1 Wednesday, 9 November 2011
2 [Open session]
3 [The accused entered court]
4 [The witness entered court]
5 --- Upon commencing at 8.32 a.m.
6 JUDGE KWON: Good morning, everyone. I was advised that,
7 Mr. Robinson, you had something to raise.
8 MR. ROBINSON: Yes, Mr. President. I just would like to put on
9 the record our objection to the testimony of war correspondent witnesses
10 absent of valid waiver of the privilege. You've already heard this issue
11 before and decided it but since this witness falls into that category, I
12 just wanted to place on the record our objection. Thank you.
13 JUDGE KWON: I'm not quite sure you need to put that on record
14 every time. It is a given, so to speak. It is understanding that you
15 have a continuing objection, but the Chamber has ruled upon it. So if
16 really necessary, I would rather recommend you put in writing instead of
17 taking up courtroom time, Mr. Robinson.
18 MR. ROBINSON: Very well. We'll do that. Thank you.
19 JUDGE KWON: Thank you for your indulgence.
20 If the witness could take the solemn declaration, please.
21 THE WITNESS: I solemnly declare that I will speak the truth, the
22 whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
23 JUDGE KWON: Thank you. Please make yourself comfortable.
24 WITNESS: EDWARD VULLIAMY
25 JUDGE KWON: It is you, Ms. Sutherland?
1 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour. Good morning, Your Honours.
2 Examination by Ms. Sutherland:
3 Q. Please state your full name.
4 A. Edward Sebastian Vulliamy.
5 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, as we discussed, part of your evidence in this case
6 is going to be submitted in writing so we first need to deal with the
7 formalities in relation to that submission. You testified in the Stakic
8 case between the 16th and 18th of September, 2002; is that right?
9 A. Yes, I did.
10 Q. You've subsequently had an opportunity to review the transcript
11 of that testimony?
12 A. Yes.
13 Q. Can you confirm that that transcript accurately reflects your
14 testimony at the time?
15 A. Yes.
16 THE INTERPRETER: Kindly pause between questions and answers for
17 the sake of interpretation. Thank you.
18 MS. SUTHERLAND: My apologies to the interpreters.
19 Q. If you were asked today about the matters that you testified too
20 in the Stakic case, would you provide the same information to the
21 Trial Chamber?
22 A. Yes.
23 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, I tender the transcript
24 65 ter 22504.
25 JUDGE KWON: That will be admitted.
1 THE REGISTRAR: As Exhibit P3777, Your Honours.
2 MS. SUTHERLAND: And Your Honours leave, I'll read a summary of
3 the witness's written evidence.
4 In 1992, the witness was a journalist for the London based
5 "Guardian" newspaper. During the relevant time period he covered the
6 conflict in the former Yugoslavia. In early August, 1992, the witness
7 was among the first group of journalists to visit the Omarska camp. This
8 is Schedule C 20.2 and the Trnopolje camp Schedule C 20.4 which are
9 located in the Prijedor municipality. The witness testified that the
10 access to these detention facilities, as well as the Kula prison which he
11 visited, was authorised by Radovan Karadzic.
12 On the 3rd of August, 1992, the journalists met Radovan Karadzic
13 in Pale where they were promised access to Omarska camp. That day, the
14 journalists were taken to visit Kula prison. This is Schedule 18.2.
15 En route from Pale to Banja Luka, the witness observed extensive
16 damage to the town of Brcko which was deserted and damaged with
17 shell-fire and mortar fire.
18 On the 5th of August, 1992, the journalists were escorted by
19 Major Milutinovic to Prijedor. The witness saw extensive damage to the
20 houses in Kozarac. Major Milutinovic explained that 40.000 Muslims
21 "decided to leave the area."
22 The journalists attended a meeting with Serb officials in
23 Prijedor and were then taken to the Omarska camp. The journalists
24 observed some of the detainees when they were brought to the canteen for
25 food. The witness describes the condition of some of the detainees as
1 shocking. The journalists began to interview a number of the detainees.
2 The witness describes that when the group of journalists tried to access
3 the prisoners' sleeping quarters, they were told that although
4 Radovan Karadzic had authorised a visit to the camp this authorisation
5 had certain limitations.
6 The journalists were subsequently taken to the Trnopolje camp.
7 The witness described in detail the barbed wire fence and behind it a
8 crowded group of men, many of who were in serious state of decay and
9 skeletal. The witness testified to the conditions in the detention
10 facilities and the treatment of the non-Serb detainees in these
12 After visiting the Trnopolje camp, the journalists left for
13 Belgrade. On the 7th of August, 1992, the witness's article on the
14 visits to the camps was published. The witness also described a
15 conversation he had with Nikola Koljevic in Belgrade after news of the
16 detention facilities had been published.
17 Within days of visiting the camps in Prijedor municipality, the
18 witness visited a HOS-run camp with Serb detainees.
19 The witness further described how later, around mid-August, he
20 managed to join a large convoy of non-Serb inhabitants from the
21 Sanski Most municipality who had been forcibly removed from their homes
22 and were being transferred to Travnik. During the transfer, he witnessed
23 mistreatment, beatings, and the looting of property.
24 In March 1996, the witness interviewed Milomir Stakic and
25 Milan Kovacevic in Prijedor and testified to his observations during
1 these interviews. That completes a summary of the witness's written
2 evidence, Your Honour.
3 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, I now have a number questions for you. When and
4 where were you born?
5 A. I was born in London in 1954, August the 1st.
6 Q. What academic qualifications do you have?
7 A. High school, after that I got a scholarship to Oxford University
8 and degree in Valencia in Italy.
9 Q. I have a limited number of questions related to the Stakic
10 testimony which is now in evidence. At transcript pages 7900 to 7903,
11 you briefly summarised your professional work experience after you
12 finished your studies, so I won't trouble you to repeat it here. I wish
13 to focus first on how you came to visit the camps in Prijedor.
14 You stated at transcript page 7904 that the "Guardian" newspaper
15 which you were working for at the time published an article written by a
16 colleague O'Kane about reports on the Omarska camp. Did Mr. Karadzic
17 respond to the allegations contained in O'Kane's article?
18 A. Yes, Dr. Karadzic was in London for a conference sponsored, I
19 think, by the European Union when the allegations were published, and, if
20 you like, invited/challenged us the journalists involved at the
21 "Guardian" and at ITN that he was -- who's guest he was and the programme
22 to come and see for themselves or words to that effect.
23 Q. Did he also respond directly to the "Guardian"?
24 A. Yes, he did. He wrote a letter which was published on, I think,
25 the 30th of July saying that there were no camps holding civilians and
1 that the allegations in the "Guardian" were wholly untrue.
2 Q. If I can refer you to 65 ter 00413, please. Do you recognise the
3 document that's on the screen?
4 A. That's a printout of the contents of the letter. I should say,
5 perhaps, that I didn't see it on publication. I was on my way to or in
6 Belgrade by then, but I know the text, yes.
7 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, I tender at that document.
8 JUDGE KWON: Yes.
9 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit P3778, Your Honours.
10 MS. SUTHERLAND:
11 Q. You state at transcript page 7905 that upon your arrival in
12 Belgrade you spoke with Serb and Bosnian Serb officials and that
13 Nikola Koljevic was the main host. Can you briefly tell the Chamber what
14 was discussed with him?
15 A. Yes. We were met by Professor Koljevic who was, as I understand
16 it, Dr. Karadzic's deputy president of the Bosnian Serb Republic,
17 declared republic, and other Serbian officials, and we talked about what
18 we wanted to talk about, our programme, to get to Omarska and Trnopolje
19 as quickly as possible. They wanted to talk about other things,
20 including, and this was of interest, camps in which Serbs were being held
21 prisoner as well on the other side. And we were invited to visit other
22 facilities at which Muslims were being held and I went to one of them.
23 We were -- and I -- we were getting impatient. We thought we were being
24 held up.
25 Q. At transcript page 7908, you gave evidence that you were greeted
1 by Dr. Karadzic upon your arrival in Pale from Belgrade via the federal
2 army helicopter. I'd like to play some footage now. This is
3 65 ter number 40583A.
4 [Video-clip played]
5 "Penny Marshall: Good morning. Thank you very much indeed for
6 bringing us down.
7 "Karadzic: Thank you for coming here
8 "Penny Marshall: I'm Penny Marshall.
9 "Karadzic: Nice to meet you. We have to make some plan for your
10 journey around Bosnia and Herzegovina. We would like you to see
11 concentration campuses for Serbian civilians held by Muslim forces in the
12 valley of Sarajevo. We'll point for you a few points. Prison then in
13 Tarcin 6 c 20 kilometres from Sarajevo in Silos more than 300 Serbs kept
14 in terrible conditions, all civilians. You will see our [indiscernible],
15 and then you will say what you want to see all around Bosnia-Herzegovina
16 and we'll make a plan for you to be safe. What we are concerned about is
17 that Muslim may try to kill some of you in order to blame us. That's
18 very usual. They do that. Just do some atrocities with foreigners, you
19 know, in order to blame Serbs. They kill their own people in the streets
20 and then they put blame on the Serbs. So we have to make it absolutely
21 secure for you. Then we would like to show you Mr. Panic's way
22 [indiscernible] that will probably be tomorrow about noon, in the
23 afternoon. In Bijeljina, we have arrested 72 independent Serbs who have
24 been disobedient to police or to other. In this area we have been -- we
25 are arrested all of them and they're going to be [indiscernible], and
1 then you could proceed to Bosanska Krajina, Banja Luka, if the corridor
2 is safe. I think it is safe right now.
3 "Penny Marshall: Is that by car or helicopter?
4 "Karadzic: I think by car is much better because they could
5 shoot you by helicopter. So they can reach 150 -- 1.500 metres. They
6 could reach you and kill you. So we have a corridor and I think it's
7 safe still, and we'll get you to Omarska. There you'll join our police
8 and they'll get you to Omarska. You wanted to see Omarska and what else?
9 "Penny Marshall: Trnopolje.
10 "Karadzic: Trnopolje, I will ask ...
11 "Penny Marshall: And Prijedor.
12 "Karadzic: Yeah, that's all in the area. I will ask what's in
13 Trnopolje. In Trnopolje is a kind of a place for stay for people who
14 have no place to stay. This is -- they are not kept by -- by guards.
15 They just have to eat something and they wait to be displaced somewhere,
16 because their villages have been burnt down. They're Serbs and Muslims
17 over there too.
18 "Penny Marshall: Who controls Tarcin? I mean, how can you get
19 us into Tarcin because Tarcin is controlled by Muslims, isn't it?
20 "Karadzic: Yes, that's by Muslims. We can't --"
21 MS. SUTHERLAND: Stop the tape there.
22 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, I think we just heard you asking Dr. Karadzic that
23 question there.
24 A. Yes.
25 Q. What is the gist of the remainder of the conversation that you
1 had with Mr. Karadzic?
2 A. The conversation carried on over lunch and it covered both those
3 issues that we -- we -- it developed both those issues we were talking
4 about. On the film, the camps that we were intend to see and those that
5 Dr. Karadzic wanted to us see on the other side and we had a general
6 conversation over lunch too, which involved discussion of other -- other
7 things so including literature and stuff, but that was the -- those were
8 the parameters of the conversation, more or less. And people came and
10 Q. At transcript page 7910, you state that you left Pale and went by
11 road to Banja Luka via Bijeljina and Brcko and you had a military escort.
12 Was Koljevic part of the convoy?
13 A. Yes. Your Honours, I apologise for the sniffling and the
14 coughing. It's just how it is. Yes, Professor Koljevic had been --
15 joined us in Pale, again having been in Belgrade, and he was, I suppose,
16 our main host along the road. Although not travelling with us in the
17 same vehicle, he popped up for lunch at Bijeljina on the way the place
18 that Dr. Karadzic mentioned in the film where the disobedient Serbs were
19 to be disciplined. We didn't do any more on that, and then he took us as
20 far as Banja Luka where we arrived on the night of the 4th of August.
21 Q. At transcript page 7911, you state that the following morning
22 which I think you indicated was the 5th of August, you travelled from
23 Banja Luka to Prijedor escorted by Major Milutinovic and met there a
24 number of persons in the municipal civic centre. If I can just show you
25 a very short piece of video footage. This is Exhibit P3542. And if we
1 can play from 00:22.
2 [Video-clip played]
3 "Omarska, Trnopolje."
4 MS. SUTHERLAND: 00:35.
5 JUDGE KWON: Microphone.
6 MS. SUTHERLAND:
7 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, do you recognise the people in this shot?
8 A. Yes, I -- I did. It's not with me now again. Sorry. Yes. So
9 here we are. We've gone down the chain of command, as it were, Karadzic,
10 Koljevic, Milutinovic, and here we are in Prijedor. And on the left is
11 Milomir Stakic, who was introduced to us as the president of the
12 municipality and Crisis Staff, and next to him second along from the left
13 looking at the screen is Milan Kovacevic, who was introduced to us as
14 Dr. Stakic's deputy of the municipality, the opstina and of the
15 Crisis Committee. We go into keep deep shadow here. I think that's
16 Colonel Arsic there in the middle of the five, introduced to us as the
17 military commander in the region. Next to him, that's the last man along
18 to the right, is Simo Drljaca, introduced to us as the chief of police in
19 Prijedor. All of those four members of the Crisis Staff. And on the end
20 in the pink is Mrs. Balaban whose title we didn't know but she was
21 translating for -- for them at the meeting that was to follow and when we
22 went into the camps -- camp, sorry, in Omarska.
23 Q. At transcript pages 7913 to 7935, it deals with the meeting --
24 with the meeting that you had with the people that you've just
25 identified. You said at the conclusion of the meeting that you went
1 outside and waited there for about 20 minutes or so, and you were then
2 taken to the Omarska camp. Did any other journalists join you?
3 A. Yes, the meeting went on for quite some time, after which --
4 during which they wanted us to go to other places, Manjaca, which we
5 didn't want to go to because it had been visited by the Red Cross. And
6 we were then told to go and wait outside, and we did, and talked to some
7 women lining up at the police station worried about the whereabouts of
8 their menfolk, and another journalist from the "Times" and a colleague
9 from "Liberation" of France came along and wanted to join our convoy to
10 my annoyance, professionally speaking, if you appreciate that I didn't
11 want people breezing in on this and they tried to join in, yes.
12 Q. But were told they couldn't?
13 A. Yes, the matter was adjudicated by Simo Drljaca that they
14 couldn't and the reason given was they weren't part of Dr. Karadzic's
15 party. They weren't going at his invitation and on his authority.
16 Q. At transcript pages 7939 to 7948, you describe your visit in the
17 camp and mention being present in the canteen when detainees came in for
18 food. Did you interview anyone in the canteen or overhear any interviews
19 being conducted?
20 A. Well, yes. The -- I've testified in the -- in the transcripts
21 that have been submitted about what it was like to see those men and be
22 there, so I won't take your time with that. But, yes, we endeavoured,
23 and perhaps to go back on to something that was said earlier in the
24 introductory remarks, we didn't interview several people. They were too
25 scared to be interviewed. Things were done with -- well, the looks of
1 terror in eyes and things, but, yes, we did interview -- one man only
2 felt -- was emboldened to speak, who I've seen since, and he told us that
3 he -- to summarise it: I do not want to tell any lies but I cannot tell
4 the truth. So the -- as it were, in quotations, the interviews you
5 referred to earlier, there was only one, and really -- and -- but did I
6 speak to another man. I asked what -- how he got a wound on the side of
7 his face. He said he had fallen over. I met him since. He had not
8 fallen over. The wound was otherwise inflicted.
9 Q. If we could play a short clip from 65 ter number 40168. And this
10 is starting at 12.19 through to 12.54?
11 [Video-clip played]
12 "Penny Marshall [voiceover]: This is all we saw of the
13 prisoners and of Omarska itself. They never spoke. The only voices
14 those of the guards ordering them to eat faster and leave. How are you
15 treated, what are the conditions, I asked?
16 "Unknown person: I don't want to tell lies. I can't speak the
17 truth. Thank you for coming."
18 MS. SUTHERLAND:
19 Q. And -- and that's your colleague Penny Marshall there in the pink
21 A. Yes, that's Penny Marshall in the pink asking the questions.
22 Actually, I was in shot just on the left sitting at the end of that
23 table, yeah.
24 Q. I now wish to focus on the discussion when you and Penny Marshall
25 and the other reporter, Ian Williams, were trying to get to see the
1 hangar buildings.
2 JUDGE KWON: Before that, the video we just saw, was it marked as
3 40168B as one of the associate exhibits?
4 MS. SUTHERLAND: No, it's -- that will be C. That will be
5 40168C. It's a new clip, Your Honour.
6 JUDGE KWON: So are you tendering that, C?
7 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour.
8 JUDGE KWON: That will be admitted.
9 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit P3779, Your Honours.
10 MS. SUTHERLAND:
11 Q. From transcript page 7948 to 7953, a video-tape is played. In
12 the transcript, it has speaker, speaker, speaker, and what's being said,
13 but it's not clear who's doing the -- the talking. And, in fact, at
14 transcript page 7952, what is written in the trial transcript is not a
15 full conversation which is actually contained in the English translation
16 which is -- which is attached to 65 ter number 40437, Your Honours. If
17 he would could play a short video-clip. And this is 65 ter number 40437,
18 starting at 00:44.
19 [Video-clip played]
20 MS. SUTHERLAND: If you could just pause there.
21 Q. Could you identify the two people who are in that shot, and
22 that's at :49.
23 A. Yes. We're trying to get into the hangar at this point, having
24 seen the canteen earlier. This is Colonel Milutinovic on the left and on
25 the right Simo Drljaca, the chief of police, Your Honours.
1 MS. SUTHERLAND: If we could keep playing.
2 [Video-clip played]
3 "They could prove --"
4 MS. SUTHERLAND:
5 Q. If could you stop there. If you could identify the three people.
6 A. The man at the moment talking, gesticulating is called Misa. He
7 was from Belgrade, ITN's interpreter and driver. That's Penny Marshall
8 nearest us. And hidden from view at the moment but there is Ian
9 Williams, who is a reporter also from ITN.
10 Q. And that's at :52. Mr. Zeljko Meakic, he's not in this footage
11 but -- but are you able to distinguish him from the others from what he
12 may have been wearing?
13 A. Yes. I mean, he was there throughout as well as these other two.
14 He was wearing a beret and I -- comes in and out of the footage at
15 various points. He's come in and out of the day at various points. He
16 had been introduced to us as the commander of Omarska itself, if you
17 like, the end of the line down this chain of command.
