1 Thursday, 8
2 [Open session]
3 --- Upon commencing at 9.23 a.m.
4 [The accused entered court]
5 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Good morning. You may be
7 Good morning to the technical booth; good morning to interpreters,
8 the registry, the Prosecution and the Defence counsel. We shall resume
9 our work, and it's Mr. Fila's turn to tell us what we are going to do.
10 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Good morning, Mr. president. The next
11 witness will come in soon. I have planned four witnesses for today and
12 another two for tomorrow.
13 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] And the first for today is?
14 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Protected witness DC4.
15 [The witness entered court]
16 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Good morning, Witness DC4. Can
17 you hear me well?
18 THE INTERPRETER: The interpreters don't quite hear the witness.
19 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, please. Take your oath.
20 WITNESS: WITNESS DC4
21 [Witness answered through interpreter]
22 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I solemnly declare that I will speak
23 the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
24 THE INTERPRETER: The interpreter cannot hear the witness.
25 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] You may be seated. Do you feel
1 comfortable, Witness DC4?
2 A. Yes.
3 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well. Fine. You will now
4 be shown a piece of paper. There is a name written on it. You will tell
5 us, yes or no, whether it is your name.
6 A. Yes.
7 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well. For the moment, you
8 will be answering questions asked of you by Mr. Fila.
9 Mr. Fila, you have the floor.
10 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Mr. President, I would like to go into
11 private session briefly.
12 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] So we are moving into private
25 [Open session]
1 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
2 Q. Witness DC4, you said that you lived in Ljubija since 1956?
3 A. 1954.
4 Q. Yes. 1956. Did you know Mladjo Radic known as Krkan?
5 A. Yes.
6 Q. What did he do?
7 A. He was a simple policeman.
8 Q. What was the national structure of Ljubija?
9 A. It was mixed. It was entirely mixed, Croats, Muslims and Serbs.
10 Q. Mladjo Radic was a Serb, wasn't he?
11 A. Yes.
12 Q. What can you tell us about his conduct in that environment?
13 A. All the best. He was a simple policeman. He did his work. We
14 were neighbours. He helped people.
15 Q. Did you notice in his conduct any nationalist attitude or anything
16 like that?
17 A. No, never.
18 Q. You said that a member of your family found himself detained at
19 one stage in the investigations camp of Omarska?
20 A. Yes, he did.
21 Q. Do you know why he found himself there?
22 A. Well, because he was a Muslim.
23 Q. I would like you now to use your own words, without any further
24 information -- intervention on my part, to explain about his stay in
25 Omarska. He was there for about two months, wasn't he?
1 A. Two months or 90 days.
2 Q. Did he meet there Mladjo Radic and what did he tell you about that
3 meeting with him?
4 A. I heard that my brother was arrested because my son from Prijedor
5 told me so, and I arrived because I knew him and his wife. I called them
6 by phone. I asked whether it would be possible for me to bring medicines
7 and food and some clothes. His wife answered that Mladjo will answer me
8 and Mladjo said, "Yes, bring those things and, if I can, I'll bring them
9 in." I started early. I set off early. There was no electricity. I got
10 hold of those things and I gave another call to his wife and told that --
11 told her that Mladjo should pick them up. He did, and he brought those
12 things to my relative.
13 Q. I'm sorry to interrupt you, but what is it?
14 A. Food, medicines, some clothing, like trousers, T shirts,. He took
15 all those things. Then I went back home to Ljubija. Later, Mladjo
16 dropped in. I asked him whether he would be able to take medicines to
17 him, because he had an ulcer, a stomach ulcer, and he said, "I'll take
18 these things, and if I can, I'll let him have them." It was not a big
19 parcel. There was food, clothes, some money, those people received --
20 admitted all these things.
21 Q. Do you know a person named Zenkovic?
22 A. Yes.
23 Q. Who was he?
24 A. He was the president of the SDA.
25 Q. Did -- was Mladjo Radic anything to him? Did he do anything for
2 A. Yes. He waited at my place. His wife was preparing food for him,
3 and he took him the food, a leather jacket, 100 Deutschmarks, and his wife
4 later told me that he had received all those things. And he brought
5 things to other people as well. He said he would try to take them.
6 Q. Was that permitted and was it easy to do?
7 A. No, no, it wasn't, because Mladjo was a simple policeman.
8 Q. Did you meet him after the camp?
9 A. Yes.
10 Q. After the camp, what was he?
11 A. As usual, he was an ordinary policeman. He was working in the SUP
12 of Prijedor. I dropped in on a friend who was shift leader. Mladjo was
13 at the reception desk. He saw me and greeted me. He was at the counter,
14 a number 92. He was a simple policeman.
