct?
11 A. That's correct. What usually happened is my notetaker would
12 draft the notes and send them in to me, and usually with one draft I was
13 able to correct some of the issues and give it back to him and I would
14 sign them. In this case, I guess it means it took two drafts before I
16 Q. Now, we see that this meeting took place again on the
17 16th of January, and it was held at the MUP headquarters in Urosevac.
18 And in attendance are Colonel Janicevic, chief of the secretariat, MUP.
19 Would this be the Secretariat of Urosevac?
20 A. Yes, I believe it was.
21 Q. And we also see that Mr. Gilbertson and an interpreter were
22 present at this meeting. And what was the aim of this meeting with
23 Colonel Janicevic?
24 A. The aim there was exactly the same one as with the VJ. It was to
25 find out exactly what had happened and what had provoked and what had
1 made them undertake this action in Racak. To find out who, in fact, was
2 in charge of the operation and who had, you know, the cooperation between
3 the MUP and the VJ.
4 Q. Now, the minutes record Mr. Janicevic saying that - and this is
5 towards the middle bottom part of the page - started action at 0330,
6 ended at 1530. And later, Mr. Gilbertson asked who ordered this to
7 happen, and there are a series of answers which are marked as evasive
8 answer here in the minutes. Based on your discussions with
9 Colonel Janicevic at the meetings, what impressions did you form as to
10 who had ordered this action to take place at Racak?
11 A. My sense was that he was trying to be quite evasive in terms of
12 who exactly was in charge. We asked him on several occasions. We were
13 trying to establish exactly who was the person in charge. And you know,
14 we wanted, as much as possible, to know what the facts were. But my
15 sense certainly was that he was -- he was the one in charge of these
17 MS. KRAVETZ: Now, if we turn the page this is page 104 in the
18 English in e-court, and page 117 in the B/C/S.
19 Q. Mr. Gilbertson is asking him how many police officers were
20 involved, and Mr. Janicevic says 100 men. Later towards the bottom of
21 the notes here you say you were in charge of 100 policemen, and he
22 responds, If it is your concern, yes. And Mr. Gilbertson asked, he says,
23 We just left the VJ, that put all the blame on you, were they with you or
24 not? And he responds, We were not with the VJ.
25 Was that your understanding of how the action had happened? That
1 Mr. Janicevic, was -- I mean, was your understanding consistent with what
2 Mr. Janicevic was saying that the MUP was involved in this action without
3 any participation from the region?
4 A. Well, I certainly thought that Mr. Janicevic was quite an erudite
5 gentleman and able to, I think, answer questions in a rather kind of
6 roundabout way. And certainly that's the reason why I wanted to ask him
7 if indeed he was in charge of the 100 hundred policemen and I think we
8 wore him down to finally tell us yes.
9 But in terms of the VJ, I think I could have taken his answer at
10 the time and you know, to the best of my recollection that his answer
11 could have been, you know, we were not with the VJ when we did the
12 assault, this does not mean perhaps that he would have had the VJ in
13 support of his -- of the action.
14 So you, you know, I mean, to me it left some, you know, some room
15 for interpretation here.
16 Q. What do you mean when you say it left some room for
18 A. Well, that perhaps the VJ were involved, but if they were my
19 assessment was that the VJ would have been in the perimeter position
20 around the -- around the -- the town of Racak, this would not necessarily
21 mean that the VJ would be in the town with the MUP, if you understand
22 what I mean.
23 Q. Mm-hmm. And was what Mr. Janicevic told you at this meeting
24 consistent with what your KVM observers had seen on the ground happen?
25 A. No, it was not. As I mentioned and as I assessed, I believe that
1 the VJ was indeed involved both from the point of view of support from
2 the perimeter and firing into the city, into the town, and you know, in
3 those deployments such as that artillery position. So they were indeed
4 involved in the operation.
5 MS. KRAVETZ: Your Honour, I see it's the end of the session. I
6 have more questions for you, General, but we will have to continue
8 JUDGE PARKER: Sorry, General, because the courtroom is used by
9 another Chamber now. We must adjourn for the day and resume at 9.00 in
10 the morning. And will hope to have satisfactory progress tomorrow, even
11 final, even.
12 THE WITNESS: Thank you, Your Honour.
13 JUDGE PARKER: We adjourn until --
14 MS. KRAVETZ: Your Honour, just on that note, I would like to
15 point out that the witness has indicated that he needs to leave by Friday
16 morning, so I will make my best to make progress tomorrow, but I also
17 wanted to let Your Honours know that we do need to complete this witness
18 by early Friday morning at the latest.
19 JUDGE PARKER: Yes.
20 Mr. Djurdjic?
21 MR. DJURDJIC: [Interpretation] I wanted to greet you upon
22 adjournment. That's why I stood up.
23 JUDGE PARKER: Very gracious of you, Mr. Djurdjic.
24 [Trial Chamber and registrar confer]
25 JUDGE PARKER: We will be watching your time in the morning very
1 closely, Ms. Kravetz, because Mr. Djurdjic must have time to
2 cross-examine the general. So time will be given close attention.
3 The court officer will be giving exhibit numbers to all the
4 exhibits that were tendered earlier, including the ones you initially did
5 not seek to tender but which we understand are all being admitted by
7 MS. KRAVETZ: Fine, Your Honour.
8 JUDGE PARKER: Thank you, we resume tomorrow at 9.00.
9 --- Whereupon the hearing adjourned at 1.47 p.m.
10 to be reconvened on Thursday, the 4th day of June,
11 2009, at 9.00 a.m.