18 MS. SUTHERLAND: If we could keep playing the footage, please.
19 [Video-clip played]
20 "Guilty or not guilty --"
21 MS. SUTHERLAND: Actually, if you could stop. If we go to 2:53,
23 [Video-clip played]
24 "I'm sorry.
25 "You must get some orders. Your wishes are --
1 MS. SUTHERLAND: If we could stop there. If we could rewind that
2 tape because this -- and if I could ask the interpreters, please, to
3 interpret what Mrs. Balaban says to Simo Drljaca and what Drljaca
4 responds, please. And if we could take it back to 3:01.
5 [Video-clip played]
6 THE INTERPRETER: Interpreter's note: We do not have the
7 time-code in the transcript.
8 MS. SUTHERLAND: I'm sorry. It's at the top of page 4, and it
9 starts "Red Cross representative" which is how Mrs. Balaban is described
10 in the actual transcript. And then "guard 2" is how Simo Drljaca has
11 been identified in the -- in the transcript at the top of page 4 of the
12 English. Do you have that?
13 THE INTERPRETER: Yes, thank you.
14 MS. SUTHERLAND: If you could go back to 3:01, please.
15 [Video-clip played]
16 THE INTERPRETER: "[Voiceover] "Red Cross representative: I
17 explained that our protocol allows us to show only certain things and we
18 cannot contravene this, that is, we need to follow orders.
19 "Guard 2: We cannot. Yes. There are -- and they have all the
20 necessary medical care here, so ... yes they can.
21 "Red Cross representative: You must know we have some orders.
22 Your wishes are ... yes, and your reason is one and our is the other."
23 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you. And if we can now continue playing
24 the tape.
25 [Video-clip played]
1 "Penny Marshal: Show us where they live.
2 "Red Cross woman: Oh, well.
3 "Male reporter: Why are you not fulfilling Dr. Karadzic's
4 promise to us?
5 "Red Cross representative: He promised us something else and
6 said you can do this and this and that and not that. If they say this is
7 a protocol of your stay here that will be all. I'm sorry, that will be
9 "Male reporter: So he told you, so he told you not to give us
10 access to the majority of this camp?
11 "Red Cross representative: I'm just translating. I'm just
12 trying to do my best. You have now the chance to go to Trnopolje.
13 "Guard: Are we going to Trnopolje?"
14 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you. If we could stop the tape now.
15 Q. Now, shortly after that you then left for the Trnopolje camp and
16 the video footage of that camp was played at transcript page 7953 to
17 7959. Was ITN the only TV crew at Trnopolje camp.
18 A. Yeah. Yes. We were bundled out of Omarska. I mean, the two
19 guards took the safety catches off their guns and things had got very
20 menacing. Sorry. Yes, we went to Trnopolje. No, ITN were not the only
21 crew there. There had been with us since Pale a crew from the Bosnian
22 Serb television. It was unclear for the moment whether they were making
23 their own film about the camps or making a film about us then -- ITN
24 making a film about the camps, and there was also another camera which
25 appeared being operated by a man in military fatigues, and actually the
1 Bosnian Serb TV had military fatigues as well but there was a fourth
2 camera as well which I now know to be that of an intelligence operative
3 of some kind.
4 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, I'm sorry, I just want to go back to the footage
5 that's on the screen stopping at 4:03. If I can just play it through to
6 4:11. I'm sorry.
7 [Video-clip played]
8 "Red Cross representative: Yes, some security reasons are
9 present here. If you --"
10 MS. SUTHERLAND: If we could just stop it there.
11 Q. Do you see Mr. Meakic in that shot?
12 A. Yes, that's Zeljko Meakic on the left in the beret.
13 Q. Thank you. Now I want to show you another short video and this
14 is from Exhibit P03697. And if we could play that exhibit, please.
15 [Video-clip played]
16 THE INTERPRETER: "[Voiceover] We would like to live here. We
17 would not like to leave our homes. Could you convey that message? The
18 government --
19 "Q. Government? There are many governments now."
20 MS. SUTHERLAND:
21 Q. Do you recognise yourself in that footage?
22 A. Yes. I'm at the end there taking notes through the fence. Yes,
23 that's me, and that, I think -- sorry, do you want me to identify other
24 people or not?
25 Q. Yes, yes.
1 A. Yes. I think the man talking on the microphone at the beginning
2 is the reporter, I think, from the Bosnian Serb television, and that's
3 Penny Marshall there in the pink again, and that's the two of us taking
4 notes through the fence, interviewing the prisoners in the compound.
5 Q. I want to show you another short video and this is from
6 65 ter 40168 and this will be part D. If the footage can run from 14:11?
7 THE INTERPRETER: Interpreter's note: Could we please have a
8 page reference. Thank you.
9 MS. SUTHERLAND: There won't be any need for the transcript.
10 [Video-clip played]
11 "They promised to show us the second camp Trnopolje where 2.000
12 refugees are living. We were not prepared for what we saw and heard
14 MS. SUTHERLAND: If we could stop that there and that's at 14:26.
15 Q. Do you recognise anyone in this shot?
16 A. Yes. I recognise Fikret Alic shaking Penny Marshall's hand
17 through the wire and others I know by sight but not by name.
18 Q. But did you interview Fikret Alic that day?
19 A. Yes, I did.
20 Q. And what did he tell you?
21 A. He told us that this group -- he told me that this group had
22 arrived, this group in the compound that we can see had arrived at
23 Trnopolje that morning from another camp, the name of which was new to
24 me, Keraterm, and he and others talked about a terrible night in Keraterm
25 when something like between 130 and 150 people were killed in one night.
1 This young man Fikret Alic said that he had been tasked to be part of the
2 dispatch loading the bodies up onto the -- with bulldozers onto trucks
3 but that he had broken down and not been able to -- in his place taken by
4 an older prisoner. And there was a conversation with some of the other
5 men about their arrival from these -- mostly from Keraterm, but I
6 understood some had come from Omarska as well that very day.
7 Q. Could we then play from 17:25 to 17:32, please.
8 [Video-clip played]
9 "No one we spoke to knew why they had been brought here, whether
10 they were prisoners, refugees, or what lay in store for them."
11 MS. SUTHERLAND:
12 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, you see the barbed wire and other types of wire.
13 Was this how it was?
14 A. Yes, they were in a compound, and it was a guarded compound, as
15 we can see, and they'd come from these other camps that morning. And it
16 was for us, really, to try and ascertain why, which I, in part, did that
17 day. It was very chaotic in Trnopolje and was able to establish
18 definitely later, a few days later, when, as you said in your summary, we
19 went over the mountains in the convoy of deportees because these people
20 were here for enforced deportation, and we accompanied them to illustrate
22 Q. You stated at transcript page 7959 that you went into the medical
23 centre and met with Dr. Idriz Merdzanic. Who else was with you?
24 A. In the -- well, it's called the medical centre. They had to
25 scavenge for their medicines. None were provided, although the Red Cross
1 was there. In the medical centre was Idriz Merdzanic, and another
2 assistant of his -- or a colleague, I should say, of his, Azra Blazevic,
3 who was a vet, using her medical abilities as best she could help. And,
4 well, the ITN crew was there. I was by the door while Dr. Merdzanic was
5 interviewed. And patients coming in and out. Other orderlies in there
7 MS. SUTHERLAND: If we could show a short clip.
8 65 ter number 40168 and start it at 6:53 and stop at 7:40, 7:44.
9 [Video-clip played]
10 "... the camp. The pictures show severe injuries, apparently as
11 a result of beatings. In the makeshift medical centre, there were cases
12 of scabies, malnutrition and diarrhoea. Local doctors said they were
13 chronically short of medicines and drugs. Among them was a Muslim
14 doctor. We asked him whether there had been any cases of beatings.
17 MS. SUTHERLAND:
18 Q. And you were there while that was being filmed?
19 A. Yes, I'm just standing in the doorway.
20 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, I tender those portions of -- and I
21 think Mr. Reid has ...
22 JUDGE KWON: Both of them are under D?
23 MS. SUTHERLAND: No. Mr. Reid would rather they were
24 individual -- be given individual alphabetical numbers at the end of each
25 of the separate clips. So ...
1 JUDGE KWON: So the footage of Mr. Fikret Alic was 40168D will be
2 admitted as Exhibit P3780, is this correct?
3 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes.
4 JUDGE KWON: And the footage of makeshift -- so-called makeshift
5 medical centre will be --
6 MS. SUTHERLAND: Sorry, there's one in between that.
7 JUDGE KWON: Oh, yes.
8 MS. SUTHERLAND: The barbed wire.
9 JUDGE KWON: Very well. That will be admitted as Exhibit P3781.
10 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes.
11 JUDGE KWON: And the last one admitted as Exhibit 3782.
12 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you, Your Honour.
13 Q. So, Mr. Vulliamy, from Trnopolje did you return immediately to
15 A. Yes. We decided to return because I think -- I think the plan
16 had been for us to remain in Banja Luka, but the ITN translator/driver,
17 Misa, whom I pointed out, inferred that we were not safe. Things had
18 gotten quite acrimonious between us and our hosts by then and we elected
19 to get back to Belgrade as soon as possible and, well, to communicate
20 with our offices, really, because we needed to know what to do with the
21 material we had and so we went back to Belgrade that night. This was the
22 time before any kind of mobile communications [indiscernible].
23 Q. And at transcript page 7977 to 7979, you mention having English
24 tea with Professor Koljevic and that he made a rather barbed joke at the
25 expense of the media in the world?
1 A. Yes, it was a valid one too. Professor Koljevic was a professor
2 of English and an Anglophile and he invited me to tea at the Hyatt Hotel,
3 and his joke was, sort of, that it took us -- it took us so long to find
4 these camps. He joked that they were so near Venice, and he had a joke
5 at my and our collective expense that all we cared about was the siege of
6 sophisticated Sarajevo and how long it had taken us to find these camps
7 and I -- I thought, in a rather dark way, he had a point, to be honest.
8 Q. I want to show you another short video. This is the final video
9 I will show you.
10 MS. SUTHERLAND: It's 65 ter number 40154 and this is from point
12 [Video-clip played]
13 "Anchorman: Dr. Karadzic, the Serb president of Yugoslavia, Mr.
14 Panic has said that he's ordering you to shut camps like Omarska and
15 Trnopolje within 30 days. Can you do that?
16 "Karadzic: I can do that even within two days if Muslim side
17 accept our proposal of exchange of war prisoners on the type 'all to
18 all.' We have offered many times to Muslim side that kind of thing and
19 they didn't accept.
20 "Anchorman: So what you're saying is it's most unlikely that
21 his will happen?
22 "Karadzic: No. If they don't accept, we will quit those
23 prisoners, prisons; these are really not camps, these are prisons, but
24 anyway we'll treat them, we'll release all of those people, no matter
25 they are war prisoners, no matter they are going to attack us again
1 "Anchorman: Now, you know the outcry that there has been
2 following ITN's reports. We couldn't see all of the camp in Omarska.
3 You say the people there in the camps running them are undisciplined.
4 Therefore, would you agree now to go back to that particular camp with
5 our reporter Penny Marshall so that we can see everything there with you
6 guiding us round?
7 "Karadzic: Yes, absolutely. Would I like to join you there,
8 because I would see what people are disobedient and who is responsible
9 for so much -- so few food that people get. I know that all people don't
10 have enough food but still prisoners would have at least two meals a day.
11 "Anchorman: So that is a promise from you. You are ready to go
12 with our reporter straight away to that --
13 "Karadzic: Absolutely, that's my duty. That's our duty to make
14 people suffer as less as we can do.
15 "Anchorman: And so the challenge is taken up. You will go with
16 us - what - within the next 24 hours?
17 "Karadzic: Twenty-four hours. It may happen also within 24
19 "Anchorman: Well, we would like to hear you say very clearly,
20 Dr. Karadzic, that you will go within 24 hours.
21 "Karadzic: You can go within 24 hours, and I hope I could -- I
22 could make it for myself within 24 hours because we have big Muslim
23 offensive in city of Sarajevo. Very, very heavy fights today going on.
24 "Anchorman: Very well. The suspicion must be that where our
25 cameras are not allowed to go, and perhaps in other places, that terrible
1 things are happening. There's talk of allegations that have been made of
2 beatings, executions or whatever. Are you sure, yourself, that these
3 things are not happening in camps run by Serbs, Bosnian Serbs?
4 "Karadzic: We have 13 prisons and the prison of Omarska is the
5 worst one. And we wanted these journalists to see the worst one not to
6 see the best one in order to help people and in order to show all the
7 faces of this terrible civil war which was caused by premature
8 recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina for what is very responsible
9 European Community. We are ready to open any corner of this country, any
10 prison of this country to Red Cross. It was invited by me this morning
11 and to any journalist and to any international commission.
12 "Anchorman: Dr. Karadzic in Belgrade, thank you very much
14 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you and that stops at 1:00:46.
15 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, you've reviewed this footage since you've been in
16 The Hague. Have you seen it before?
17 A. No, I hadn't.
18 Q. Are you able to place a date on with when it was broadcast?
19 A. It's obviously an immediate reaction to -- to the outcry that
20 followed ITN's initial report. I was, by then, on my way to the other
21 side to see where the Serbian prisoners was -- were being held as charged
22 by Dr. Karadzic. So it would be either August the 7th or the 8th that
23 would be corroborated.
24 Q. Mr. Karadzic made a number of comments. He said that Omarska was
25 the worst camp. Is this how he described it to you when you had met him
1 in Pale a few days earlier?
2 A. No, it wasn't at all how he described Omarska and -- but as it
3 turned out following my subsequent inquiries, he was right, I think. It
4 was terrible.
5 Q. And when you say subsequent to your inquiries, what are you
6 referring to then?
7 A. Well --
8 Q. Besides the visit I'm talking about?
9 A. Yes, I don't know how much of this is in interest to the Court,
10 but I've been working on this on and off or the past two decades. That
11 was 19 years ago, and I have met many of the former inmates since Omarska
12 and Trnopolje. I've think I've interviewed -- I should -- well, if not
13 hundreds scores of them, and, yes, I think Dr. Karadzic's assessment is
14 probably right that of the camps that were being - where he calls them
15 prisons, I call them camps -- being held by the Bosnian Serbs, Omarska
16 was -- was the worst, it seems, from the things that were happening in
17 there that I've been able to decipher and hear from the survivors,
18 otherwise -- but that's hearsay. I'm at your disposal on that. And --
19 and certainly his remarks in that film did seem to confirm the impression
20 given when we met him in Pale, as you're asking me, that he had
21 authority. I mean, he says: Well never mind 30 days, I can close them
22 within two. And that was certainly the impression we had in Pale that we
23 were going there on his authority.
24 Q. And you're aware of journalists who visited the camp again?
25 A. I can't testify to that. I know that a great media circus
1 descended on the camps, especially Trnopolje, because I've seen lots of
2 footage on that on August the 7th, 8th, 9th-ish I wouldn't know, because
3 however it may sound now, I took Dr. Karadzic's remarks seriously when we
4 were talking in Pale, and by the -- on the day of August the 8th, I think
5 it was, early in the morning or late on the 7th, I was heading round to
6 the -- you can't cross lines. I was driving through Hungary to go over
7 to the other side to make inspections and to endeavour to get into camps
8 where Serbian prisoners were being held which I did, so I wasn't actually
9 there when the media circus descended on -- on Trnopolje and Omarska, but
10 certainly there were a large number of them went back, I mean, the sort
11 of -- by which time, as I understand from the films, the places had been
12 changed quite a bit, and I've certainly done a lot of interviews with
13 survivors of Omarska about how that place was part emptied out and part
14 cleaned up in readiness for these visits, as was Trnopolje.
15 Q. If -- and then finally, you interviewed Dr. Kovacevic in 1996
16 along with Dr. Stakic, and this is in your Stakic transcripts.
17 MS. SUTHERLAND: If I could have 65 ter number 19691.
18 JUDGE KWON: Before that, I'm minded to tender that video-clip.
19 MS. SUTHERLAND: Oh, yes, Your Honour.
20 JUDGE KWON: That's the ITN interview with Mr. Karadzic.
21 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes. That will be 4 -- that's 65 ter number
23 JUDGE KWON: That will be admitted.
24 THE REGISTRAR: As Exhibit P3783, Your Honours.
25 JUDGE KWON: And, Ms. Sutherland, I remember that you showed us
1 the original video-clip that -- in which Mr. Karadzic gave some general
2 introduction to the journalist.
3 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour.
4 JUDGE KWON: Which was 40583A --
5 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour.
6 JUDGE KWON: -- which hasn't been admitted, will now be.
7 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you.
8 THE REGISTRAR: That's Exhibit P3784, Your Honours.
9 MS. SUTHERLAND: And then Mr. Reid advises me that there were two
10 other clips played from 65 ter number 40437.
11 JUDGE KWON: Mm-hmm. 40437, yes. That will be admitted as well.
12 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit 3785, Your Honours.
13 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you, Your Honour.
14 Q. And finally, Mr. Vulliamy, can you recognise this document that's
15 coming up on the screen, please?
16 A. Yes, that's a typewritten transcript of the conversation with
17 Dr. Kovacevic in 1996. I went back with a colleague from "The New York
18 Times" to see him and Dr. Stakic and Dr. -- and Professor Koljevic and we
19 endeavoured to see Simo Drljaca, who refused to see us.
20 Q. And that's dealt with in your Stakic transcript?
21 A. Yes that's --
22 Q. [Overlapping speakers]
23 A. -- exhibited that we've [indiscernible]
24 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, I tender these notes.
25 JUDGE KWON: Yes.
1 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit P3786, Your Honours.
2 MS. SUTHERLAND: And thank you, Mr. Vulliamy. I have no further
3 questions, Your Honour.
4 JUDGE KWON: Shall we deal with the remaining associate exhibits,
5 Ms. Sutherland.
6 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes.
7 JUDGE KWON: You are tendering 65 ter number 19683 and 19684. I
8 think there are some confusion in uploading the -- in e-court. Should we
9 upload 19683 first. It's 65 ter number 19683. It says it's allegedly a
10 copy of relevant parts of the book "Seasons in Hell."
11 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honours, pages 8 and 9 and pages --
12 JUDGE KWON: But we'll see. What I think what is uploaded is
13 different. I think this is a duplicate of --
14 MS. SUTHERLAND: [Overlapping speakers]
15 JUDGE KWON: -- 65 ter number 19685.
16 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour, you're correct.