15 Q. Your brother lived in Prijedor. He's not from Ljubija, is he?
16 A. Yes, he lived in Prijedor.
17 Q. Do you know a person named Milomir Antunovic?
18 A. Yes.
19 Q. What can you tell us about him?
20 A. I can say that he was in the camp. He is from a village. And
21 when Mladjo was doing his rounds while on duty in Ljubija, he visited
22 him. He had a relative, Milicic Milka and when he visited him, he dropped
23 in on her, and she asked him if he could do anything for Milomir, if he
24 could help him get released, and he answered that that was difficult, that
25 he could see what he can do, and see who is in charge. He said he would
1 try through people who were responsible. And when he got out, Milomir got
2 out, and he is now in Croatia, those who were responsible said that he had
3 been released.
4 Q. Did you talk to your brother once he got out of the camp?
5 A. Yes.
6 Q. What did he tell you?
7 A. He told me that he had received everything from Mladjo, that
8 Mladjo had given him bread, the several parcels, and that Mladjo had also
9 given him some cigarettes and that he was a good man.
10 Q. Can you tell us the names of some other people whom he had helped?
11 A. Kubil Kosevic [phoen] -- Bilkic, sorry, and there were other
12 people. I can't remember them all. Sefik, Antunovic, my brother,
14 Q. Why wouldn't those people come here to testify, including your
15 brother, or could they?
16 A. Well, we don't dare because of their safety. He doesn't dare. He
17 fears for his own safety. It's a different country.
18 Q. Does he know that you're testifying? Did he tell you anything?
19 A. Yes, he knows everything.
20 Q. Did he tell you anything in connection with your coming here to
22 A. He said, "Go ahead," because I sent all my parcels through
23 Mladjo. And I'm testifying because I have personal knowledge and he told
24 me himself that this was a good man who helped people as much as he could,
25 hiding from others, doing it on the sly from people who were higher up
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
1 than him.
2 Q. How did your brother evaluate the conduct of Mladjo Radic and how
3 do you evaluate it? What do you think about him?
4 A. Great. He was a good and honest man always.
5 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Waidyaratne?
6 MR. WAIDYARATNE: Your Honour, asking for an opinion from this
7 witness with regard to another opinion given by another person. This is
8 not hearsay but double hearsay.
9 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila, ask the witness what
10 her brother had told her about the conduct of the man.
11 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
12 Q. What did your brother tell you about Mladjo's conduct? I'm
13 sorry. I wanted to make this shorter.
14 A. How did he behave himself? He was honest. He helped him as much
15 as he was able to. He brought the things that I had sent, he gave him
16 cigarettes when he could. He told me all that when he came back from the
18 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] I would now ask that we move into
19 private session again, because I want to ask a question which requires it.
20 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes. Can we move into closed
21 session, please.
22 [Private session]
17 [Open session]
18 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Are there any other Defence
19 counsel who wish to ask any more questions? I see negative shakes of the
20 head. Mr. Simic? No.
21 So, Mr. Waidyaratne, the witness is now yours.
22 Witness, you will now answer questions asked of you by the
24 MR. WAIDYARATNE: Thank you, Your Honour.
25 Cross-examined by Mr. Waidyaratne:
1 Q. Witness DC4 - I will call you by that, as you are a protected
2 witness - your brother asked you to come and testify; is it correct?
3 A. Yes. He told me that he cannot come and that I should go instead
4 of him.
5 Q. Don't tell me --
6 A. He doesn't dare.
7 Q. Don't tell me as to where he is now. I don't want to know the
8 place. But is he living in Bosnia or is he in a third country?
9 A. He's in a third country.
10 Q. He's in a third country. But he still fears to come and testify;
11 is that correct? Is that your position?
12 A. Yes. And last year he visited me and he said that he did not dare
13 come. He got his house back in Prijedor but he doesn't dare return.
14 Q. He didn't tell you as to why he fears, although he's living in a
15 third country, as to why he fears to come and testify?
16 A. Well, there are people who were there, who did those things, who
17 arrested him in Prijedor, and he's afraid of them.
18 Q. I don't think you understood me. His fear to come and testify, is
19 that the reason, because they are in Prijedor?
20 A. They are in Prijedor, yes, and he's afraid to go. He's afraid of
21 the Serbs, quite simply.
22 Q. Your brother is in a third country, not in Prijedor now. From the
23 time after he left --
24 A. Yes, he's in a third country.
25 Q. Witness, did you have a house in Prijedor?
1 A. I had a house in Ljubija.
2 Q. (redacted)
3 A. (redacted)
4 Q. (redacted)
5 A. (redacted)
7 Q. (redacted)
8 A. (redacted)
10 Q. (redacted)
12 A. (redacted)
13 Q. (redacted)
15 A. (redacted)
17 Q. (redacted)
18 A. (redacted)
20 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Fila. I see you on
21 your feet.
22 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Let me just say that these matters were
23 discussed in closed session and Mr. Waidyaratne is now talking about it in
24 open session, and this jeopardises the identity of the witness, (redacted)
1 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes. Mr. Waidyaratne, please
2 take care.
3 MR. WAIDYARATNE: May I respectfully request that we go into
4 closed session.