17 JUDGE KWON: Can we upload 19684 then? This is the copy of
18 "Seasons in Hell."
19 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour, and that is at 19683 and it's
20 also at 19708. 19708 is excerpts of chapter 5 of the book written by
21 Mr. Vulliamy, and the excerpts that were tendered in Stakic were pages 98
22 to 107. And, in fact, at 19683, that includes pages 100 to 101 so
23 they're actually included in 19708. So we would simply need to tender
24 pages 8 and 9 and then pages 98 to 107, and I will ensure that those are
25 uploaded into e-court.
1 JUDGE KWON: In one number or in two separate numbers?
2 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, I'm just wondering in order to make
3 sense of the Stakic transcript ...
4 JUDGE KWON: Very well. Into --
5 MS. SUTHERLAND: [Overlapping speakers]
6 JUDGE KWON: -- two separate numbers.
7 MS. SUTHERLAND: We were to keep them separately.
8 JUDGE KWON: And there are in relation to notes taken by the
9 witnesses during the interviews of Dr. Kovacevic and Dr. Stakic, you
10 already tendered 19691, but both of them have several 65 ter numbers.
11 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, it's -- what has a lot of 65 ter
12 numbers, and this is on page 4 of the 92 ter notification filed on the
13 2nd of November, are the actual shorthand notes that Mr. Vulliamy read
14 into the record and Judge Schomburg required that they were read page by
15 page by page, and so unfortunately then they were given this one, one,
16 two, three, four, five -- eight different 65 ter number in our case. In
17 fact, they could be given one for each of those shorthand notes, for
18 Dr. Kovacevic interview and Dr. Stakic interview, and then of course, we
19 have the -- also the typewritten version which the Stakic typewritten
20 notes were an associated exhibited, and I just tendered this morning the
21 typewritten notes of Kovacevic meeting.
22 JUDGE KWON: We will admit them in one document per -- for -- per
24 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes.
25 JUDGE KWON: One further questions you tendered 40168C until F,
1 but I'm not sure the 40618B has been uploaded into e-court.
2 MS. SUTHERLAND: I'm sorry, Your Honour, can you repeat that
3 number again.
4 JUDGE KWON: 40168B.
5 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes.
6 JUDGE KWON: No, it's not in the e-court. Could you release it?
7 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes. Mr. Reid will release it.
8 JUDGE KWON: And I'm not sure whether it's 65 ter number 40438
9 has been also uploaded in the e-court. So while you will see to it,
10 that, I'm asking Mr. Robinson whether Defence has any objection.
11 MR. ROBINSON: No, Mr. President.
12 JUDGE KWON: Very well. Then subject to those -- or the
13 supplementation, those will be admitted into evidence.
14 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you very much, Your Honour.
15 JUDGE KWON: And will be given numbers in due course.
16 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you.
17 JUDGE KWON: Well, Mr. Vulliamy your evidence in lieu of
18 examination-in-chief has been admitted in written form and now you will
19 be further asked by Mr. Karadzic in his cross-examination.
20 THE WITNESS: Thank you, sir.
21 JUDGE KWON: Yes, Mr. Karadzic.
22 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Good morning, Your Excellencies.
23 Good morning to all.
24 Cross-examination by Mr. Karadzic:
25 Q. [Interpretation] Good morning, Mr. Vulliamy.
1 A. Good morning, Dr. Karadzic. Dobro jutro.
2 Q. Dobro jutro. Thank you. Good morning. I would like to us to
3 take advantage of the fact that you wrote this book, so let us briefly go
4 through the book. Let us look at some parts of your book.
5 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] So could we please have this in
6 e-court. 04807, 1D04807, 1D.
7 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
8 Q. Now, page 4. So this is the cover of your book, isn't it? I
9 wanted to ask you about this dedication. This book of yours, is it
10 dedicated to the victims of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and can you tell us which
11 one of these is a Serb?
12 A. Am I reading off -- is this an accurate translation on my screen?
13 I'm hearing nothing.
14 JUDGE KWON: Could you check.
15 THE WITNESS: Doesn't matter because I can read it. The answer
16 is none, sir. I can hear anything, but I can read it.
17 JUDGE KWON: No, you should hear that.
18 THE WITNESS: I can hear myself, but I couldn't hear
19 Dr. Karadzic.
20 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, could you repeat your question, just
21 in case.
22 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
23 Q. Well, this was my question: Since you dedicated this book to the
24 victims in Bosnia-Herzegovina, I was interested in hearing which one of
25 these was a Serb?
1 A. These are individual dedicatees. None of them is Serbian. I
2 wasn't able to work on the Serbian side during the first year of the war
3 covered by this book because I wasn't given permission after we went over
4 on the convoy.
5 Q. Thank you. Can we have a look at page 7 in e-court. The next
6 one. The next one. I would like to draw your attention to the shadowed
7 part. What you say there is that you will be accused of being
8 pro-Muslim, whatever that means. Could you please take a look at that.
9 A. Yes, I can see it. Thank you.
10 Q. Do you really think that's the way it was? Do you really think
11 that you managed to maintain your objectivity? Do you really think that
12 these accusations are unfounded?
13 A. Yes, I'm grateful to you for raising this. The word I should
14 have used there is neutral, that we remain neutral over the most
15 appalling racialist violence. I have been ask by this before, and I
16 think it's in the transcripts that Your Honours have. Objectivity -- and
17 I can see it a mistaken word here. I should have said we remain neutral.
18 Where something is fact specific, I remain objective. I mean, if you go
19 into a house and you see six bodies, it's not 12 because they're Muslim
20 or 3 because they're Serbs or whatever it's -- it's six. What I am
21 saying here, and I stand by it, is that I make -- I do not attempt to try
22 and be neutral. I'm not neutral between the camp guards and the
23 prisoners, between the raped women and the rapists, and I don't -- I
24 can't in all honesty sit here in court and say that I am or want to be
25 or -- or -- can be neutral over this kind of violence and when I had --
1 this book is about the first year of the war, and it takes us from the --
2 the camps, the discovery of the camps, the corralling and enforced
3 deportation over the mountains, and the second part is to do with, if you
4 like, a different part of the war involving the Bosnian Croats, and I do
5 not claim to be neutral over the sort of violence I was witnessing.
6 Q. Thank you. I'm interested in this particular wording, racialist
7 violence. Do you think that we had quarreled there on the basis of
8 racial differences? Do you know that Serbs believe that Muslims are also
9 Serbs who converted to Islam and that is what Lord Owen thinks as well?
10 A. I heard the Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina or Bosniaks, or
11 whatever we were going to call them, often referred to as Balija, which
12 equates as, sort of, filthy Gypsy, but the -- who converted to who to
13 what religion or what Lord Owen things is really of -- well, it's for
14 Your Honours to ask Lord Owen, I suppose, but what I -- the reason I used
15 the word "racialist" was because it seemed to me pretty clear, very
16 clear, that the -- in the camps the inmates were either Bosnian Muslims
17 or Croats and that the guards and the people running them were Bosnian
18 Serbs, and in the latter part of the book which perhaps doesn't concern
19 you so much but did me, it was very much the heraldry and insignia of
20 Croatia or of Herzegovina, I should say, perhaps that was being used in
21 this violence.
22 Certainly the iconography in the name which this appalling
23 violence was taking place was very much Serbian, and I do concede that
24 there was violence on the other side as well in the name of the Muslim
25 side, but I think that if you -- where I come from, if one self-defined
1 ethnicity seeks to obliterate or to clear the territory of all members of
2 another ethnicity and to obliterate any memory of them, that is
4 Q. Thank you. We'll get to that. I wanted to ask you whether you
5 know that George Kenney does not belong to this group. He is a harsh
6 critic of his own government and the West because of their partiality,
7 vis-a-vis the Muslim who is abused that?
8 A. Yes, I met George Kenney during the writing of this book and I'm
9 aware that he changed -- he changed his position on things. I haven't
10 spoken to him since.
11 Q. Thank you. Can we have the next page now. Page 12, could we
12 have that in e-court. Seven in e-court. I apologise.
13 On the right-hand side, could you please take a look at where it
14 says "Bosnia-Herzegovina" and then "Greater Serbia." So you proceeded
15 from the celebration of the 600th anniversary of the battle of Kosovo.
16 Do you really think that that's the way it was, that there were only --
17 that there were almost 2 million drunkards there and that this was a
18 problematic speech made by President Milosevic. The Western politicians
19 at the time considered him to be moderate. You refer to that event as
20 the beginning of all of these developments.
21 A. I think most of the coverage -- I wasn't there. Most of the
22 coverage sees that speech as being an important rallying cry. As regards
23 the alcohol there seems to be little doubt about that, unless I'm to be
24 corrected. And I think that was in -- in all the written accounts I've
25 read of the -- the rise of President Milosevic, that was seen as a -- as
1 a -- as a moment whereby he connected very much to -- to the people and
2 began this change of the language of Marxism of which his party had
3 hitherto been an adherent to a more nationalistic and more aggressively
4 nationalistic politics, and that he -- I won't say used, but that this
5 was -- this particular speech at this moment was in all the writing
6 I've -- I've read. And, by all means, call the historians themselves
7 that there was a converge on the opinion that this was an important
9 Q. Thank you. However, did you notice that at the time, not
10 historians later, but at the time Western analysts and politicians
11 consider this to be a moderate speech? Also, statesmen from all the
12 Yugoslav Republics were present there. They sat in the first row.
13 A. I have no doubt they were all there. Yugoslavia was still
14 Yugoslavia then, and no doubt many Western -- people in the West did
15 think Milosevic was moderate. Some of them still do. What ensued and
16 from this speech and his Presidency I -- I -- I don't regard as moderate.
17 For what it's worth.
18 Q. Thank you. So do we agree that this bit about drunkards, alcohol
19 in general, that that's a bit of an exaggeration?
20 A. I haven't read a -- as it were, a sort of a -- a piece of
21 reportage about the rally that then include reference to people having a
22 few drinks. I'm not saying it's such a bad thing. It's just what
23 apparently happened.
24 Q. Thank you. Can we have pages 66 and 67 in the book, but it's
25 page 8 in e-court. The previous one, actually, please. Yes, that's it.
1 Could you please take a look at the right-hand side where you
2 speak about Mr. Izetbegovic. This is what you say and I'm going to read
3 it out in English:
4 [In English] [As read] "Izetbegovic was determined to keep
5 Bosnia-Herzegovina as a unitary multi-ethnically republic. The secretary
6 sectarian exclusively Muslim SDA was hardly the way to achieve it. And
7 Izetbegovic put a second blot on his -- his [indiscernible] soon after
8 becoming president of the republic. In March 1991, the Portuguese
9 presidency hosted a meeting of EC leaders in Lisbon to discuss dividing
10 Bosnia-Herzegovina into regions in which the three ethnic groups would
11 enjoy spheres of influence. It was partitioned with a sugar coating and
12 enthusiastically agreed to by Tudjman and Milosevic. Izetbegovic, with a
13 shortsightedness that has baffled his people ever since, opened the door
14 to the thin end of ...," [Interpretation] could we have the next page,
15 [In English] "... the wedge and backed the idea. Two days later he was
16 forced to eat crow, apparently realising his blunder and with
17 characteristic naivety withdrawing his acceptance of the EC's Greek rift.
18 Despite his Muslim nationalism, Izetbegovic was -- has argued from the
19 outset that Bosnia cannot be ethnically partitioned because it is
20 impossible without ethnic cleansing. Our ethnic map is intermingled like
21 a Jackson Pollock painting. There are no ethnically pure regions."
22 [Interpretation] So you were fully aware of what the solution
23 was. However you thought that Izetbegovic made a mistake because he
24 accepted the reorganisation of Bosnia. Do you agree that that was not a
25 partition or division but this was decentralisation according to regions?
1 A. Sorry. I didn't quite understand your question. Did the Lisbon
2 discourse -- was decentralisation but not partition.
3 Q. Do you agree that according to the Lisbon agreement Bosnia would
4 remain a single country with external borders and inside there would be
5 three regions that would be rather autonomous?
6 A. Yes. I think that was the idea of -- of what they were trying to
7 do at Lisbon was to -- was to have a -- rather than the two entities or
8 statelets that we now have, they were going to try to divide Bosnia in --
9 in -- into some kind of ethnic canton system, and in that passage I'm
10 trying to really, I suppose, deal with -- with then
11 President Izetbegovic's meandering around this. I don't know how much
12 the Court wants to listen to a discussion about Izetbegovic, but he -- he
13 changed his mind quite a lot on whether he wanted cantons, partition, a
14 unitary state. But to that Lisbon agreement I referred to was, yes, sir,
15 it was -- was to do with a cantonisation along ethnic grounds. We agree
16 on that.
17 Q. Thank you. Do you know why Mr. Izetbegovic gave up on this
18 agreement that had already been accepted?
19 A. I -- I -- I can't -- I don't -- I sort of -- I don't try to
20 mind-read President Izetbegovic either in retrospect or at the time, but
21 I certainly noted that he -- that he was ready to accept things that he
22 then went on to reject.
23 Q. Thank you. I meant that you had heard or read about him being
24 persuaded by a diplomat to reject this and ask for more. However you
25 haven't heard about that. We're going to abandon that particular topic.
1 When you testified in other cases, did you observe that after the
2 secession of Bosnia-Herzegovina, the difference between the Serbs and the
3 Croats was considerably smaller than the difference between the Serbs and
4 the Muslims or the Croats and the Muslims respectively, in terms of their
5 political views concerning the future of Bosnia-Herzegovina?
6 A. Excuse me. I'm just going to examine your question carefully,
7 sir. The differences between the Serbs and the Croats -- yes. I
8 understood and understand that discussions were had as regarding the
9 partition of Bosnia between Serbian -- a Serbian sphere of influence and
10 a Croatian sphere of influence with a Muslim bit, if you like, and that
11 conversations were had between, as I understand it, President Milosevic
12 and President Tudjman of Croatia with regard to that. So I suppose you
13 could say that the influence -- the difference between the Serbs and the
14 Croats was smaller inasmuch as neither of them wanted to be part of a
15 country or necessarily part of a country called Bosnia-Herzegovina as
16 long as it was dominated by Muslims.
17 Q. Thank you. However, I did not mean Presidents Milosevic and
18 Tudjman. I meant myself and Boban, or rather, Boban and myself. You
19 noted that there were lesser differences there. Not in terms of the
20 details where things would be, but in terms of what Bosnia would be like
21 as a whole in the future. The Bosnian Croats and the Bosnian Serbs, if I
22 can call them that conditionally, were in favour of a decentralised
23 Bosnia consisting of three entities, whereas the Muslim side wanted to
24 have a unitary Bosnia.
25 A. Yes. I -- the term "Muslim side," I think one could say that a
1 very considerable number of people who are called Muslims and many people
2 of -- many Croats and many Serbs saw themselves as wanting to be -- to
3 live in Bosnia. Political movements representing considerable numbers of
4 Serbs, yours and Croats, Mr. Boban's, wanted not to live in a -- in a
5 united country and wanted to demonstrate their demands and to show their
6 affiliations to respectively Belgrade and Zagreb. What concerns me in
7 the book, really, because this isn't a political book, is what was then
8 done by, shall we say, the nationalist interests of the Bosnian Serbs and
9 the nationalist interests of the Bosnian Croats to establish and carve
10 out the territories that they did not want to be governed from Sarajevo.
11 I mean, there's a jump between the policy to mass murder, and it's up --
12 it's up to the Court how much we want to go into the politics, but I do
13 concede that you led a movement that did not want to be governed from
14 Sarajevo and that Mr. Boban led a movement that did not want to be
15 governed from Sarajevo. Obviously.
16 Q. Now let me ask you this: Do you agree that Bosnia and
17 Herzegovina had a Christian majority, taking into account both us Serbs
18 and Bosnian Croats together and that Christian majority was in favour of
19 a decentralised tripartite Bosnia, whereas the Muslim minority was in
20 favour of a unitary Bosnia?
21 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, I'm struggling to understand the
22 relevance of these lines of questions. We are due to take a break soon.
23 After the break, I would like you to concentrate on his -- his evidence
24 in chief.
25 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Your Excellency, I accept your
1 suggestions, as usual, but this witness had written a book, and from it I
2 saw what his understanding of our crisis was. That is his vantage point,
3 and that is very important for the second part of my examination when I'm
4 going to shed light on things that the Defence does not agree about.
5 JUDGE KWON: And that's why we allowed you to proceed. We'll
6 take a break for half an hour now and resume at 10.30.
7 --- Recess taken at 9.58 a.m.
8 --- On resuming at 10.33 a.m.
9 JUDGE KWON: Yes, Mr. Karadzic.
10 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you.
11 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
12 Q. Let's finish with the book, according to the Trial Chamber's
13 guidance. Let's look at page 11 in e-court, please. Can the left-hand
14 side be displayed.
15 You're talking about the embargo, about the difficulties
16 experienced by the Muslim side with regard to the purchasing of weapons,
17 and then at the bottom of the page you say that you were aware of a
18 perverse smuggling route along which guns paid for by the Muslims using
19 money from Turkey and the Arab countries would arrive at the Croatian
20 port of Rijeka. And then can we look at the top of the right-hand side
21 page. And then you describe how the Croats would take a half cut; is
22 that correct?
23 A. As I understood it from a number of sources, Bosnian government
24 military, HVO Croatian military, and international intelligence, this was
25 the deal that pertained to some of the arms shipments. I can't speak for
1 all of them. That as the front and central Bosnian, at least, became
2 progressively cut off, they would get a quarter of the weapons that would
3 arrive in Rijeka, or indeed later by plane, and that there would be a
4 sort of commission, if you like, of 50 per cent to the HV and another
5 25 per cent for the HVO.
6 Q. Thank you. Let's go back to the left half of the same page. You
7 say here that the parliament at Pale rejected Vance-Owen's plan.
8 UN Secretary of State Warren Christopher replied that the lifting of the
9 embargo [In English] Simply leveled the killing field.
10 [Interpretation] Do you remember that I, myself, accepted the
11 Vance-Owen Plan but that the parliament actually rejected it?
12 A. Yes, I do remember that, sir. And I remember you accepting a
13 number of plans, and -- as well and there were innumerable treaties, all
14 of which ended up in nothing.
15 Q. You, therefore, know that I accepted the
16 Carrington-Cutileiro Plan, the Vance-Owen Plan, the Owen-Stoltenberg
17 Plan, that I did not accept the Contact Group plan, but I accepted the
18 Dayton Accord. There was just one plan that I did not accept; isn't that
20 A. I -- from memory, I -- I can't remember which plans you did or
21 didn't accept, but I do remember you accepting the Vance-Owen Plan, and
22 of course the Dayton agreement. I mean, if you'll pardon the sort of
23 implied exhaustion and cynicism of this on the ground the Vance-Owen Plan
24 came and went and it didn't really amount to much. I mean, there were
25 negotiations going on two days before the Srebrenica massacre, I mean --
1 but, yes, you accept the Vance-Owen Plan, and I'll leave it to the
2 experts to -- to regard to the others. From memory, here and now, I
3 can't actually remember which ones you didn't accepted, but you did --
4 there were endless plans, treaties, none of which amounted to very much
5 on the ground. The killing carried on.
6 Q. Thank you. To finish with the book, I would like to ask you
7 this: I'm a little bit confused by the part of your CV and the
8 bibliography where you refer to only two books, "Agriculture of
9 Bosnia-Herzegovina" by Mustafa Imamovic and "Bosnia and Bosniaks" by
10 Rusmir Mahmutcehajic. These are the only two books that you refer to in
11 the bibliography of your book. Those are local sources.
12 Rusmir Mahmutcehajic was a politician at the time. Was that enough for
13 you to understand the Bosnian knot?
14 A. The Bosnia knot. I'm looking at "History of the Yugoslav
15 Peoples" by Fred Singleton here. There were, of course, books about
16 Yugoslavia and Tito and the South Slav region going right through the
17 ages which I have read. I think mine and a book by Misha Glenny were the
18 only ones on the wall that had appeared, along the post 1992 period, that
19 had -- that had been written up until this point. This book was written,
20 Your Honours, when, for the most part, during the summer of 1993 with
21 everything in full flow and published a few months later. There weren't
22 many, if any, books about what was going on around me at the time.
23 Q. Thank you. Let's skip the part that refers to Croatia. You were
24 in Croatia, and you saw for yourself there what was the nature and the
25 cruelty of the civil war that was raging there, and then in the Stakic
1 case, on the 14th of July, on pages 735, 736, you testified that you had
2 seen the fear of Serbs in Croatia, that you had spoken to them about that
3 and that you had experienced and seen what they had experienced in the
4 country, in the making that was Croatia at the time; right?
5 A. Yes. I'd covered that -- that war in 1991, and I had covered
6 both the Croatians' aspirations to fight a war of independence and the --
7 the fears of the Serbian populations in being part of that Croatia, the
8 independent Croatia. There was an element of -- and I think I've put it
9 similarly in -- in the past. A element of at least agreement over what
10 was being fought over albeit from completely different sides in that war.
11 There were -- there was an aspiration for independence by the Croats and
12 a willingness to fight for it, and there were fears among the Serbs and a
13 willingness to -- to fight that independence.
14 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour.
15 THE WITNESS: And I reported suffering on both sides and violence
16 by both sides.
17 JUDGE KWON: Yes, Ms. Sutherland.
18 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, I'm sorry to interrupt, but just on
19 page 41, line 17, there's reference to "then you testified in the Stakic
20 case, on the 14th of July, on pages 735 and 736." Unfortunately, the
21 Kovacevic case and the Stakic case have the same case number, and so if
22 we're talking about July, we're talking about 1998 in the Kovacevic case,
23 and in -- the Stakic case was in September 2002. So it was simply to
24 make the record clear.
25 JUDGE KWON: Thank you, Ms. Sutherland.
1 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I apologise, and I would like to
2 thank you on behalf of the Defence. We will try to deal with that as
3 best as we can.
4 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
5 Q. In the Prlic et al. case, which is 1D04800 on the transcript
6 page 1726, you confirmed that you were more than aware that the JNA had
7 attacked Croatia. Wouldn't you say that was all one country and that the
8 JNA was duty-bound by the constitution to preserve the territorial
9 integrity of Yugoslavia?
10 A. Croatian independence -- forgive me if I don't have the dates in
11 my head exactly. It's -- it's, I think, difficult to talk about exactly
12 when Yugoslavia can be said to have ceased to exist and exactly when
13 Croatia came to exist. Certainly the perceptions were different from
14 Belgrade and from Zagreb.
15 Certainly the Yugoslav Army with Yugoslavia insignia on the tanks
16 outside and Serbian insignia on the walls inside the barracks was
17 attacking and -- the Croatian town of Vukovar fairly ferociously, and
18 similarly the embryonic Croatian Army which called itself various things
19 at various points was attacking the JNA, and at what point it -- it
20 became Croatia and ceased to be Yugoslavia is a matter for -- for
21 examination beyond my -- my recollections of the exact dates of
22 declarations and -- and conflict in my head now, but I -- at some point
23 along the line Croatia declares independence and it becomes a war between
24 Serbia and Croatia. But at the beginning, yes, indeed, it was the JNA,
25 Yugoslav National Army in combat with Croatian secessionists.
1 Q. Thank you.
2 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I would like to tender that book
3 pages that we have displayed into evidence. They are number 1D04807.
4 The Defence may be of assistance to the Registry with regard to the page
6 JUDGE KWON: Shall we add it to the Prosecution exhibit or admit
7 it separately?
8 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I don't mind.
9 JUDGE KWON: Do you have any observations, Ms. Sutherland?
10 MS. SUTHERLAND: No, Your Honour. Well, only to say that
11 Mr. Karadzic was citing certain pages in e-court, page 7 or page 12 or
12 whatever, and it may be easier when you're reviewing the record to have
13 it as a Defence exhibit.
14 JUDGE KWON: Very well. Let's follow that submission. We'll
15 admit it as Defence exhibit.
16 THE REGISTRAR: That will be Exhibit D1897, Your Honours.
17 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you.
18 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
19 Q. And now I would like to move on to London. During the
20 London Conference, I contested some allegations about camps and then I
21 invited British journalists, whoever wanted to go there, to come and that
22 entire Republika Srpska will be open to them to see whatever they wanted
23 to see. Do you remember? I was not provoked into doing that. I was the
24 one who invited British journalists to come and see for themselves what
25 was going on.
1 A. No, I agree. I don't see -- I don't see that you were --
2 provoked isn't the word I would use. Challenged perhaps by the
3 allegations that had been published in the "Guardian" and in an American
4 paper called "Newsday," and your response was, and I summarise, not your
5 words, but the sense of it were, "Well, come and see for yourselves on my
6 authority." And you contested that the -- the allegations of brutality
7 in the camps.
8 Q. Thank you. And now I would like to call up 1D4821 in e-court. I
9 believe that you will be able to help us and tell us whether this is your
10 first report about your visit to Prijedor.
11 A. That's it, sir, yes.
12 Q. This was before the media circus, as you call it, that fell upon
13 Bosnia. At this particular point in time, there was still no media
14 circus; right?
15 A. Yes, sir, that's right. Perhaps Your Honours might like to note
16 it says the "Toronto Star" at the top. It's a reprint. I believe the
17 date is the same, I don't know. Sorry. Yes, that's before the media
19 Q. Thank you. Can we look at the first paragraph in the report.
20 For example, the framed part. Here you state with full responsibility
21 that you had been informed that the Omarska camp was an investigation
22 centre operated by the Bosnian-Serbian police for Muslim captives near
23 Prijedor in Northern Bosnia; right?
24 A. Yes. Excuse me.
25 Q. I'm not going to read everything else. Everybody can do it for
2 You say that there was a meal in five minutes. "They first
3 wanted to eat and then talk to me."
4 Can we go to the following page. Again, the first frame where
5 you say that Omarska was a mine and that the Bosnian government referred
6 to it as one of the 57 concentration camps. And then you say that the
7 unexpected access was as part of an invitation by the Bosnian Serb
8 president, Radovan Karadzic, to inspect whatever we wanted to see.
9 One of your interlocutors said that he was a member of the
10 Defence forces but he was not captured in combat. He tried to get to
11 Trnopolje, which was a transit civilian camp, but the army caught him on
12 the way. Is that what the person told you?
13 A. Yes.
14 Q. Thank you. Was your impression then that fighting in Prijedor
15 had started on the 22nd of May and that it had lasted for six weeks and
16 that was the length of the war in Bosnia. There was no war in Prijedor,
17 and that between the 21st of May and the 2nd of June there was a lot of
18 fighting going on and that this particular person speaks about those
19 fights; right?
20 A. My knowledge of what had happened in the area prior to August the
21 5th when we arrived was that there had been what I would -- or what was
22 being described as some sort of takeover or even a coup of the town at
23 the end of April. Yes, there had been some sporadic resistance to the --
24 the new order, if you like, and there had been, variously, demands for
25 villages to hand over weapons. Some had, some hadn't. But from the --
1 and I must not talk with hindsight because I've been working on this for
2 many, many years. We saw on the way to the camp signs of -- of -- of
3 very heavy destruction, particularly around Kozarac, which we skirted
4 along the main road. The vast majority of houses burned out and their --
5 the inhabitants gone.
6 There had obviously been some exchanges. This man speaking had
7 been a member of some sort of defence. The surrenders had been, as I
8 understand it, pretty quick. They had been overpowered very swiftly with
9 an overwhelming force. That's how I understood it.
10 I did not think there was any sign of fighting in the area at
11 this time, any -- if there had been any resistance, it had been totally
13 There was a mock battle on the way to the camp. You, when we met
14 in Pale, sir, did talk about fears for our own safety and -- and attempts
15 to kill us by the Muslims that -- would then be blamed on you in the film
16 we saw. There was a rather sort of ridiculous prank whereby our convoy
17 was "attacked," but actually it turned out to be by our own hosts by way
18 of a sort of prank, but there was no fighting when we visited.
19 I had some experience of warfare by then and could tell that
20 these shots were going over our heads and the return fire was going high
21 into the air. It was a silly thing to try and make us afraid and to put
22 us off. There was no fighting.
23 Q. Thank you. Let us just limit ourselves to what you know exactly,
24 what you learned and saw at the time. Let me mind you just briefly. On
25 page 3 you told us that you had passed through Brcko and that there was a
1 lot of damage in Brcko. Do you know who controlled Brcko at the time?
2 Let me help you. Do you agree that you had passed through the Serbian
3 territory and that the Brcko that you saw was the Serbian part of Brcko?
4 A. As I understood it, because we were in Serb -- Bosnian Serb
5 vehicles, the part of Brcko we passed through was in the hands of the
6 Bosnian Serbs, and there were large areas of the town shelled, bombed,
7 burnt out, and deserted, which I inferred would be where the Muslims had
9 Q. But why didn't you ask who -- who was it who had shelled Brcko,
10 which was in Serbian hands? Do you think that it was the Serbs
11 themselves who shelled Brcko?
12 A. There wasn't -- there wasn't any -- we were in our own vehicle at
13 that point, and Professor Koljevic was in another vehicle. I understood
14 it -- I understood at the time that -- well, there obviously had been
15 fighting in Brcko and whoever had lived in those houses didn't live there
16 any more, and so the town was under the control of the Bosnian Serb side.
17 Q. Thank you. It is my thesis that all that time you could only be
18 passing through the Serbian territory and that everything that you saw
19 and that was destroyed was destroyed by the opposition side who shelled
20 us. Do you -- do you agree that you passed through the corridor west of
21 Brcko which at place was only a couple of hundred metres wide?
22 A. I didn't know exactly how wide it was, but I knew there was a
23 corridor, yes, that connected Bijeljina, Brcko, and Serbia proper to the
24 Banja Luka region, and that we passed through it, and that it was narrow.
25 Q. If I tell you that there was not a single day without fire being
1 opened on the corridor, would you then accept that our fear for you was
2 justified? Not a singe day -- there are reports to that effect. There
3 was not a single day that passed without fire being opened on the
5 A. Well, I was obviously grateful for your concern for our safety,
6 and we were lucky to get one of the days when there wasn't fighting,
7 thankfully. The first shots we heard was when there was this prank I
8 discussed earlier.
9 Q. Well, I'm contesting precisely that. Do you know that in
10 Prijedor and around it until late 1994 there were guerrilla Muslim groups
11 that lived in the woods in dugouts and that from time to time they would
12 go out and kill soldiers and villagers? While you were there, there were
13 a lot of them, and there were a certain number of them until the end of
15 A. To my knowledge at the time, there had been exchanges of fire but
16 that the -- any resistance had been subjugated. Colonel Milutinovic did
17 explain to us when we asked him about all the bombed and burnt out houses
18 that 40.000 Muslims had left the area and implied that they had done so
19 of their own accord.
20 There were still some people living in intact houses, which was
21 slightly bizarre to behold, I have to say, and it was explained that
22 these were the Serbs that had remained.
23 Q. Let us conclude with this page. Here Sabahudin told you about
24 the investigating measures, that there were -- that were applied and that
25 he told you the truth; is that correct?
1 A. Yes. He'd been investigated and -- and he hadn't been beaten.
2 Q. Thank you. Could we go to the bottom of the page, please. Here
3 you report that Omarska is an investigation centre for men suspected of
4 taking part in the Muslim irregular army. You say that they were rounded
5 up there to be screened in order to determine whether they were fighters
6 or civilians. We can see here that you observed the 80 inmates and that
7 you saw no signs of beatings.
8 I asked you the same thing during -- when we discussed the
9 interview. Could you have -- sorry. Let's go to something else.
10 A moment ago, you said they were attacked by Serb forces. If I
11 told you that Prijedor was attacked by Muslim forces, what would you say?
12 If I told you that it wasn't the Serbs who attacked Prijedor but that
13 they were, rather, defending the town -- the town centre and managed to
14 do so.
15 A. I saw very little sign of shelling in the centre of Prijedor.
16 None, in fact, that I can recall. Or put it this way: To contrast the
17 damage of Kozarac with the centre of Prijedor, we're talking about two
18 completely different landscapes. The centre of Prijedor, I recall, as
19 being more or less intact as I think the films show, and I certainly
20 recall them being intact.
21 Q. Thank you. Could we go to the next page, please. In the
22 meantime, I wish to ask you the following: Did you know that the
23 Green Berets on the 30th of May managed to reach the very town centre?
24 They launched a surprise attack reaching the town centre and that they
25 were only defeated after two or three days.
1 A. No, I didn't know that the Green Berets had fought this battle,
2 nor did I see any signs of the battle in the centre of the town or any of
3 the parts that we visited in Prijedor. There was a little damage around
4 but very -- I mean, compared to the surroundings, nothing really.
5 Q. Thank you. I'm afraid that on page 15, line 21; we have
6 something missing in the transcript. Ms. Balaban then said, "I am only
7 interpreting," when she explained her position to the journalists. Could
8 this be verified by Registry or whoever's in charge of LiveNote.
9 Let's look at this, please. Here you say that you could observe
10 that Omarska and Trnopolje were run by civilian authorities and that you
11 were told that no one was proud of it. In the boxed part, it says:
12 [In English] "Though this may be true of Omarska, it is
13 generally untrue since a camp we visited on the outskirts of Sarajevo has
14 been established solely for the purpose of swapping Muslim captives for
16 [Interpretation] Which prison did you see exactly which served
17 that purpose?
18 A. This is the Kula prisons on -- on the outskirts as I said of
19 Sarajevo which we visited on the same day that, Your Honours, we met with
20 Dr. Karadzic. And it -- well, I think I've described it and describe it
21 as a sad place. There's nothing particularly to -- to complain about, to
22 write about.
23 If I could, sorry, just make something to the record of my own.
24 Apologise. Dr. Karadzic has said that I described Omarska as an
25 investigation centre. The record doesn't show that that is in inverted
1 commas. That is very much their term during interminable briefings we
2 were given upstairs. I'm not calling it an investigation centre, I'm
3 putting that in quotation marks, that's what they called it. And the
4 record, as written -- Dr. Karadzic quotes from the article correctly, but
5 it's in inverted commas which indicates that that is what they were
6 calling it. I'm sorry, just to make sure it's accurate.
7 Q. Thank you. Did you know, were you told that Kula had been a
8 prison for a while for misdemeanor detainees and it remained being a
9 prison throughout the war?
10 A. We were told that it was a prison we were told that the people in
11 there at the time of our visit were there awaiting exchange, and that is
12 actually, I think, what most of those men said themselves, that they
13 hoped to be exchanged.
14 Q. Did you see anyone at Kula who was not fit for military service?
15 A. I would think that -- and this is my recollection at a distance.
16 I put that in the article to give some sense of balance and to put
17 Omarska in context of -- I didn't want to write much more about Kula. I
18 would think, thinking back, that some of them were probably a little old
19 to fight very effectively. Others were of fighting age, yes.
20 Q. Thank you. Did you know that Mr. Izetbegovic, as of the 4th of
21 April and up until your visit, on a number of occasions ordered a general
22 mobilisation of all those who were fit for military service, and did you
23 know that there was basically a hundred per cent response by Muslims to
24 that call?
25 A. I didn't know the exact date of any conscription order, but I'm
1 sure that may be right. My experience in Sarajevo, which doesn't begin
2 until a year after these events would indicate to me that there wasn't a
3 100 per cent response, but they did -- they did organise an army in the
4 months that followed. And with regard to an earlier conversation we had
5 about the political situation, that army included large numbers of -- of
6 Serbs and Croats in what is called the Muslim side. I don't know what
7 the take-up on the conscription was.
8 Q. Thank you. Could we go to the next page, please.
9 In the boxed part you say that there was no visible evidence of
10 serious violence, let alone systematic extermination. Then you say that
11 the Red Cross Yugoslav doctor stated that he had visited the location and
12 that the detainees were in a good state save for a few cases of
13 diarrhoea. Then you move on top Trnopolje; correct?
14 A. Yes. But the paragraph that says there's no visible evidence of
15 serious violence means that we were seeing the people who were selected
16 to come into the canteen, one of which did a minor wound to his face,
17 actually, but we did not see any -- any very serious violence. But the
18 point I'm making here and the bit that you have kindly boxed is that we
19 were trying to get into the -- into the -- into the hangar, the shed,
20 where -- well, I mustn't speak with hindsight, but where we had
21 suspicions that appalling things were taking place. Hindsight has shown
22 that they were, and what I'm trying to say in that paragraph that you
23 have marked is that it was worth breaking your promise to stop us seeing
24 them that day, and -- sorry. And now that I know what I know, what this
25 Tribunal knows, I can see why, because what was happening in there was
1 absolutely appalling and had been for three months. That's -- and then
2 we go to Trnopolje. Yes, sorry.