5 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes. I think that would be
6 safer. Let us move into private session.
7 [Private session]
13 Page 8858 redacted – private session
18 [Open session]
19 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Please proceed,
20 Mr. Waidyaratne.
21 MR. WAIDYARATNE: Thank you, Your Honour.
22 Q. Witness, your brother, before he was arrested, he was still
23 undergoing medication; am I correct?
24 A. Yes.
25 Q. And they didn't -- the people who took them to the camp did not
1 allow him to take his medicine; am I correct?
2 A. That's right.
3 Q. Was your brother involved in politics or was he a member of the
5 A. No, no.
6 Q. Was he married?
7 A. Yes.
8 Q. How many children did he have?
9 A. Two.
10 Q. He was a civilian?
11 A. Yes.
12 Q. Do you know as to why he was not allowed to take his medicine when
13 he was arrested?
14 A. He wasn't at home when he was arrested. He was at his
15 sister-in-law's having lunch.
16 Q. He was not given an opportunity to take his medicine anyway; is
17 that correct?
18 A. That's correct, yes.
19 Q. Witness, now, you said this simple policeman, Mr. Radic, came
20 specially to collect the things that you wanted to send to your brother;
21 is that correct?
22 A. He came. Whether he came specially for that or whether he'd had
23 other business because there were some of his wife's relatives living
24 there, but he stopped by anyway. When I called in the evening, I didn't
25 go in the morning. I said all that; I don't want to repeat it. I asked
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
1 him and he said yes, he would if he could bring it in because of the other
2 people that were there, so he would do his best.
3 Q. Now, the money, did you give the money or he requested the money
4 to be taken to the camp?
5 A. No. He didn't ask. He couldn't request this. I asked him to
6 take it. I gave medicines, I gave some clothing, I gave him some food.
7 Q. Witness, why did you send money to the camp? There were no shops
8 in the camp. Did anybody tell you that?
9 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Fila?
10 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] I should like to ask Mr. Waidyaratne to
11 read the transcript and tell us where he sees that she said that she asked
12 the money to be sent. So Mr. Waidyaratne should ask did he send it -- no,
13 did she send money for her brother. That would be the proper question and
14 the right way of going about it.
15 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Waidyaratne.
16 MR. WAIDYARATNE: I will rephrase the question.
17 Q. Witness, did you send money through Mr. Radic to your brother?
18 A. No, I did not send money. I sent him food, trousers, T shirts.
19 I've already said that, medicines. I did not send any money, cigarettes.
20 MR. WAIDYARATNE: Your Honour, please bear with me.
21 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Just a minute, please refrain
22 from making comments. And Mr. Waidyaratne, please proceed. I think that
23 it is quite normal for counsel to reorganise himself and take a few
24 moments to do so. Please proceed.
25 MR. WAIDYARATNE: At page 3, line 15, the witness mentions this.
1 Therefore that's why I asked that question.
2 JUDGE RIAD: I think he mentioned that it was the other, the
3 president of the SDA who asked Radic to take 100 Deutschmarks and food.
4 MR. WAIDYARATNE: Thank you, I stand corrected. Thank you, Your
6 Q. So you knew Mr. Radic took money to the camp for the people who
7 were detained there; is that correct? You got to know about it.
8 A. He took it and the woman sent a leather jacket too and some food
9 and 100 German marks and Irfan Zenkovic received that.
10 Q. Now that we are dealing with Irfan, do you know where he is now?
11 I don't want to know the place but do you know whether he's alive or not?
12 A. He died last year, somewhere in a third country. His brother
13 returned to Ljubija.
14 Q. Witness, you're supposed to have spoken to your brother. Did your
15 brother say as to what position Mr. Radic had in the camp, as to what he
17 A. An ordinary policeman.
18 Q. No, as to what he performed?
19 A. What else could he be -- could he have been?
20 Q. Witness, as to what functions or what he did in the camp. I know
21 that he's a policeman.
22 A. Yes. What could an ordinary policeman do with just eight years of
23 schooling? What else could he do?
24 Q. Did your brother say as to what function he did, yes or no?
25 A. Ordinary ones. No, he didn't. No, he didn't do anything that
1 would require a position of any kind. An ordinary policeman, nothing
3 Q. Please bear with me, Your Honour. Witness, you knew Mr. Radic for
4 quite a long time?
5 A. Yes.
6 Q. And you said that he was an ordinary policeman; is that correct?
7 Isn't it correct?
8 A. Yes, that's right.
9 Q. But during the time that your brother was in the camp, he in fact
10 did extraordinary things which could not have been done by an ordinary
11 policeman; is that correct?
12 A. Well, when the people who -- I don't know how to --
13 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila?
14 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Mr. President, you know in advance what
15 I'm about to say. That is an assertion. Counsel is making an assertion.
16 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes. You are mutually accusing
17 each other. Mr. Waidyaratne, don't make an assertion with the question
18 mark at the end, but ask a proper question.