3 Q. How do you know what took place inside, and how do you know that
4 the detainees to be shown to you were cherry picked? Let's not discuss
5 your assessment. Do you know it for a fact?
6 A. Well, I don't know how long Your Honours want to listen to what
7 is my work over the years listening to other people. So I've heard from,
8 as I said, scores of people who were in Omarska, that there was
9 widespread and systematic killing and many of them lost family there in
10 appalling circumstances.
11 It's not for me to give the whole history of the camp unless you
12 want it from me in terms of this -- these testimonies that I've taken
13 over these years, but the Tribunal's own record over the years would, I
14 think, suffice in the cases that I've testified in including Tadic,
15 Stakic, and Kovacevic to give some idea of what was happening in that
16 hangar and other buildings in the Omarska camp. I can elaborate on the
17 interviews I've done, if you wish, but to summarise, I think we can say
18 that your judgement that this was the worst prison is correct and that
19 the most atrocious things were happening in there.
20 Q. I apologise. I'm just trying to ascertain something. What are
21 the sources of your information? Are you relying completely on what has
22 taken place before this Tribunal and your conversations with the Muslims
23 and those who during the civil war fought the side that was in charge of
24 the prison; correct?
25 A. My sources would be survivors of the camp, yes, some of whom
1 testified to this Tribunal, many of whom have testified to this Tribunal
2 on oath; international assessments that have been made; those bereaved by
3 the hundreds of -- some of the hundreds of people who were bereaved by
4 the murders in the camp. And in a way Dr. Kovacevic's remorse was a
5 guide although the details are provided. But, yes, the main survivors
6 over the years whose terrible experience that has been corroborated by a
7 vast wealth of evidence here on oath at this Tribunal to mass murder,
8 torture, beating, and rape.
9 Sorry, I didn't answer an element in your question. With regard
10 to the selection, I have heard from a number of survivors that on August
11 the 4th, while we are on our way, large numbers of prisoners were taken
12 out onto the Pista, as it's called, the tarmac area between the hangar
13 and the canteen where these altercations in the film are taking place and
14 a group selected for, as it were, presentation in the canteen, what was
15 to be the following day, and that I've heard it from large numbers of
16 people that they were judged to be those that were in better condition.
17 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, do you know that people were taken out to the pista
18 daily to get some fresh air, not only when you arrived. It happened
19 every day, and anyone who was not being interrogated at that moment was
20 taken out to the pista to get some fresh air.
21 JUDGE MORRISON: Dr. Karadzic, that's not so much a question as
22 an assertion. And it seems -- I only speak for myself, of course, but it
23 seems to me that this is a topic that one could go on and on about
24 ad infinitum without it really relating to the essence of this witness's
25 testimony. You may agree with that.
1 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I do, Your Excellency. It is a
2 fact, however, that the witness said the detainees were taken out to the
3 pista for their sake and that only 80 of them who were in better
4 condition were chosen. I simply wished to remind the witness that the
5 taking out of prisoners in that way to the pista happened daily, not only
6 on that occasion.
7 In any case, let's move on.
8 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
9 Q. You go on in your book -- could we go down to the bottom of the
10 page. You say that a group arrived from Keraterm. Did you try and
11 verify whether 200 people were indeed killed at Keraterm and all those
12 perhaps in a single day and many more at Omarska? But you also say he
13 has seen no bodies himself, but other people told him.
14 A. It was -- it was hard to try and verify on that day whether this
15 alleged massacre had taken place in Keraterm, but -- and with hindsight,
16 I know that now that particular day it's not 200. It's about 150. But
17 that has been the subject of a -- of a trial at this Tribunal since, and
18 I was happy to --
19 Q. [Overlapping speakers]
20 A. I was convinced enough to quote this boy at the time that -- that
21 he says 200 were killed at Keraterm and many more at Omarska, and I did
22 quote him, and I think hindsight will show and the proceedings of this
23 Tribunal have shown that although he got the number wrong at Keraterm,
24 the -- the massacre did take place and many more were certainly killed at
25 Omarska. He's telling the truth, essentially.
1 Q. However, he was not at Omarska. He was in Keraterm, and he
2 didn't see any bodies there either; is that correct?
3 A. He was among the group that had come from Keraterm and Omarska
4 that morning that we saw in the picture. On the day, yes, he is -- I am
5 quoting someone who is quoting maybe people he knew who had arrived from
6 Omarska that day, but knowing what I know now, I'm happy to have reported
7 that -- that he said many more people had been killed at Omarska.
8 Whether he means many more than 200, I don't know, but many more than 200
9 were killed at Omarska, so he's telling the truth.
10 Q. If I told you, Mr. Vulliamy, that none of it is true and that all
11 those who said anything about killings saw a single killing of a person
12 who was mentally disturbed, would you believe me or would you believe
13 them? And why do you choose their stories, although you say that the boy
14 didn't see any bodies but someone else did, and he was never at Omarska?
15 It seems you choose to believe things which are to the detriment of the
16 Serbs quite easily, lightly.
17 A. I don't choose to believe things that are detrimental to one side
18 or the other. I don't believe that only one person was killed in Omarska
19 and Keraterm put together, and I do believe this -- what this boy says
20 when he talked about -- although, as I said, the number on that day is
21 not 200, so far as I know, that I do believe that -- that very many more
22 than one single mentally disturbed person was killed in the combination
23 of Omarska and Trnopolje -- sorry, Omarska and Keraterm. So with
24 respect, I have to say that if you tell me it's only one, I don't believe
25 you, sir. Nothing personal. I just heard differently from so many
1 places and sources and people, including people testifying on oath at
2 this Tribunal, whose testimony has been upheld in a number of cases.
3 And the detriment to the Serbs is irrelevant. That's not how I
4 measure these things.
5 Q. With all due respect, it would be irrelevant if it were true.
6 However, I told you that they all saw a single killing. They all
7 discussed killings but saw only one.
8 JUDGE MORRISON: Dr. Karadzic, you're making an assertion as to
9 matters which are evidential. This is not a proper question in
10 cross-examination. You've made the point that you don't accept the
11 witness's findings. It's not going to be improved by argument, and in
12 terms of the time limitations, it's certainly my view, I don't know if
13 it's the view of my colleagues, that you ought to move on.
14 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I agree. I was imprecise. I was
15 addressing what the witness said when he stated that I claim that there
16 was only one killing, but it was actually what the people were saying and
17 saw. It is my position that they all discussed it but no one saw more
18 than one killing. You also --
19 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, please move on.
20 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
21 Q. Briefly only. You believed that Trnopolje could not be termed a
22 concentration camp.
23 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Could we turn on to the next page?
24 JUDGE KWON: Was that a question?
25 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Well, I wanted to show something
1 else about Trnopolje.
2 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
3 Q. You believed that Trnopolje was not a concentration camp and that
4 some people arrived there voluntarily as they were fleeing combat which
5 took place in the vicinity of their villages; correct?
6 A. Sorry, yes and no. The usage of the term "concentration camp" I
7 can discuss now separately as the -- as Your Honours wish. As regards
8 fleeing combat which took place in the vicinity, no. Trnopolje was a
9 complicated place. Some people had been corralled there from their
10 villages. Others had gone there, as you said in your interview with us,
11 because their villages had been burned down.
12 JUDGE KWON: As to the term "concentration camp," I thought
13 Mr. Karadzic was citing your article on the previous page. Did you say
15 THE WITNESS: Yeah --
16 JUDGE KWON: On the previous page. Yes.
17 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
18 Q. Yes, just below the last box.
19 A. Yes.
20 Q. Yes, you spotted that correctly. Thank you. Could we go back to
21 the next page then.
22 We see here that you state very professionally that there was no
23 compulsion and that the conditions were simply that of being hot and that
24 there was some stench. There seems to be a person there saying that he
25 was a fighter and that they put them in front themselves. He was so
1 terrified and fled to the Serbian side of the village. He was still in
2 fear and felt safer in Trnopolje.
3 Then just below you say that he arrived from Rizvanovici after
4 the fighting. He also says that the Muslim side initiated the fighting
5 and that the police arrived and took the people away in order to -- to
6 cleanse the village and to do the fighting.
7 Mr. Vulliamy, you noted quite professionally the sentences which
8 corroborate in full the position of this Defence; is that correct? Is
9 this what the people told you? You didn't just make it up, did you?
10 A. No. I'm -- here's -- here's a boy who gets caught, and there is
11 shooting from the Muslim side. The -- the -- the militias -- the Serbian
12 militia's arrived to clear the village of Muslims and he's -- appears to
13 have been caught in the crossfire. He's safer behind the lines of the
14 advancing Serbs and he ends up in Trnopolje.
15 I think, Your Honours, I came across -- I came across that day
16 and have come across so many different reasons why people were in
17 Trnopolje, and this term "concentration camp" is -- is -- it's a
18 definition we can go into if you want. I don't dispute what Dr. Karadzic
19 says. He is a boy who is caught in crossfire and has -- want -- and is
20 better off there than in his village which has been cleared of his
21 people, and there has been shooting to achieve that. And I'm not
22 disputing that there was not -- I'm sorry. I'm not disputing that there
23 was not shooting from the Muslim side, sir.
24 Q. Thank you. You were free to discuss things with them without the
25 presence of guards; correct? And you could walk around at Trnopolje?
1 A. In some places, yes; in others, no. In the compound that we saw
2 behind the fence, the people from Omarska and Keraterm, no. The
3 conversations in the medical centre, if it can be called that, I don't
4 want the Bench to think this was some sort of clinic. It was the room
5 where these two people were doing their desperate best. We were
6 supervised as the interview with Mr. Merdzanic makes clear. And in other
7 points, yes, you are correct, I was able to walk around on my own and
8 with somebody who I found who spoke English.
9 JUDGE BAIRD: Mr. Vulliamy.
10 JUDGE KWON: Sir, Judge Baird.
11 JUDGE BAIRD: Is it possible for you to give us, as briefly as
12 possible, some idea as to what you deemed a camp, concentration camp?
13 THE WITNESS: Yeah. Thank you. If I could just explain. The
14 day that my story was published, August the 7th, 1992, I did this sort of
15 fairly absurd number of some 50 something radio interviews, television
16 interviews, and time after time invocations were made of the Holocaust,
17 and Auschwitz and Birkenau. This is in itself a long subject that I
18 won't trouble you with now, but I felt that at the time, and I think
19 there were, and I have consulted authorities at Holocaust museum and so
20 on, to try and find the language, and there were echos as authorised by
21 them -- echos. Yes. But this is down the line. At the time, I felt
22 that this invocation of the shoah was unhelpful, to be honest. We -- I
23 was trying to talk about what we had seen, what we had found, what we
24 feared we had not found, if you like, that headlines like "Belsen 1992"
25 didn't really help. So I was disinclined to call, certainly, Trnopolje a
1 concentration camp.
2 This is all happening within a short space of time and fairly
3 frantically. I have decided, as I say, after consultation with people in
4 the Holocaust museum and survivors, to use the term but actually with --
5 very much with reference to its proper definition which comes from the
6 Boer War in South Africa, and the more I've researched it, I think it's
7 as fair to say that Trnopolje was camp, exactly that, where thousands of
8 civilians were concentrated prior to enforced deportation of -- on the
9 convoys of the kind that I accompanied across Mount Vlasic. So it's a
10 discourse in itself, but that's the conclusion I've come to after the
11 best consultations I can muster.
12 JUDGE BAIRD: Thank you very much indeed.
13 THE WITNESS: Thank you.
14 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you. Can we have the next
15 page, please.
16 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
17 Q. The entire page is truly of interest and good, too. Could we
18 please have a look at this. You saw that were Muslim villages that were
19 intact, peasants calmly working. Every house was marked by a white flag,
20 a piece of sheet, and that was their guarantee against Omarska or
21 Trnopolje. And then Colonel Milutinovic explained to you that they had
22 accepted Republika Srpska and then they were left alone; isn't that
24 A. Yes, that's what he told us and, unfortunately, I believed him,
25 because I now know that the sheets meant that you had agreed to leave.
1 But at the time that's what he told me, and I believed him.
2 Q. Says who? Who told you that? Who told you that that meant that
3 they were supposed to leave, when the Muslims themselves say clearly that
4 they had been told whoever doesn't want to fight can put this marking on
5 their house so that we should not have any fear of that house, that we
6 should not fire at that house. Who said that to you?
7 A. The people who hung the sheets.
8 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, we did agree during our interview that in a civil
9 war like that the two sides tried to blacken each other, as it were. In
10 your view, how many Muslim were is killed in this war? You are relying
11 on what the media said and what was in the public domain. How many
12 Muslims were victims in this war?
13 A. I don't have the figures to hand, but there is a report by two
14 investigators who -- who -- who gave a paper to a conference in Berlin,
15 and they -- what they did was they sort of combined the work of ICRC,
16 International Commission for Missing Persons, both the commissions of the
17 various entities, and they come up with I think -- and I need to confirm
18 this in the break, if Your Honours will allow me, but it's something like
19 I think it's -- I think it's 58.000 or so. That's the figure I know from
20 memory. There are an enormous number of estimates. This is by two
21 Polish experts. I can get the -- the names and the numbers, but as I
22 recall, it's something like 58- or 59.000 Muslims killed.
23 Q. Thank you. Have you heard the figure of 250- to 300.000, which
24 figured prominently throughout the war as the number of Muslims only that
25 had fallen victim? Have you heard of this figure of 80.000 raped women?
1 A. I have heard the figure of 300.000 dead in the war which, as you
2 say, is correctly prominent throughout the war. I now know that to be
3 incorrect. It doesn't stand up forensically. Eighty thousand rapes --
4 raped women seems high. I have heard a figure of tens of thousands of
5 women raped. Lower than 80, as I recall.
6 Q. Thank you.
7 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Can this document be admitted?
8 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
9 Q. Do you know that out of these 55 or 6 or 7.000 Muslims a number
10 were killed as fighters?
11 A. Yes. I think on all -- on all three sides you have both military
12 and civilian killed.
13 Q. Thank you. Do you know that about 35.000 Serbs lost their lives?
14 A. That's not the figure in this report that -- that I -- that I'm
15 quoting, and I don't know where that comes from. I -- I'm afraid I just
16 haven't got these figures off the top of my head, but it's 20-something
17 thousand Serbs. I think it's 21.000 in that report I'm citing.
18 JUDGE KWON: This article will be admitted as Exhibit D1898.
19 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
20 Q. Do you agree that both you and Ms. Marshall and her
21 associate - actually, they stated that - realised only in Budapest when
22 they saw their footage from Trnopolje on TV, they realised that that was
23 a big story, as it were, when they saw that President Bush, Sr.,
24 interfered with his comment?
25 A. I can't speak for Ms. Markale or Mr. Williams when they got to
1 Budapest, but I think I am -- a big story. Important, I'd rather say.
2 We talked about this yesterday. I think I realised that as soon as I
3 walked into the canteen in Omarska and saw those men.
4 Q. Thank you. 1D4825. Could we have a look at that. We should
5 disregard what it says in Serbian. These are my notes. This is some
6 conversation, or maybe it was a talk show, or maybe it was live. These
7 are yours words and the words of Ms. Marshall.
8 Actually, do you know when you stated this?
9 A. I don't remember exactly which interview. I'm just reading it.
10 Q. The next page. Could we have that, please? On the top here you
11 say that you returned yet again, and further down we see that you
12 returned to Omarska. Can we have a look further down where you say --
13 actually, President Bush spoke about this, and you say that you were on
14 the phone all day, and you even say down here:
15 [In English] [As read] "These people were all skin and bone,
16 really gaunt and -- in terrible -- these men were emaciated grotesquely,
17 undernourished and thin, bony, gaunt, wiry ...," and so on.
18 [Interpretation] How come this is not contained in your first
19 report? How come it's there when it became a big story?
20 A. Can we get the first report back up again, because I think I do
21 talk about states of decay and emaciation.
22 Q. We don't have enough time. The participants have this before
23 them, and I can give you a copy, but we just don't have time.
24 JUDGE KWON: We upload Exhibit D1898.
25 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, in fact that's -- Mr. Vulliamy's
1 article is an associated exhibit, so it would be having a Prosecution
2 exhibit number.
3 JUDGE KWON: Yes. It's 1D4821 is already admitted as associate
4 exhibit, is that what you say?
5 MS. SUTHERLAND: It should have an exhibit number shortly,
6 Your Honour.
7 JUDGE KWON: Very well.
8 THE WITNESS: As regards -- sorry, to answer your question, as
9 regards this silly remark about number 1 for -- I mean, it was a crazy
10 day. I'm not someone who likes to, you know, bob up on the media all the
11 time on other people's progress.
12 JUDGE KWON: Let us show the witness.
13 THE WITNESS: "Young man, emaciated, sunken-eyed, attacking
14 watery bean stew like a famished dog" -- it's a bit over -- I mean, it's
15 what it is. "Spindly hands shaking." It is what it is. Yeah, I dont
16 see any great discrepancy between that description and what I said, you
17 know -- yet another of these interviews. I can't remember exactly which
18 one it was. President Bush was -- it was completely irrelevant to what I
19 was trying to say.
20 JUDGE KWON: And third paragraph.
21 THE WITNESS: "Internees, horribly thin, raw-boned, some with
22 almost cadaverous, with skin-like parchment folded around their arms,
23 faces, lantern-jawed, eyes haunt by the empty stare of the prisoner,"
24 et cetera. So I think, in reply to your question, I would say that I
25 had -- while I was writing that, talking to nobody on August the 6th, for
1 publication on the 7th, when I presume that interview was recorded is one
2 of very many. I think I probably got the gist, from what I saw, of what
3 condition these men were in rather than taking any cue from the President
4 of the United States.
5 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
6 Q. Thank you. Can we go back to the previous document now, 1D4825.
7 Could we have the last page.
8 Are you talking about how hungry the public was for stories about
9 Belsen and things like that?
10 A. Your Honours, could I just read what he -- the text.
11 Yes. This is a reference to what I was trying to explain to the
12 Bench in -- in one of Your Honour's queries about this -- this automatic
13 parallel that was being made between what we had found and the Holocaust,
14 which I considered to be unuseful at the time and certainly in need of --
15 of careful refinement before we started jumping into all of this.
16 Q. Thank you.
17 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Can this be admitted?
18 JUDGE KWON: Yes.
19 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit D1899, Your Honours.
20 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
21 Q. When you were in Prijedor, all the local leaders were ready to
22 see you and talk to you; right?
23 A. Yes. They made it clear that they didn't -- that it was
24 reluctant. Mr. Kovacevic said, "I'm against this visit," even though you
25 are welcome or something to that effect, but they agreed to see us, yes.
1 Q. Thank you. During that group meeting, did you get an impression
2 as to who was in charge and who issued orders to who?
3 A. Dr. Stakic was introduced as the -- sorry, I didn't know he was
4 doctor then. Milomir Stakic was introduced as the president; Kovacevic,
5 the vice-president. Kovacevic did most of the talking.
6 Q. Thank you. Also they informed you about the problems that the
7 authorities had about the misdeeds that had been committed against the
8 Serbs; right? You spoke about that what you testified in Stakic, 1998,
9 15th of July, pages 787 and 778; right?
10 JUDGE KWON: Again, Kovacevic, I take it, Ms. Sutherland.
11 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour.
12 THE WITNESS: I've described the meeting in both -- both those
13 trials, yes.
14 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
15 Q. Thank you. They informed you about Hambarine there. They
16 informed you about the torturing of children, and Kovacevic told you that
17 he, as a child, had been a prisoner at the Jasenovac camp; right?
18 A. Yes, they did talk about fighting in Hambarine, and they showed
19 us a video about what they called a jihad in the area, and certainly
20 Kovacevic, to my recollection, said that he had been born in Jasenovac,
21 which when I went to revisit him he said that he had been taken there as
22 a child, but he had certainly been in that appalling place, so he said,
23 and I believed him, and still do.
24 Q. Thank you. You said in your testimony in Kovacevic, on page 795,
25 I'll read it in English:
1 [In English] "On their way to Omarska, they were attacked and
2 they were told that it was ..." [Interpretation] Actually you described
3 that. You said that you were attacked and you were told that it was the
4 Mujahedin, and you said that all this had been rigged and you repeated
5 that today as well. How come you were sure of that and what would that
6 mean to us?
7 A. What convinced me was, first of all, how the shots were going
8 over our heads high, and anyone who was trying to shoot at us clearly not
9 very good. The return of fire was also high, and then when it sort of --
10 when we said this is ridiculous let's carry on, and it's -- it stopped so
11 suddenly and we carried on, it didn't feel like a -- a proper ambush from
12 the experience that I had of the war in Croatia and previously in Iraq.
13 Q. And it never crossed your mind that they were firing at one
14 another and that they were not targeting you?
15 A. If they were, they were rotten shots. Sorry, I don't mean to be
16 facetious. It might have done for a moment, but not after a while. I --
17 I thought it was a prank then, and I still do.
18 Q. So whatever the Serbs say, that will be your view; isn't that
19 right, Mr. Vulliamy? During the interview, I informed you that the Serbs
20 consider you to be highly partial, most partial; isn't that right?
21 A. Well, if so, that's unfortunate. I am, as I tried to explain
22 in -- when we were talking about neutrality, I am highly partial about
23 extreme violence. I'm not highly partial about any particular race of
24 people or -- or -- or ethnicity or whatever. In fact, I'm highly partial
25 against racialism. So I'm not anti-Serb. I'm anti-what was done. In
1 name, sometimes, of Serbia, tragically, which was opposed by very large
2 number of Serbs at the time and since. And if Their Honours want to hear
3 about my social acquaintances with Serbs, I'm very welcome to supply it.
4 I don't want to sound like some of my best friends are but my colleague
5 with whom I worked during the year of the war described in the book is a
6 Serb and I knew many Serbs during the war and still know many now, so
7 I'll leave my answer at that.
8 Q. Thank you. You mentioned today that as far as Trnopolje was
9 concerned, it was a camp for deportees. During the interview, we
10 established that you did know that people could leave and get food;
11 right? During the interview, you said that some could and others
12 couldn't. This is what I'm putting to you now as well: People who had
13 their own vegetable gardens could go and get food, and probably the
14 people who did not have their own gardens did not go to get food because
15 there was no other way of getting food.
16 What was it that you knew?
17 A. What -- the -- who could and couldn't leave Trnopolje seems to be
18 quite capricious. Obviously if you were from Prijedor, which is a long
19 way away, you wouldn't be going home, and some people were forcibly
20 brought there. Others went of their own accord, and we've established
22 I don't know exactly who was able to leave and who wasn't. I
23 know that it had to be negotiated. I've spoken to people at the medical
24 centre. They were able to get people who were abandoned in their houses,
25 infirm or whatever, and were brought to Trnopolje. Others were corralled
1 on buses, as is well established by this Tribunal, were taken there
2 en masse. So -- and this is why it's -- the definition has been an
3 issue, and I decided to call it a concentration camp on the basis of the
4 South Africa dictionary definition. But your point about who was and
5 wasn't allowed to leave to get food and who was or wasn't allowed to so
6 under guard is whimsical. I don't exactly understand what the rules were
7 if there were any hard and fast rules. I'd just like to, if I may, if
8 Your Honours will allow me to get back to this point about this serious
9 allegation of extreme partiality, it is in the record, but I proceeded
10 immediately after all this to go and look at -- investigate camps with
11 Serbian prisoners and I think I'm the only person who actually uncovered
12 them. Sorry, I'm retrogressing there, but I do take this sort of
13 allegation of anti-Serbian sentiment extremely seriously and I'd like to
14 go on to -- if I'm asked about that visit to the camp, which I may not
15 be, I'd just like to put it on record that I -- I made it my business to
16 do exactly that. In fact, it was a camp that Mr. Karadzic on the film
17 that we saw, it's one of those that he wanted to go and see, and I made
18 it my business to do so in the interests of impartiality, and partiality
19 over the practise of putting people into camps. So it was Serbian
20 prisoners in the other one. Sorry, I'm replying to the previous
21 question. I apologise.
22 Q. Thank you --
23 JUDGE MORRISON: I'm not smiling at you. I am smiling with you.
24 I anticipate I would be doing much the same thing.
25 For this reason, as you know, Dr. Karadzic, it's been said in
1 open court many times and I say it again, it isn't the Serbian people who
2 are indicted in this case nor the Serbian state. It's you, and you need
3 to concentrate on that reality.
4 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you, Excellency. However, as
5 things stand, I have been indicted as the civilian head of state and of
6 the army for everything that every crook did on the ground. I am trying
7 to prove that this had nothing to do with the system whatsoever.
8 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
9 Q. However, today you said, Mr. Witness, that they were brought
10 after raids, but look at page 3 of this report of yours. This boy from
11 Rizvanovic is telling you nicely. When the fighting started, the Serbs
12 rallied the civilians and took them away so that they could continue the
13 fighting. Do you know that in accordance with our law civilians have to
14 be evacuated from a combat zone?
15 A. Yes, and the civilians were evacuated from their homes and taken
16 to Trnopolje and I don't know what exactly happened to the -- the
17 civilians from that village, but I would be surprised if any of them had
18 got back to their houses before about 1999, if at all. But I don't
19 dispute what you're saying and what I wrote about this boy. Obviously it
20 appears caught in the line of fire and as the village was, as the article
21 says, cleared and taking refuge with -- with soldiers under your command
22 and going to Trnopolje. I don't dispute that at all.
23 Q. Thank you. As for this deportation, do you know that these
24 persons who after the Muslim extremists, the Green Berets, the Muslim
25 extremists turned Prijedor into a theatre of war through their own
1 actions, do you know that they asked to be evacuated either to
2 Central Bosnia or to Europe, that they obtained many documents, that they
3 paid for them? So that was not deportation. The Defence says that that
4 was not deportation. This was evacuation, of course due to difficulties.
5 However, it was based on requests made by these persons.
6 A. I didn't know that, no, because when I went with the people on
7 that convoy, they told me something different, that -- that -- that
8 soldiers and policemen had come around to their houses and given them
9 ultimata to leave and sometimes they had some squabble over who was going
10 to get the house and that they had been corralled, in this case, into a
11 location in the village of -- town, sorry, of Sanski Most, and that
12 the -- the people on the convoy that I travelled with were leaving
13 anything but voluntarily. The convoy was marshalled to order by armed
14 guards and patrolled along its way by armed guards. Nobody I spoke to
15 had any idea where -- where they were going. Correction. Some people
16 did know later, that I talked to later in the night when we were on foot,
17 that they were going to -- to government-held territory. But I didn't
18 meet anybody who gave me that account nor have I since spoken to anyone
19 who has given me that account for what I did not know that night of
20 August the 17th, 1992, but soon after knew when nightly deportation
21 convoys, and indeed four nights after ours on August the 17th. There was
22 one on August the 21st [Realtime transcript read in error "24th"] during
23 which large numbers of people were taken off the buses and executed on
24 Mount Vlasic, so -- known to this Tribunal as the Vlasic massacre.
25 So, no, sir, I didn't know that those were the reasons why those
1 convoys were going over Vlasic.
2 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, we'll take a break now for half an
3 hour. We will resume at half past 12.00.
4 --- Recess taken at 12.01 p.m.
5 --- On resuming at 12.33 p.m.
6 JUDGE KWON: Yes, Ms. Sutherland.
7 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, very quickly. Back on page 64, I
8 said that the Vulliamy article that was published on the 7th of August
9 was an associated exhibit, and it is -- it is P3788. Correct me if I am
10 wrong, Mr. Registrar.
11 JUDGE KWON: Which is 65 ter number 19682.
12 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour. And that was the "Guardian"
13 article, whereas Mr. Karadzic has been using a copy of that article from
14 the "Toronto Star" and has -- had certain -- taken the witness to certain
15 boxes in that article so I think it's perhaps better that we keep a
16 Prosecution and Defence exhibit unless Your Honours are minded to -- to
17 cross-reference both in e-court perhaps.
18 JUDGE KWON: Why don't we just leave it as it is.
19 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes. That's what I was suggesting, Your Honour.
20 I'm sorry if I wasn't clear.
21 And the other thing, just for the record so that it's clear, the
22 interview that Mr. Karadzic keeps referring to that -- that the witness
23 has had with him is an interview that was conducted yesterday afternoon.
24 JUDGE KWON: Thank you. Yes, Mr. Karadzic. Please continue.
25 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I would like to call up 1D04816 in
2 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
3 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, I would kindly ask you to just answer by yes or no
4 whenever possible, because we don't have that much time, and secondly,
5 please do not rely on what you have heard in this court or elsewhere,
6 from somebody else. Just share with us what you know yourself. This is
7 the most important thing for us here.
8 Do you remember this text?
9 A. Yes.
10 Q. Thank you. Let's look at the subtitle. It says that:
11 "Ed Vulliamy is one of only two journalists to take the stand in
12 the historic Bosnia war crimes trial at The Hague."
14 A. Yes. I wouldn't have written that.
15 Q. The way Mr. Karadzic put the question was that you took side --
16 sides with somebody.
17 [In English] "He describes his day in court as witness for the
18 Prosecution confronting an alleged torturer.
19 A. That's what's called a stand first. I wouldn't have written it,
20 but I was a witness for the Prosecution, yes. Your Honours, I've spotted
21 quite an important error further up the transcript. I don't know what to
22 do about that. Sorry to interrupt.
23 JUDGE KWON: Yes. Our usher could assist you. I'm not sure
24 whether your monitor can have that scroll. No. If you remember some
25 word that we can find it, I will read it to you so that you can correct
2 THE WITNESS: Thank you, sorry. Yes, this is a stand first. I
3 wouldn't have written it but it does say accurately, sir, that I
4 testified for the Prosecution, which I did. I think this is the Tadic
6 JUDGE KWON: Now you can scroll. I think you can find the text
7 you have in mind. Could you took -- take a look.
8 THE WITNESS: Yes. It's -- sorry, Your Honours. It's just
9 before we went for the break there are dates and things that are wrong.
10 Our convoy was August the 17th, 1992, and the massacre was four days
11 after ours on August the -- ours was on the 17th. The massacre was on
12 the 21st, not the 24th. I do apologise for interrupting. Sorry,
13 Dr. Karadzic for --
14 JUDGE KWON: Four days after ours.
15 THE WITNESS: Four days after. Ours is on the 17th, not the
16 18th, and the massacre is on the 21st.
17 JUDGE KWON: Thank you.
18 THE WITNESS: I apologise to Your Honours and Dr. Karadzic for
19 spoiling the -- interrupting the proceedings.
20 JUDGE KWON: Not at all.
21 Yes, Mr. Karadzic.
22 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
23 Q. Let me just ask you this: You said that there was police escort.
24 Do you know that on the 22nd of May we signed a commitment to escort
25 civilians who were transferring from one side to the other? Just yes or
1 no. In other words, UNHCR was a middle man and the three sides signed an
2 agreement for the police to escort all civilian convoys crossing from one
3 side to the other.
4 A. No, I didn't know about this agreement, sir.
5 Q. Thank you. Can we go to the following page, please. Let's look
6 at the second paragraph at the bottom above the advert. Yes, this is it.
7 There is a reference here to Dr. Azra Blazevic. You mentioned her
8 yourself earlier today. It is also stated that Trnopolje camp is a
9 concentration camp; right? A bit further up there is a reference to
10 Omarska and the other camps in the Serbian gulag. Do you see that? We
11 have lost it now. Can we scope up a little. Scroll up. The second
12 column. Scroll down, scroll down. Very well, now that's it. Yes.
13 There's a reference to Omarska:
14 [In English] "In the other camps in Serbia's gulag, and --"
15 [Interpretation] It says here that Trnopolje's a concentration camp just
16 after the reference is being made to Dr. Azra Blazevic; right?
17 A. Yes.
18 Q. Can we go to the far right end of the document. Here you are
19 quoted as saying [In English] I would have been as proud to testify --"
20 no, no, no, no, no. "... to testify for Sir Hartley against the Nazis as
21 I am to do so at The Hague against those who echoed them with a pale but
22 unmistakable imitation."
23 [Interpretation] Is it your view indeed that we are a pale but
24 unmistakable imitation of the Nazis?
25 A. I'll stand by that. We discussed this. Indeed it's a point of
1 semantics and a point of history. The word "echo" I -- was, what was it,
2 forged, if you like, the right to use that word in consultation with
3 people at the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. Pale, yes.
4 Unmistakable, yes. And again, it's -- we're back to this point about the
5 internment, murder of people for reasons of ethnicity, mass deportation
6 for reasons of ethnicity, and so, yes --
7 Q. [Overlapping speakers]
8 A. -- I will stand by that.
9 Q. Thank you. Thank you. We've already heard that and we don't
10 have time. Thank you.
11 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, if you ask the question, you should
12 allow the witness to complete his answer.
13 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Well, I apologise. I believe that
14 the side questioning the witness should control them. If I had the time,
15 I would only be too glad to listen to Mr. Vulliamy, but if not, then I
16 just wanted to know whether this is Mr. Vulliamy's view or not.
17 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
18 Q. Now, my next question is this: Do you now think that this
19 contributed to the fact that some Serbs consider you as having anti-Serb
21 A. Well, if some do, then perhaps they're the ones who support what
22 was being done in their name. The Serbian friends that I have and have
23 had throughout -- throughout the war and still have do not, and many of
24 them, I think, would probably agree with this -- with this estimation.
25 There are -- if we're going to continue with this echo, there are very
1 large numbers of Germans who were appalled by what was done in their name
2 and have been part of the reckoning in that country to -- to come to
3 terms with it. If any Serb thinks I'm against all Serbs, they are, A,
4 wrong, and I regret that they held that view.
5 Q. Thank you.
6 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Can this be admitted?
7 JUDGE KWON: Yes.
8 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit D1900, Your Honours.
9 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
10 Q. And now I would like to show you an exhibit, a Prosecution
11 exhibit, an excerpt from a visit to Trnopolje. You know very well the
12 dispute that broke out between the "Living Marxism" where Thomas
13 Deichmann published that that was staged. And now I'm going to show you
14 that the wire that is depict -- depicted actually the wire surrounding
15 building tools protected them and not the people who were detained in
16 Trnopolje. 4504. 65 ter 40504, and the English transcript page is 6.
17 No, no, not that, no.
18 [Video-clip played]
19 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
20 Q. Can we stop here? Do you see any wire here, Mr. Vulliamy, or are
21 these people seated in a totally open area?
22 A. I -- it's hard -- I can't see any wire, and I don't know whether
23 this was shot on August the 5th or when the -- as I called it, the circus
24 went back by which time the wire had come down, as I understand it.
25 [Video-clip played]
1 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
2 Q. Now we will see. Let's move on.
3 [Video-clip played]
4 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
5 Q. This is just one part. Do you agree -- we will see that that was
6 taken on the same day when you and Penny Marshall were there, the same
7 journalist. Everything is the same.
8 A. That last picture, yes, sir, that appears to be August the 5th.
9 I think we've seen an excerpt from that before. That's when we were
10 there, yes, sir.
11 Q. And please bear with me while I'm looking for the number of that
12 excerpt where you will also see Mr. Bozanic.
13 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, I can -- if Mr. Karadzic is wanting
14 the exhibit number of that excerpted, it's P03697.
15 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Yes. Thank you very much. I would
16 like to call that up, if possible.
17 [Video-clip played]
18 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, this isn't --
19 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] We have to go back to the
20 beginning. This is not the beginning.
21 JUDGE KWON: Just a --
22 MS. SUTHERLAND: This is -- this is still taken from the -- this
23 footage that was just played is coming from the bigger video-tape. I
24 thought Mr. Karadzic just wanted the excerpt that was shown through a
25 witness last week or just very recently that was admitted through him,
1 and that is Exhibit P03697 and it's 65 ter number 40504B. It's a
2 15-second clip.
3 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Yes. That's -- that's precisely
4 that. I apologise for not being precise enough. 40504B. Can we see
6 Do we have it?
7 JUDGE KWON: What I was told is that we -- e-court has the
8 transcript but not the -- not the video itself.
9 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, this morning I played that -- I
10 played that excerpt this morning. Mr. --
11 JUDGE KWON: Reid.
12 MS. SUTHERLAND: Mr. Reid is getting it in Sanction.
13 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
14 Q. Our thesis which was also proposed by Mr. Deichmann that the
15 fence around the compound with building tools is what we saw and that
16 Ms. Marshall entered the compound and that she was on the other side
17 within the wire and not the detainees. You in your turn contest that;
19 A. Yes, I do. This thesis, as you call it, was advanced in 1996 or
20 1997. We'd heard nothing of it in between 1992 and that year from you or
21 anybody else. And I do contest it, yes. I am, if anything, more
22 convinced now than I was even on that day that those men were detained
23 and under guard.