19 MR. WAIDYARATNE: Very well, Your Honour.
20 Q. Did you know any other policemen who were in the camp who did help
21 people in the camp, to your knowledge?
22 A. No, no. I wasn't interested in that, just I knew about him
23 through my brother.
24 MR. WAIDYARATNE: Thank you, Your Honour. That concludes my --
25 thank you.
1 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila?
2 Re-examined by Mr. Fila:
3 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
4 Q. How did you know that Mladjo Radic worked in the Omarska camp
5 whatever the work was that he did?
6 A. Because my son worked in Omarska at the petrol pump and he knew
7 his wife. She worked in the kitchen. She was a cook. And my son
8 contacted them and asked where Mladjo was working because, for a time, he
9 worked at the police station as an ordinary policeman, police officer,
10 when he left Ljubija, and then they moved over there to work. And that's
11 how I knew.
12 Q. And did you know or did you not know that your brother was in
14 A. Yes, I did know. My son told me that from Prijedor.
15 Q. That means that you contacted Mladjo Radic because your son knew
16 his wife and learnt that he was working in Omarska; is that correct?
17 A. Yes.
18 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour. I have no
19 further questions.
20 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you very much, Mr. Fila.
21 Judge Fouad Riad?
22 Questioned by the Court:
23 JUDGE RIAD: Thank you, Mr. President. I will have to call you
24 Witness DC4. Good morning. Can you hear me?
25 A. Good morning. I can hear you.
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
1 JUDGE RIAD: I hope you can help me understand a few things to the
2 best of your knowledge. You said that your brother was not involved in
3 politics, was not a member of SDA. To your knowledge, why were people
4 like him arrested?
5 A. Because they were Muslims.
6 JUDGE RIAD: Only men or women too?
7 A. Women, too.
8 JUDGE RIAD: Women too. And then concerning your intervention to
9 send him food and the medicine, you think Mr. -- was it thanks to an
10 acquaintance between you and Mrs. Radic or was it because your brother
11 knew Mr. Radic? Because he can't do it for everyone.
12 A. Of course he couldn't, of the other Serbs, no. He did this
13 because we knew each other from the 1970s. We were acquaintances and he
14 said that he would do as much as he could, to the best of his ability, but
15 of course he was afraid of his other people.
16 JUDGE RIAD: Whether you say "we," it means you or your brother?
17 Who was a friend of Radic? Were you a friend of the family or that you --
18 A. Me. I was friendly with their family, with them.
19 JUDGE RIAD: Now, I don't think this is a secret but your brother
20 is living outside now, abroad, in a third country? And he's afraid?
21 A. Yes.
22 JUDGE RIAD: He's afraid to go back -- afraid of the Serbs, not of
23 the Muslims?
24 A. Yes.
25 JUDGE RIAD: Why would he be afraid then to come and testify here
1 for a Serb, to defend a Serb? Is he afraid of the Muslims too?
2 A. Well, he's afraid of the Muslims and Serbs, too.
3 JUDGE RIAD: But is he -- I mean, he has no contact with Muslims.
4 His house is in a Serb area, isn't it?
5 A. Yes.
6 JUDGE RIAD: Thank you very much.
7 A. Thank you.
8 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you very much, Judge
10 Madam Judge Wald? No questions?
11 I have a few questions for you, Witness DC4. You said that the
12 people received all the things, all the things that Radic brought. Do you
13 remember saying that?
14 Have we got some more technical problems or can you hear the
15 interpretation? Can you hear me, Madam? Can you hear me now?
16 A. Yes, I can, Your Honour.
17 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well. Let me repeat. You
18 said, and I'm quoting your words, the people received all the things. And
19 I suppose that they were the things that Radic brought. Do you remember
20 saying that?
21 A. Yes.
22 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] How did you know that the people
23 had received all the things?
24 A. Because they were mostly my neighbours, and we contacted each
25 other, visited each other. And Irfan's wife told me that Irfan had
1 received everything, and that is why he had asked for money, because he
2 thought he would go -- leave Omarska and go further on. And he went to
3 Manjaca, and that's why he asked for the money. And let me also say that
4 an individual told me - and she was a woman there - that Mladjo took his
5 wife to the doctor's to get some medicines for her so that she could take
6 the medicines to the camp, because she was ill. And he took out these
7 medicines in the name of his own wife, to take the medicines to another
8 woman prisoner, woman detainee, who was otherwise a neighbour of theirs.
9 So that's what she told me. She told me all about that.
10 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well. Witness DC4, we have
11 no further questions for you. We should like to thank you very much for
12 coming and we wish you a safe return to your place of residence. Thank
13 you very much, and the usher will now escort you out of the courtroom.
14 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you too.
15 [The witness withdrew]
16 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila, who is the next
17 witness? Can you tell us?