24 Q. How come you are more convinced today than when you saw things
25 with your own two eyes. What is it that makes you more convinced today
1 than ever before?
2 A. Well, at the time, it was very obvious to me that they were
3 prisoners, but since then, as you know and the Bench may know, there has
4 been a court case in London -- when you mentioned "Living Marxism" who
5 published this thesis, your word, were sued by ITN and lost. ITN won the
6 case. It was a civil case, I agree, at lower burden of proof, and I had
7 the opportunity to interview a number of the prisoners since who have
8 described to me how they got there, why they were there, and they were
9 certainly -- we were not filming -- they were not filming, sorry, from
10 inside any compound outside, nor was I, let's talk about me, not ITN,
11 interviewing people through that fence from inside any kind of detention
12 facility taking notes from people who were at liberty wandering around.
13 Q. Thank you. You derive the additional information from the events
14 and developments at various courts and you tend to believe that
15 information more than you believe what you saw with your own two eyes;
17 A. No. I believed what I saw with my own two eyes that they were
18 prisoners and were detained and under guard behind that fence and others,
19 and on talking to them I have that belief confirmed and this has been
20 gone over and over on oath many times, and -- I'm not saying
21 especially more -- I'm saying that my description of them as prisoners
22 has been proved accurate over and over again.
23 MS. SUTHERLAND: The video-clip's ready, if Mr. Karadzic wishes
24 to play it.
25 THE ACCUSED: Thank you.
1 [Video-clip played]
2 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Can I stop here, please.
3 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
4 Q. Mr. Vulliamy, do you see a single emaciated person like that
5 person Alic was?
6 A. Not in this picture, no. They were in various states of decay I
7 think was the word I used. But I'm -- I'm -- I'm saying they're
8 prisoners. No, sorry.
9 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Can we continue.
10 [Video-clip played] 6c
11 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Stop.
12 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
13 Q. Do you see the tools here? Do you see that this is actually a
14 storage of all the building tools and equipment? Do you see the
15 wheelbarrows and things like that?
16 A. I can see wheelbarrows by the fence, yes. I didn't notice them
17 at the time. There were other things to look at.
18 Q. Thank you. Did you at the time notice and did you make a note of
19 what you noticed, and that was that the fourth side did not have any
20 wire, that it was open?
21 A. To my recollection, the compound was wire on three sides and a
22 building on the fourth side.
23 Q. Thank you. 1D04818 is what would I like to call up now.
24 1D04818. Do you remember that you were interviewed by Slobodna Bosna on
25 the 10th of August, 1997? The title here is "I live for the day when I'm
1 going to take a stand in The Hague against Karadzic."
2 A. I don't remember doing that interview. I don't deny that I did
3 it, and I take no responsibility for the headline they put on it. No
4 disrespect. I have not lived for this day.
5 Q. Thank you. Can we see the next page, please. It seems that you
6 also had to say something about Minister Douglas Hurd. Can we also see
7 the following page in Serbian, and now we can see the title here, "How
8 did Karadzic make a mistake?" The question here is: How come you were
9 invited to visit the camps? And you say that while you were in London,
10 Karadzic invited me to see Omarska, Manjaca, and Trnopolje, and so on and
11 so forth. The next question is about the permit that you received to
12 visit those camps. Why do you think that Karadzic allowed you to visit
13 the camps? He could have changed your mind. And your answer is: God
14 knows. My assumption is that he did not intend to let us see Omarska.
15 We know that because there was a prank set up for us in the form of a
16 false battle, and our escorts told us that those were Mujahedin in the
17 forest. We demanded that we should continue. The Red Cross was already
18 in Manjaca. I suppose that he wanted to show us a small part of
19 Trnopolje. He certainly didn't want us to see the part where people from
20 Keraterm and Omarska were brought or else Karadzic is as stupid as
21 happens [as interpreted]. After all, he was the last one to laugh,
22 right, and so on and so forth.
23 Wouldn't you say that this is another thing that has prompted
24 some Serbs to believe that you are impartial and that you will not be an
25 objective witness in my trial? Things have not been recorded properly.
1 You said "or else Karadzic is as stupid as he appears." This is what you
2 said, and this was not recorded.
3 This interview of yours, did it contribute or did it provide the
4 basis for people's concerns and doubts about your impartiality as a
5 witness in -- in my trial?
6 A. I'd like to, in response to many questions there, first of all,
7 establish some distance between what I say and what appears in Bosnian
8 magazines. I haven't had this translated back to me before, but I have
9 had other articles translated back to me which -- and I do not recognise
10 what I said. I would just like to put it on record that whatever else I
11 might think about what had happened under your authority, I do not think
12 you're stupid, sir. I have actually said to a number of people over the
13 last 48 hours that you are clever and I would like that put on record.
14 As regards the other matters, yes, I was and remained curious and
15 sometimes baffled as to why you did authorise the visit to Omarska. What
16 I suppose I was trying to explain to this magazine is that when we got
17 there, judging from what we were told and what happened and our inability
18 to see inside the hangar, that, as it was put by Mrs. Balaban earlier in
19 evidence, we could see this and this and that but not that. And he
20 quotes her again. He promised us something else. So I suppose what I
21 was trying to convey to them was that perhaps you had intended us to see
22 one part of the camp and not the other. That was my inference from what
23 Mrs. Balaban was saying.
24 With regard to Trnopolje, and I'm inferring here, I -- perhaps
25 you did think that it would be all right for us to see the main area with
1 the buildings and the -- where the medical centres were but perhaps could
2 not have anticipated our coming upon the men who were in that compound
3 who had that day, August the 5th, arrived from Omarska and Keraterm, but
4 I would like to use this opportunity to retract and perhaps to rebuke
5 this magazine for translating me as calling you stupid because I do not
6 think you're stupid and I never did.
7 Q. Thank you. Why do you presume so much when I openly told you you
8 could see everything for yourselves? Yet you revert to your presumptions
9 again trying to guess what my intention was. My intention was for you to
10 go and see it all and to make sure that the people in the field will --
11 were aware of the fact that someone was going to see it. Why do you back
12 to presumptions?
13 A. I suppose because they're not presumptions. They're based on --
14 just on what we were told when we went in there. When we tried to cross
15 the tarmac pista to go into the hangar, we were told that you -- we were,
16 sorry. We were told, I was told - I can't say I -- I was told -- I was
17 standing behind Ms. Marshall at the time that you had told them we
18 couldn't and, as I think is clear from the film, so that's the basis of
19 what you call my presumption. I wish you had -- we had been allowed
20 to -- I -- I don't know what your exact instructions to them were because
21 I wasn't privy to them, but my understanding was that we would see
22 everything and we didn't see everything. In fact, we hardly -- we saw
23 the tip of the iceberg but it was explained to us that your authority did
24 not extend to us seeing all the camp.
25 Q. Thank you. Yesterday when we met, we discussed Mr. Williams
1 having conveyed something and you overheard that. Supposedly someone
2 said that my instructions are not abided by there, and in the interview I
3 repeated my words when I said that if there were people there who were
4 disobedient, I'd be most interested in seeing who they were.
5 A. Yes. I -- I recall us looking at Mr. Williams's remarks on paper
6 and his inference was that your -- hang on. His inference in the
7 transcript that we looked at was that your authority didn't, as I think
8 you put it, carry weight in Omarska but this is between -- this is for
9 Mr. Williams to -- to talk about. What I understood was that what was
10 being explained was that we had been told that we would be able to see
11 that the camp, indeed the whole region, unfettered and it turned out that
12 we were fettered, and it was explained to me, us, that -- that that was
13 not the case, that your instruction were, as Mrs. Balaban translated,
14 otherwise. What Mr. Williams made of that, you'd better call him.
15 Q. But Mr. Williams quoted someone else, a local Serb. Apparently
16 he was told that Karadzic's instructions or orders do not carry weight
17 there. He was quoting someone. It wasn't his conclusion, was it?
18 A. I didn't hear those words being used by anybody else, but -- but
19 I was dependent on -- on -- because I don't understand the language, I
20 was dependent on what Mrs. Balaban was saying, which we've seen part of
21 it. A relevant part of which was -- and again I don't recall the exact
22 words but that -- I think he says he promised us something else and that
23 we could see this and this but not that. That there was a dichotomy
24 between our understanding -- our respective understandings on what you
25 had authorised.
1 Q. Thank you. Do you agree that on page 15, line 21, we have her
2 words incorrectly interpreted. She only said, "I was only there to
3 interpret." She wasn't interpreting my words. She simply placed a hedge
4 protecting herself having said I'm here only to interpret.
5 A. Yes. I didn't infer that she was making the decisions herself.
6 My inference, as she was interpreting as she said, was that the -- as it
7 were the block on our further visiting and going into the part of the
8 camp that I now understand to be the bit that mattered was being imposed
9 by Mr. Drljaca, Colonel Milutinovic, and Mr. Meakic who would have been
10 in a position of authority, not her. As she said, she was translating
11 for them.
12 Q. Thank you.
13 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Could this interview be admitted.
14 Unfortunately, only this column was translated. If necessary, we could
15 have it all translated, although I don't see the need.
16 JUDGE KWON: Original is four pages and the translation is three
17 pages. I think that's sufficient, Ms. Sutherland.
18 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, we will, ourselves, take a --
19 review this article in B/C/S and bring anything to your attention that we
20 need to.
21 JUDGE KWON: I think we can admit only those part then which has
22 been translated.
23 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes, Your Honour. At the moment, yes.
24 JUDGE KWON: Yes, we'll admit it.
25 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit D1901, Your Honours.
1 Mr. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
2 Q. I briefly wanted you to see what the deportations in question
3 looked like. For that purpose, could we see 1D4820. Of course when it
4 refers to me deportation is in inverted commas. Please have a look at
5 this article, interview with an official of the Red Cross. It was in
6 Banja Luka, and the Red Cross director said Muslims must be moved. The
7 entire interview, have a look at the fourth paragraph, for instance, says
8 that there are people who wished to leave and there were between 1- and
9 200.000 alone in this region around Banja Luka. It goes on to say even
10 if we were to find a solution now for these 3- or 4.000 people, we would
11 immediately have to deal with 10.000 who would follow, and so on and so
12 forth. Did you know of this position taken by the Red Cross?
13 A. I've had various altercations with the Red Cross over their
14 handling of the camps. I didn't know about this particular position but
15 it doesn't surprise me. The word desperately strikes me in this text,
16 but I -- this is a conversation between -- someone called Jakovsky and
17 someone called Schweizen. I can't really comment on it. I have to read
18 it to know exactly what they're saying. I take it this is the Red Cross
19 -- as I understand it, this is the Red Cross, but I don't know if it's
20 the ICRC or the local Red Cross saying that people are desperate to
21 leave. What I do have direct experience of is a deportation convoy and I
22 can testify to that if -- if Your Honours want me to or if you ask me
23 about it. And certainly none of these people asked to leave, quite the
25 Q. We can go back to the top. It appears to be the director of the
1 ICRC who was in Banja Luka at the time.
2 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Could we have the document
4 JUDGE KWON: If Mr. Robinson can help us on what basis we should
5 admit this.
6 MR. ROBINSON: Well, frankly, Mr. President, I don't see any
7 basis on which you can admit it, based on what the witness has testified
8 to so far.
9 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, you'll have another opportunity to
10 tender that through another witness.
11 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you. Could we have 1D04817,
12 please. Please zoom in on the bottom half.
13 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
14 Q. Is this your commentary concerning the arrest of Saddam Hussein?
15 And there is a reference to me.
16 A. Yes.
17 Q. Do you have any proof that I was a tyrant?
18 A. Can we just -- sorry, sir, to answer your question, no. No, I'm
19 aware that you were elected by your party, though not in -- though not
20 in -- not in the Presidency with regard to the whole of
21 Bosnia-Herzegovina. Do I use the term "tyrant" in the copy? Because can
22 we just -- the thing is I wouldn't have written the headline.
23 Q. I believe so. Could we go to the next page. Look at the
24 paragraph beginning with "Imagine Radovan Karadzic."
25 A. Yep.
1 Q. Is this your position about me?
2 A. Forgive the cocksure swagger. You did have one at the time. The
3 language is a little strong, I'll admit, but I don't see me describe you
4 as a tyrant. I'm aware that you were elected. Rhetoric, yes.
5 Bloodlust, I'm not sure about you personally but certainly in your name.
6 And I was not particularly gratified by the site of the stuck
7 [indiscernible] as much as I despised him. I'll grant you the language
8 is a little strong.
9 Q. At the bottom:
10 [In English] "There will be no Guantanamo Bay for the camp guards
11 of Omarska or the execution at Srebrenica."
12 [Interpretation] Can we go to the next page then.
13 [In English] "For three years --" [Interpretation] Have a look at
14 that paragraph:
15 [In English] "For three years the great powers wined and dinned
16 Karadzic, flattering this tin-pot tyrant's delusions of statesmanship."
17 A. Right. Well, you have that. I called you a tin-pot tyrant. And
18 the point is that this is actually directed not so much as you as at the
19 people in the West who I saw as, indeed, wining and dining you and
20 shaking your hand under the chandeliers. Those of us working on the
21 ground found this fairly baffling and much of -- many of those people
22 were, after you were indicted, bayed for you to be arrested as a war
23 criminal. As for the how Karadzic must have laughed to himself, I now
24 know that from interviewing several of your entourage and friends in
25 Belgrade, Pale and Sokolac and elsewhere that you did indeed find it, or
1 at least they did -- and describe you finding it, yeah, fairly amusing
2 that you were being feted in this way and that they took your -- that
3 they took your -- I mean -- I -- I talk about tin-pot statesmanship.
4 That's a little arrogant, I agree, but that -- that you were -- that I --
5 it has been described to me that you are -- found the seriousness with
6 which you were being taken by these people very flattering, but that's
7 hearsay again. These are your -- your entourage. No, they not in your
8 garage, they're your entourage.
9 Q. Well, yes. Do you know that Mr. Akashi was on the Muslim's
10 blacklist because he addressed his letter to me as His Excellency, as I
11 did to him? Do you know he ended up on their blacklist for that? And
12 does it reconcile with the position you express?
13 A. Sorry. No, I didn't know he was on any particular blacklist. I
14 personally found his -- if Your Honours will accept political discourse,
15 diplomatic assessments, I found his tolerance of what was going on for
16 these three long bloody years -- I didn't agree with it.
17 Q. Do you agree that Mr. Akashi must have been more familiar with
18 the reasons of the conflict than you were because he dealt with all four
19 warring parties? He was in discussions with all of them.
20 A. He listened to many more politicians and diplomats than I did. I
21 didn't talk to many of either, but he saw a lot less of what was
22 happening on the ground than I did.
23 Q. Thank you. May we have this admitted?
24 JUDGE KWON: Yes.
25 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit D1902, Your Honours.
1 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Could we please have 1D4805.
2 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
3 Q. Is this another text of yours from 2010?
4 A. Yes, absolutely.
5 Q. Is this your commentary of my introductory remarks or my opening
6 statement, rather, when the trial began?
7 A. Yes. Yes.
8 Q. Could we go to the next page please. Have a look at the second
10 [In English] "Karadzic's arguments," and so on.
11 [Interpretation] And the third paragraph I won't read them all.
12 Could this have contributed to the Serb belief that you are not biased,
13 that you see things to our detriment?
14 A. It depends who we are. Serbian -- it's -- it's not for me to
15 second-guess what Serbian people think, but what I'm saying here is that
16 this continual denial and revision, to use the term of -- of what
17 happened in those camps and the existence of the camps, has a searing
18 effect on those who survive them and were bereaved by them and that's the
19 point I'm making in -- in the penultimate picture -- at paragraph, sorry.
20 But the -- with regard to what Serbs think about me, I would suppose
21 answer that Serbs who supported what happened and who approve of what
22 happened in those camps might dislike me and feel I was attacking them
23 for -- for objecting to this grotesque notion that the camps were in some
24 way fabricated by me and others but that those who disapprove of or never
25 wanted anything to do with or indeed approved of but are now ashamed of
1 such camps would have no reason to object to my objections to the notion
2 that they were fabricated in an a media conspiracy because they were not.
3 I hope that makes sense.
4 Q. Thank you. But your position here is as if a judgement had
5 already been pronounced. There isn't a single question mark. You simply
6 appear to know things, and you assume your position; correct?
7 A. I'm talking about here about -- sorry, it starts "invoke today"
8 that I can see. I'm going certainly down that chain of command yourself,
9 Dr. Koljevic, Milutinovic, Stakic, Kovacevic, et cetera, through the
10 gates of the camp. That was seamless but this was about -- about the
11 fake pictures argument that's been heard in this Tribunal many times. As
12 I say here it's been destroyed by the Prosecution serially, run like a
13 Basel through the internet. It does repeated in [indiscernible] it was.
14 It is old. It goes back to 1996 but significantly not to 1992. It is
15 tired because it keeps getting overthrown, and serially unsuccessful.
16 But here, what I'm saying, sir, is it's heartless and poisonous because
17 the people who advance it don't seem to imagine what it's like to survive
18 or be bereaved by those camps and it has a terrible effect on them, this
19 idea that somehow their suffering did not happen.
20 Q. Thank you.
21 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] could we have this admitted?
22 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
23 Q. While we are waiting for that, Mr. Vulliamy, I'll tell you this.
24 The prisons for POWs were Kula, Batkovic and Manjaca. Omarska was an
25 investigation centre. It was a factory, or rather, a mine which had to
1 be brought to its original purpose. You, yourself, confirm that it was
2 an investigation centre and that there were investigators working there
3 around the clock in order to screen --
4 JUDGE KWON: I think that has been asked and answered. We'll
5 admit that article as Exhibit D1903. Let us continue.
6 Q. 1D04819 is the document that I would like to call up. 1D04819.
7 While we're waiting, Mr. Vulliamy, could you please tell us how many
8 interviews did you give? How many articles did you write after your
9 visit to Omarska and Trnopolje? You said there were about 40 interviews;
11 A. That day, August the 7th, in Belgrade was endless interviews and
12 I was not enjoying it, as I think I've indicated in print and in my
13 testimony, and some of them annoyed me very much, but it was -- it was
14 seen as something that people wanted to hear about. I don't know how
15 many exactly. I think it was -- it must -- it was 40, 50. I mean, it
16 was non-stop.
17 Q. Thank you. In your book you say 54. How many article, how many
18 texts you based on your visit? You say that there were about 200 or even
19 300 texts; right?
20 A. I don't know how many, but I've written a lot about it.
21 Q. Thank you. Can we scroll up a little. You wrote this when I was
22 arrested; right?
23 A. Yes.
24 Q. Your position in the article was clear. Again you were biased.
25 Let me not read everything. You say that this was the first time after
1 the Third Reich and you say that I arranged the mass murder of 100.000
2 people and the enforced deportation of 2 million people, and so on and so
3 forth. Is this still your position even today?
4 A. It's for the Court to adjudicate whether you're directly
5 responsible for it, but since that day we met and I went into the camps I
6 can't deny that I haven't had a direct interest in it. It would be weird
7 if it hadn't had an effect on my life. I have remained in touch with a
8 large number of survivors and the bereaved, and I have been of the
9 belief, again subject to the Court, that you were in a position of
10 leadership over all this, as I say here.
11 Q. Thank you.
12 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Can this be admitted?
13 JUDGE KWON: Yes.
14 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit D1904, Your Honours.
15 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
16 Q. You received several coveted awards for journalism and for the
17 results in writing of your visit to Omarska; right?
18 A. I've specifically for that three or four, yes. Hang on. Four.
19 Q. Thank you. 1D04805 is the next document that I would like to
20 call up. So we can say that this was the most productive ever visit to a
21 place 54 interviews, hundreds of pages of articles and four coveted
22 awards; right? No, that's not the document I want. We already saw that.
23 Just a moment, bear with me.
24 Do you agree that that was the most productive visit to anyplace
25 during the war?
1 A. No, I don't see it as productive. I would much rather have not
2 found Omarska and as much as I did. Well, would -- 54 interviews would
3 be irrelevant. I didn't enjoy any of them. I'm still on the same salary
4 band as I was then. I am a working reporter. My pay has only increased
5 incrementally. The awards mean a lot to some people, less to me, but
6 I -- I'm -- I'm happy to have them. I have written another book and lost
7 an awful lot of money in doing so. So, you know, it depends how one
8 measures this word "productive." Do I wish that the world had never had
9 Omarska in it? Yes.
10 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, how much more do you have to conclude
11 your cross-examination?
12 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I will try and finish everything
13 within the next 20 minutes.
14 JUDGE KWON: Do you have some re-examination, Ms. Sutherland?
15 MS. SUTHERLAND: A few minutes, Your Honour.
16 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, please do so in 15 minutes.
17 MS. SUTHERLAND: And so, Your Honour, for witness scheduling can
18 we excuse the witness that's waiting.
19 JUDGE KWON: I don't think we're going to there -- going there --
20 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yeah, thank you.
21 JUDGE KWON: -- today. That's fair enough.
22 Q. 1D4086 is the document number. This is your text, is it not, and
23 this was written after General Mladic was arrested; right?
24 A. Yes, absolutely.
25 Q. Thank you. First, let's look at the photo. This person, Alic,
1 does he appear to be joyful and happy? And what about the others? Do
2 they appear to look differently than him? In other words, how can you be
3 so certain that this is not just the way he normally looks, that this is
4 not the way he is built but, rather, that he is emaciated?
5 A. In all this I've heard that he's got TB, tuberculosis, which I
6 know him not to have had. Sorry, what's the question? Do they appear to
7 look different than him? Yes, but not from others inside the camp. And
8 I -- I know that's not how he normally looks. I met him shortly -- well,
9 I met him about ten months later and he looked very different.
10 Q. Thank you. Are you saying that the TBC that broke out two months
11 before, that, for example, if he -- his TBC had resulted from stress,
12 from the fact that he was arrested, that his appearance could have
13 deteriorated so much within the two months? If he didn't have TBC before
14 he was arrested and if he contracted it on the day he was arrested, are
15 you saying that within the two months his condition deteriorated so much
16 that he was on the verge of extinction?
17 A. I -- yes, I would concede that perhaps the conditions in Keraterm
18 were so appalling that his condition had deteriorated in two months and
19 perhaps he had become sick there, but when I met him again in Slovenia
20 the following spring, he was of a normal build. And he hadn't had much
21 medical attention. He just had something to eat.
22 Q. Did you see him half naked when you saw him in Ljubljana also
23 without his clothes on?
24 A. No, he was clothed.
25 Q. Thank you. Can we --
1 A. [Overlapping speakers] unfortunately, my figure is visible
2 through my clothing, too.
3 Q. And, now, look what you said here. You mentioned Dachau, and it
4 doesn't really matter what you said about Dachau, there is a reference to
5 Dachau in this text. Do you truly believe that this is unbiased
6 journalism of the kind that makes you a good witness?
7 A. It is not up biased with regard to atrocities committed in
8 concentration camps. It is not unbiased in terms of the neutrality that
9 I tried to explain earlier. I think it is subjective in terms of facts
10 and I stand by the argument in there which is an argument about people
11 coming to terms with what is -- what has happened and what has been done.
12 I am not unbiased over mass murder and beating and the kind of things
13 that -- that are involved in these cases, but I am unbiased between
15 Q. On a condition that you were able to determine that there had
16 been mass murder, did you establish it yourself or did you hear it from
17 others and believed it?
18 A. I've -- by the time I'd written this, which is recently, I had
19 seen the exhumation of the mass graves, in particular the one at Kevljani
20 which is just right next door to Omarska. I had been much in the
21 Srebrenica area. I had met, I say, hundreds if not scores of people who
22 had survived the camps and hundreds, if not scores, of people bereaved by
23 the camps. And I have testified at and followed the proceedings of and
24 the verdicts at this Tribunal. And I've been to the -- they're called
25 the reassociation places where teams of forensic scientists and
1 anthropologists and other experts are trying to put together the human
2 remains from graves, secondary graves, and tertiary graves in an attempt
3 to identify them and find their families. That's the basis on which I
4 say that mass murder happened during this time in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
5 Q. Thank you. Do you believe that people were also killed in
6 combat, that a lot of people were killed in combat, as a matter of fact?
7 A. Yes, I do, without doubt.
8 Q. Thank you.
9 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Can the document be admitted?
10 JUDGE KWON: Yes.
11 THE REGISTRAR: Exhibit D1905, Your Honours.
12 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] 1D4822 is the next document I would
13 like to call up.
14 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
15 Q. This is about your visits is to Mostar. Do you remember these
16 texts as well?
17 A. Certainly I remember, yes.
18 Q. Can we go to the following page. You describe the conditions
19 under which the Serbs were held by the HOS, and you identified the HOS as
20 a pro-Nazi or a neo-Nazi organisation; right?
21 A. Yes. I think that's fair. The HOS was a mixed Croatian with
22 some Muslim soldiers, and I think it's accurate to say that it was a
23 neo-Ustasha militia and this was a camp run by them for Serbian
25 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Can this be admitted?
1 JUDGE KWON: Very well, yes.
2 THE REGISTRAR: As Exhibit D1906, Your Honours.
3 JUDGE KWON: Now, please conclude in five minutes.
4 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you.
5 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
6 Q. In that case, I'm not going to show some documents. Let me ask
7 you, you were engaged in some activities, and you looked at the conduct
8 of both Serbs and Croats. Did you find the Muslim prisons that we talked
9 about? For example, there were three in Sarajevo. Did you see any
10 Muslim prisons for the Serbs? You can just say yes or no. No need to
12 A. The prison at Dretelj, which is the one you're referring to, at
13 Capljina, was run jointly by Croats and Muslims. I endeavoured to look
14 at another site which you recommended, sir, to Tarcin, a tunnel and a
15 silo, and they were empty at the time. I either was -- you know, failed
16 to see prisoners if they were still there, I don't know, or they had been
17 moved somewhere else. I wanted to get -- to do this -- this -- this --
18 this work on the other side, too, and proceeded straight to Capljina,
19 which is the story you have there.
20 Q. Thank you. In Sarajevo did you see any of the prisons that we
21 talked about?
22 A. I -- I didn't actually go to the city itself of Sarajevo until
23 well into 1993, by which time, and I don't mean to at all belittle the
24 issue of camps, and I don't think I can be accused of that, there was
25 another war going on in Mostar and in Central Bosnia in which your
1 people, troops, whatever, were not involved, and I did not check out
2 any -- any camps in the actual city of Sarajevo itself.
3 Q. Thank you. Did you observe the presence of Muslim troops? Let's
4 call it the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the city did you also
5 observe weapons, cannons, mortars, tanks?
6 A. In the city of Sarajevo?
7 Q. Yes. In the part of the city which was under Muslim control.
8 A. Yes. SDA control, yes. It was -- it was ethnically mixed. Yes.
9 I was up in the front lines there and did see the weaponry. I didn't see
10 any artillery. A source of -- I saw that they had mortars, and they had
11 guns in -- not in very -- not in very plentiful supply, but they -- they
12 were equipped, yes, and became more so. By the -- 1994, they were better
14 Q. Thank you. Now I would like to ask you about the sources from
15 which you learned things. Can it be said that most of your information
16 came from Muslim sources? Is it true that you had a good exchange of
17 information with the Red Cross, UNHCR, NGOs, and so on and so forth? Is
18 all this correct?
19 A. Not -- not quite, sir. I mean, my main source was what I saw and
20 what was happening before my eyes in most cases. I had little or no
21 briefing from Bosnian government, SDA, Muslim authorities. Fairly scant
22 connections with the Red Cross, didn't talk to them much. We disagreed,
23 and they disagreed with me and I with them over their performance in
24 failing to get into and report the camps that we've been discussing.
25 UNHCR some communication, yes. The British Army, some communication,
1 yes, because that's obviously what the newspaper was interested in --
2 in -- in, our British section of the UNPROFOR. And certainly soldiers,
3 yeah. That I will -- I will grant that most of the military I talked to
4 after the convoy over Vlasic was the -- were -- were the Bosnian Army,
5 not the Mujahedin, who I understood just recently had a contract out on
6 me. They didn't like me at all nor me them, and -- but I would say to
7 the Court, if I may, that I did try to get back into Serbian-held
8 territory after that convoy over Vlasic, which was my first time into the
9 government-held territory apart from 36 hours at Sarajevo airport during
10 the spring, and I was unable to get permission to travel through the
11 Bosnian-held -- sorry, Bosnian Serb-held territory. I made a number of
12 attempts by going to Pale where a member of your family, indeed, and
13 others were vetting and giving licence to some and others not to travel,
14 and I never succeeded in getting official permission. They didn't like
16 When I did next go into the Republika Srpska was after the war
17 when I went to Visegrad without authorisation.
18 Q. Thank you. Let's -- let me bring this to an end. In the Tadic
19 case, on the 6th of June, 1996, on page 2076 you described the situation,
20 and you said that you monitored official reports by many organisations
21 such as UNHCR, the Red Cross, and so on and so forth. This is 1D04801,
22 and in that transcript, page number is 2075 and also 2076.
23 You have just said a very important thing. You said that you
24 based most of your information on what you saw. Does this mean that you
25 still stand by your first text that we saw today dated the 7th of August,
1 because it says there that you saw things with your own eyes.
2 A. On the 7th of August, the article, yes. That's mostly based on
3 our visits on the 5th of August to the camps, and -- yes, of course I saw
4 the reports by these various international organisations. I didn't use
5 them as much as many other people did, nor did I go to their briefings as
6 often as others. Sorry, to clarify the, 7th of August article is based
7 upon what -- in most part upon what I saw in Omarska and Trnopolje that
8 day, 5th of August.
9 JUDGE KWON: Yes. We have to wrap up, Mr. Karadzic. I think you
10 have concluded, Mr. Karadzic.
11 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Just one more question, please.
12 MR. KARADZIC: [Interpretation]
13 Q. So there are no other texts based on what you saw, based on your
14 visit, but that one. This is the first text which was written before the
15 media circus descended upon Bosnia; right?
16 A. Yes. Apart from 36 hours at Sarajevo airport back in April, I
17 had not set foot in -- in Bosnian government controlled territory. I had
18 no other sources apart from what we saw that day in addition to the
19 briefing -- apart from the briefing with you, which I acted upon
20 immediately, as we've discussed, going to Capljina to Dretelj, and -- but
21 I had not been briefed by -- if you're asking me if I'd been briefed by
22 the Bosnian side, I'd seen their lists, but I had not actually set foot
23 in Bosnian government controlled territory apart from Sarajevo airport,
24 which was a demilitarised zone, a UN zone.
25 Q. Thank you. Let me just inform you, Mr. Vulliamy, that the text
1 dated the 7th of August is accepted by every Serb as a piece of
2 journalism, the only piece of journalist -- journalism. The rest is
3 nothing but a big story, and I'm really sorry that you put yourself in
4 such a position, and that you were finally proclaimed an anti-Serb. And
5 that is not on the basis of the text that you authored on the 7th of
6 August, but based on everything else that can be called a big story and
7 was written after the 7th of August.
8 JUDGE KWON: Unnecessary comment. Unless you wish to comment on
9 that, I'll ask the -- ask Ms. Sutherland to take the floor.
10 THE WITNESS: Just to say that I have absolutely nothing against
11 the Serbian people whatsoever. I -- my complaint is against things that
12 were done in their name.
13 JUDGE KWON: Ms. Sutherland.
14 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you, Your Honour.
15 Re-examination by Ms. Sutherland:
16 Q. Just quickly, Mr. Vulliamy. At page -- transcript page 81 today,
17 Mr. Karadzic asked you that you saw no single emaciated person like that
18 person Alic was, actually looking at a still on the screen. I wanted to
19 show you some short video footage. Mr. Reid has that ready. If you
20 could just watch this. And this is starting at -- from
21 65 ter number 40437, and it's at 9:02 to 9:25.
22 [Video-clip played]
23 MS. SUTHERLAND: And again at 13:33 to 14:09, please.
24 [Video-clip played]
25 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Maybe I can be of assistance. I
1 can hear in the background: "Give me all the emaciated ones." You can
2 check that. The cameraman says: "Bring me those emaciated ones." You
3 can rewind and perhaps you can check.
4 MS. SUTHERLAND: Your Honour, clearly there are emaciated
5 prisoners -- detainees in the camp, if that's what's being said in the
7 Q. But my question, Mr. Vulliamy, is did you see these men that
8 we've just seen and/or people like it when you were there?
9 A. In that compound, yes.
10 Q. Thank you. The second point -- the second topic: On transcript
11 pages 85 and 86 today, just earlier there was discussion about
12 Mrs. Balaban interpreting, and you said that -- you mentioned that
13 Drljaca, Meakic, and Milutinovic were in authority and that Balaban was
14 interpreting for them. When Ian Williams, the ITN reporter, said, "Why
15 aren't you fulfilling Karadzic's promise?" And Mrs. Balaban said, "He
16 said you can see this and this and not that," was that the restrictions
17 on access that you referred to earlier as imposed by Karadzic? Is that
18 what you were talking about when you said there was the bit that
19 mattered? Were you --
20 A. Yes.
21 Q. -- referring --
22 A. That was what --
23 Q. -- to the restrictions on access that were referred to earlier as
24 being imposed by Karadzic?
25 A. That was one of the passages, and be it coming from her own mouth
1 or translated, I'm not in a position always to know which is -- which is
2 which, when she's translating and when she's just talking, but, yes, that
3 was one of the passages in which it was -- it appeared to be being made
4 clear to her that there were two sets of instructions and that their's
5 was not to allow us into the hangar.
6 Q. But the instructions -- when -- when Ian Williams says, "Why are
7 you not fulfilling Dr. Karadzic's promise to us?" And she said, "He
8 promised us something else and said that you can do this and this and
9 that and not that" --
10 A. That's --
11 Q. If they say this is the protocol of your stay, that will be all,
12 that -- that he was -- she was talking about Mr. Karadzic was imposing
13 the restriction?
14 A. That -- [overlapping speakers]
15 Q. Is that how you understood it?
16 A. That was my inference, yes.
17 MS. SUTHERLAND: Thank you. I have no further questions,
18 Your Honour, and if I can tender the video-clip shown.
19 JUDGE KWON: Into two parts?
20 MS. SUTHERLAND: Or it's already in evidence.
21 JUDGE KWON: That's already in evidence.
22 MS. SUTHERLAND: Yes.
23 JUDGE KWON: Thank you.
24 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I have just one additional question
25 if I may, please, concerning the protocol.
1 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Karadzic, I don't think it's necessary.
2 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I just wanted to ask the witness
3 whether he ever saw the protocol.
4 JUDGE KWON: No it's for the Chamber to assess it later.
5 That concludes your evidence, Mr. Vulliamy. We didn't allow the accused
6 to put the question. Please don't mind.
7 So on behalf of my colleagues and the Tribunal, I would like to
8 thank you --
9 THE WITNESS: Thank you.
10 JUDGE KWON: -- for coming to The Hague --
11 THE WITNESS: Thank you, Your Honours.
12 JUDGE KWON: -- yet again to give it.
13 THE WITNESS: Thank you, Your Honours. Most kind. Thank you.
14 JUDGE KWON: Now you're free to go.
15 THE WITNESS: Most kind. Thank you.
16 JUDGE KWON: If the witness could be excused.
17 With the indulgence of the staff, I have just one brief
18 administrative matter to deal with before we adjourn today.
19 [The witness withdrew]
20 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Tieger, it's going back to your brief response
21 on the accused's motion for access to Oric document that relates to the
22 witness Tucker, I think. The Chamber would prefer to get a written
23 response from you by the end of this week indicating as follows: Number
24 one, whether or not you -- the Prosecution opposes the motion in light of
25 the developments you mentioned yesterday and the fact that all documents,
1 save for one, seem to have been disclosed.
2 Number two, whether or not the Prosecution has disclosed any
3 confidential document to the accused already.
4 Number three, if so, on what basis were these disclosed given
5 that the Pre-Trial Chamber ruled that the accused should have -- should
6 not have access to the confidential materials in the Oric case?
7 Number four, if confidential documents were, nevertheless,
8 disclosed, the Chamber would like to know the exact numbers from the Oric
9 case that were disclosed and whether these include Defence exhibits.
10 And number five, finally, with respect to the Rule 70 document
11 that remains outstanding, the Chamber would like to know what that
12 document is as well as its exhibit number in the Oric case.
13 Thank you. Hearing is now adjourned. Tomorrow 9.00.
14 --- Whereupon the hearing adjourned at 2.04 p.m.,
15 to be reconvened on Thursday, the 10th day
16 of November, 2011, at 9.00 a.m.