18 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. President. We have summaries
19 for the next two witnesses because they live outside the territory of
20 Bosnia-Herzegovina. As Mr. Christian Rohde doesn't like us to spend the
21 Tribunal's money travelling left and right, I saw them for the first time
22 here, so I wasn't able to take a statement from them.
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Does the Prosecution have any
24 comments to make?
25 MS. SOMERS: Mr. Saxon will be taking this witness, Your Honour,
1 but he apparently is satisfied that we can proceed. So thank you. Thank
3 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well.
4 [The witness entered court]
5 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Good morning. Can you hear me,
7 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes. Good morning. I can hear
9 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] You are now going to read the
10 solemn declaration handed to you by the usher.
11 WITNESS: WITNESS DC5
12 [Witness answered through interpreter]
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I solemnly declare that I will speak
14 the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
15 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Please be seated. Thank you for
16 coming. You will now be answering questions put to you by Mr. Fila.
17 Mr. Fila, please proceed.
18 There is something else.
19 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Mr. President, may we move into --
20 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] No, not yet, Mr. Fila.
21 Witness, would you have a look at the piece of paper to see if
22 your name is inscribed on it. Give us a yes or no answer, please.
23 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes.
24 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] So that is your name; is that
1 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes.
2 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well. Let us now move into
3 private session.
4 [Private session]
18 [Open session]
19 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] We are in open session now.
20 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
21 Q. Did you know a person named Mladjo Radic before the war?
22 A. Yes, I did.
23 Q. Where did you meet him and what was he doing?
24 A. I met him in the '70s when he came to work to Ljubija as a young
25 police officer.
1 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila, I apologise for
2 interrupting, but looking at the transcript - and I think we can do this
3 in open session - we need the date of the witness' birth. Which February
4 were you born? We need the year.
5 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] But it says the year, Your Honour.
6 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] I think it would be better to
7 move into private session for a few moments, and so let us do so. Private
8 session, please.
9 [Private session]
21 [Open session]
22 THE REGISTRAR: We're in open session.
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] I thank the interpreters. I saw
24 Mr. Saxon on his feet.
25 Was there a problem, Mr. Saxon?
1 MR. SAXON: Thank you, Your Honour. There was, but perhaps we
2 should go into private session and I will explain the problem to you.
3 THE REGISTRAR: We're in private session. Sorry, we are not in
5 [Private session]
23 [Open session]
24 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila, please proceed.
25 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
1 Q. Sir, you said that you met Mladjo Radic in the '70s, in Ljubija?
2 A. Yes.
3 Q. What was he doing there?
4 A. He was a police officer.
5 Q. Is Ljubija a multi-ethnic place?
6 A. Yes.
7 Q. Which nationalities?
8 A. Muslims, Croats, Serbs, Gypsies, and so on.
9 Q. During his work, did you notice that Mr. Radic differentiated
10 between the nationalities?
11 A. No. Quite the opposite. At that time the police -- the regime
12 was different. You couldn't even look at a policeman in an unfriendly
13 way. But he was a member of my generation. We were doing sports
14 together, we socialised, we went out together. It seems to me that the
15 way he was on duty, he was the same way off duty too. We would make jokes
16 on account of the police, even on his account, whereas we couldn't do that
17 with others. We made jokes at our own expense, at his expense, and there
18 were no problems at all, not even during his work, nor during his time
19 off. We would go to restaurants together, we would chase women, and so
21 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Witness. Please try and
22 speak a little more slowly. You were going very fast earlier on, but try
23 and speak a little more slowly, because you're speaking the same language,
24 whereas we have to rely on the interpreters. So I apologise, but could I
25 please ask you to speak more slowly, which will facilitate the work of the
1 interpreters. Thank you.
2 Mr. Fila, please proceed.
3 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
4 Q. Witness DC5, at one point you found yourself detained in the
5 Omarska camp?
6 A. Yes, I was in the Omarska camp. I arrived there in early July
7 from the Keraterm camp. When I came to the Omarska camp, we arrived there
8 in two buses. The majority from my group were from Ljubija, because in
9 those days, in that period, the population of Ljubija was brought to the
10 Keraterm camp. And because we couldn't be accommodated, we
11 couldn't -- didn't have time for -- they didn't have time for everybody to
12 be interrogated at that camp, so they took us by bus to the Omarska camp.
13 When we got to Omarska camp, they brought us out of the buses.
14 They lined us up into two lines. They turned us towards a wall, and while
15 we were waiting to come in, out of boredom or something, the guards who
16 were standing behind us forced us to put our hands on the wall, to put
17 three fingers on the wall. Who -- the people who couldn't do that very
18 well got hit on their hands. Then we were told to go into a room. It was
19 a kind of small room. As we heard, this was the administrative building's
20 garage. There were 74 of us. There was no room for all of us to stand,
21 never mind to lie down.
22 I spent three days there until it was my turn to go in for
23 questioning. And during those three days, we would go out, if needed. We
24 would just go out to go to the -- to go to the bathroom, but there was no
25 proper toilet. We would have to just go out on the grass. And there was
1 also a water tap outside. Once also they took us to the cafeteria to have
2 lunch, and then they brought us back to that room.
3 On the third day, it was my turn to go in for questioning. These
4 questionings were held above the room that we were in, in offices on an
5 upper floor. During the questioning, we would hear screams, the sounds of
6 things breaking, howling. I think that there was torture. I don't know
7 who was doing it. And I believe that the reason why we were held in this
8 room was a psychological one so that we would know what would be waiting
9 for us up -- upstairs, but even besides that, I personally couldn't wait
10 to go upstairs because I knew that I had to go through that, and once you
11 went through that, you could go out to the pista, where we saw a large
12 number of internees who were outside. They could move around freely.
13 Q. Could you stop for a second now and then we will continue with
14 that. How much time did you spend in Omarska overall?
15 A. I don't know exactly but I think about a month.
16 Q. The guard who made you lean against the wall with the three
17 fingers, do you know who these guards belonged to? What were they dressed
19 A. There were different uniforms there. It was summer, so they were
20 wearing a drab, olive-grey military shirts, some people were wearing blue
21 shirts. Some people even had camouflage pants and then they would be
22 wearing a civilian T-shirt with short sleeves. So I wasn't sure but I was
23 sure that they belonged to the Serb army. I couldn't say the army. I
24 mean, they were all Serbs. And then all the inmates were Muslims and
1 Q. Very well. Could you please tell us now whether you met Mr. Radic
2 at Omarska and tell us about all your encounters with him. Could you tell
3 us that in your own words without my further interruption? Thank you.
4 A. I think the first time that I heard about Mladjo Radic was on the
5 second day when we were coming back from lunch. When the guards who were
6 returning us, two or three guards, lined us up in the same way that they
7 did when we came out of the buses, in two lines, and we had to be turned
8 towards one side. They forced us to sit down with our legs close to our
9 bodies and with our heads between our knees. Then they started to beat us
10 on our back.
11 Q. Please, could you drink some water?
12 A. They beat us everywhere. They jumped on us. We didn't see who it
13 was who was beating us, nor did we know how much they were beating us. At
14 one point, I heard that somebody mentioned a name, Krkan, and then a
15 little bit after that, they told us to go inside the garage. They made us
16 run in there like a stampede so that at the door, we ran into one another
17 and then we had to go in slowly. Once inside, we commented that we know a
18 person called Krkan from the place where we came from. There were
19 different nicknames. I don't know where his nickname came from.
20 Q. I'm sorry to interrupt you. You said that somebody mentioned
21 Krkan. In which context was this mentioned?
22 A. One of the guards said, "Stop, let's stop. Krkan is coming."
23 Q. Stop what?
24 A. The beating. Then they stopped beating us and then we went inside
25 the garage. And then once inside the garage, we were talking whether this
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
1 was the same Krkan that we knew, because there were different nicknames.
2 Somebody thought that this was a derogatory nickname, somebody didn't
3 think so, but I think that Mladjo Radic that we called Krkan had this
4 nickname because he liked to eat a lot and drink a lot. So then we used
5 to say that he gorged himself. We didn't mean anything bad by it. And we
6 don't know who it was that the nickname originated from.
7 So when it was my turn for questioning, the guard took me
8 upstairs. I came to the office where there were two elderly, older
9 gentlemen. One of them was reading a newspaper, the other one was waiting
10 to interrogate me. And it seemed to me that they were on shifts. One was
11 resting and the other one was doing the interrogating. So then once he
12 took my information, he started to read from a piece of paper, where all
13 the things that I was charged against were noted, the reason why I was
14 brought to the camp.
15 The first charges that he mentioned, I couldn't give an
16 affirmative response to and I couldn't confirm that it -- the things
17 happened that they ascribed to me. He laughed, and I said that this
18 wasn't true and then I received a blow on my back. And until that moment,
19 I didn't even realise that somebody was standing behind me. There was a
20 young man there, also wearing a black T-shirt and camouflage trousers.
21 When I -- I fell down off the chair and he hit me once again, and then I
22 got up in order that he shouldn't hit me again. But, really, I didn't see
23 him. Once I sat down again, then after a series of questions, after I
24 denied all the things that were being ascribed to me, he came around to in
25 front of me and he kicked me in the chest. And then I said for him not to
1 touch me anymore. And then they asked me another couple of questions, and
2 after that, they allowed me to leave and go to the pista.
3 When I was coming out through the corridor, and I know I could --
4 I know that in front of every office I could hear that people were being
5 beaten. I was walking ahead slowly. I was prepared to receive blows.
6 But when I was in front of the last office, I could see that the guards
7 who were usually in the offices, that the guards were sitting there and
8 they were drinking coffee so that when I passed by there, nobody touched
9 me. Only downstairs, there was one guard at the bottom of the stairs, and
10 he was talking with this woman. He moved, and she thrust her foot out so
11 that I stumbled and fell. I then went into the restaurant because the
12 restaurant was there, the canteen was there. And I went inside because it
13 was time for lunch, which lasted for two or three minutes, just enough
14 time to eat the food. Then I went to the pista and I was amongst the
15 other inmates who were there before me.
16 There, I met other acquaintances who arrived at the camp before me
17 and who were already outside at the pista. And then we talked. We didn't
18 pay much attention to our surroundings, the day went by. I was asking,
19 "How do things run here? How do they work?" And they said, "Well, you
20 can go and have water. Most of the day you spend sitting around and then
21 in the evening you go to these rooms where you spend the night."
22 The first night at the pista, the first day, we spent there until
23 dusk, until it was time to go to bed. They lined us up in groups of about
24 30 and they took us to the different rooms. I, in the group that I was
25 in, went into one of the offices on the floor above. Later I saw that
1 there was a large hole underneath that room where there was a large
2 workshop. And then, in the course of the night, the guards would come
3 in. Some of them would hit us, some of them would walk all over us, and
4 they were asking for money and watches. It was very popular to see who
5 was wearing these special sports shoes on their feet. So that practically
6 we couldn't really spend the night -- we couldn't sleep during the night.
7 In the morning they would take us out to the pista again where we would be
8 lying around or sitting around all day. In the morning, when there was a
9 committee that came around, we had to lie on our stomach so that we
10 wouldn't see who the members of that committee were.
11 Q. Could you please tell us when you met -- when you encountered
12 Mladjo Radic?
13 A. I met Mladjo Radic, I think, on the third day because I spent two
14 nights upstairs on the upper floor. At one point, I looked and I saw a
15 familiar face, because all of the guards were not known to me. And later
16 I found out that all the guards were from the surrounding villages. The
17 only person that I did recognise was him. I was thinking - and I was not
18 sure - I was hesitating whether I should go up to him, for him to see me
19 or that whether I should ask for help from him. I was afraid to approach
20 him at first because I had friends, acquaintances, that I grew up with and
21 who had forgotten me overnight. And they didn't know me any longer.
22 Q. Those were Serbs; is that right?
23 A. Yes, that's right. I took a bottle from a friend of mine, that
24 was -- it was a plastic bottle. The first guard who was there, usually
25 you would ask the first guard for permission to go and get water, and he
1 permitted me to go and get water. On the way back, I met -- I glanced at
2 Mladjo Radic, and he looked at me and he was surprised, and he asked me
3 when did I get there? And I said, "I got here two or three days ago,
4 three or four days ago." He asked me, "Are there any problems?" And so
5 on. And I asked him if it was possible for him to do something, to
6 transfer us, so that we could sleep in the restaurant, with the groups who
7 were in the restaurant, because usually that group had -- was a little
8 more privileged. When we were taken out early in the morning, then you
9 could get a place by the wall in the hall because that place had the most
10 hours in the shade during the day. And he said that he would see with his
11 colleague, the guard, who allocated which group would go where and he did
12 go. So when it was time -- I didn't see him -- then I didn't see him any
13 more. When it was time to go to sleep, the guard who was allocating the
14 groups, he said right away the group from Ljubija should line up there.
15 There were a lot of us from Ljubija but there were a few groups of 30. We
16 lined up. We waited for other groups to line up, five or six more lines.
17 That is how many windows there were to go into the restaurant,
18 because that was the way we went into the restaurant, through low windows,
19 which were set quite low. So among the first, we entered the restaurant
20 and then the other groups, that's where we spent the night. And we were a
21 little protected there. It wasn't quite peaceful but nobody really
22 touched us there. Perhaps somebody would come and call somebody out and
23 take them out. This went on, repeated itself for two or three more days,
24 as far as going inside the restaurant.
25 Then when he was in the shift, there was an outbreak of
1 dysentery. There were some stomach problems. He would bring us
2 medicines. He would bring us some pills. And people were helped by those
4 Q. Who are you talking about?
5 A. Mladjo Radic. Once, at one point, he passed me a small piece of
6 bread when lunch was already over, just in passing, so that I should have
7 that piece of bread, and I divided it between the two or three of us.
8 Later I heard from other people that he would pass them bread too, in
10 I was -- I spent most of my time among people from Ljubija, and
11 two or three days later we were transferred. We were not to sleep any
12 longer down in the pista. We were moved into a hall which was cleared for
13 inmates. When we arrived at the hall, three big doors were opened. Those
14 doors were usually used by dumper trucks and when we got there we noticed
15 that it was partitioned by a barbed wire about one metre high and that the
16 hall had been washed, the floor had been washed. It was still wet. It
17 was still wet with oil and dust. There was a layer of dirt actually on
18 the floor. They made us lie down and get up several times and used us to
19 sweep the floor with our bodies.
20 Q. When did you meet Mladjo Radic again?
21 A. I met him again on that same day, sometime in the afternoon, when
22 he brought two or three loaves of bread, but I didn't get it then. My
23 colleagues -- in fact, my friends, comrade inmates got it, those who were
24 nearer to the wire.
25 The next day also he brought some bread for me but that was
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
1 towards the evening. He called me out by name to come close to the wire,
2 and he brought a paper bag containing 20 fourths of bread. Usually we
3 would get just one eighth of a loaf of bread for dinner. So he gave us
4 this paper bag full of bread, and to divide between us.
5 Later, I was called by a guard who was on duty, and he told me to
6 bring that bag over to him. When I did so, he took two fourths of bread
7 out of the bag, and he said, "You can have the rest, and I'm taking this
8 for my pigs because they are worth more than you are."
9 And when Radic heard of that, he said, "Don't tell Radic this,
10 because darkness will swallow you." I never told Radic, because I knew
11 what the expression meant. They had little respect for us, those other
12 guards. But he defended us and we were somehow under his protection. And
13 the bread that was taken away from me, I believe it was out of some sort
14 of spite. He wanted to prove to me that he can go against Radic even.
15 Q. Regarding the shifts, did you have any particular name for that
16 shift where Mladjo Radic worked?
17 A. When I arrived at the camp, I heard from my acquaintances that
18 there were shifts there, and although I didn't know who did what duties, I
19 didn't distinguish between the uniforms. But among us, we referred to it
20 as Mladjo's shift. In fact, we used the word "Krkan's shift," because he
21 was on it. And there were really -- there were a couple of guards on it
22 who - I don't know how to put it - had absolutely no human feeling. It
23 didn't take them anything to beat a man up. For instance, we were mostly
24 beaten by those who were in the compound, within the hall, and I never saw
25 Mladjo Radic around there. They had no particular designated guard
1 posts. They just walked around the hall.
2 Q. What did he carry in terms of weapons, if anything?
3 A. I don't remember seeing him ever with a weapon. The first time I
4 saw a weapon on him was when I had got out of the camp and when I was in
5 Croatia, and then I saw him on TV carrying an automatic rifle.
6 Q. Was that a film?
7 A. Yes. It was just a brief, short landing on a staircase. You
8 could see through the rails. And he was standing there with an automatic
9 rifle. And there were many other guards without any weapons.
10 Q. Why did you call it Krkan's shift?
11 A. Because he was the only one we knew on that shift.
12 Q. How would you evaluate his conduct, his treatment of you?
13 A. I can understand -- I could understand if Mladjo Radic wanted to
14 protect me, because he knew me, but there were 30 other people who enjoyed
15 the same protection as I did, and we would have been much luckier if dear
16 God had wanted us to have several more other guards in that camp who would
17 have taken another 20 or 30 people under their protection.
18 THE INTERPRETER: No microphone for the counsel. Please repeat
19 the question.
20 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
21 Q. You left to Manjaca?
22 THE INTERPRETER: No microphone. Mr. Fila has no microphone.
23 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
24 Q. Did you go to Manjaca from Omarska?
25 A. Yes.
1 Q. Did you meet other inmates who had been in Omarska with you and
2 did you then make any comments among yourselves about Mladjo Radic? Did
3 you discuss him?
4 A. A part of the inmates also from Ljubija who had been with me, they
5 were called out again on the pista, and it later turned out that those
6 people who had been called out left for the camp in Trnopolje and had been
7 returned home from there. We were told that all the others who had not
8 been called out to get onto buses. Seventeen buses or thereabouts had
9 arrived to take us to Manjaca.
10 In Manjaca we had a bad time in the first days as well. There
11 were guards. We couldn't talk much. They made us keep our hands behind
12 our backs. But several days later, the Red Cross came and registered us
13 and things improved; they improved a lot. Living conditions were better,
14 we were able to move around, we were able to move from the stable, where
15 we were accommodated, we could talk to other inmates. And in our
16 discussions we sort of reviewed our memories, and as far as Mladjo Radic
17 is concerned, nobody ever mentioned seeing him hit somebody or anything
18 worse than that. All I could hear in my group -- I cannot speak about
19 other people, but in my group of 30 or 50 people who were in Manjaca from
20 Ljubija, that's all you could hear about him, and I speak in my name
21 only. I have gone through hell, but in that hell, I enjoyed only one
22 protection, and that was Mladjo Radic.
23 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Thank you very much. Thank you very
24 much for all the good things that you have said.
25 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you, Mr. Fila. I think
1 that we're going to take a break at this point. Before we take a break, I
2 should like to ask the usher to escort you, Witness, out of the
4 [The witness stands down]
5 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Let us have a half-hour break.
6 --- Recess taken at 10.51 a.m.
7 --- On resuming at 11.27 a.m.
8 [The witness takes the stand]
9 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Please be seated. Are there any
10 other Defence counsel who wish to put questions to this witness? All
11 right. Very well. Thank you. Mr. Saxon -- witness, you are now going to
12 answer questions put to you by the Prosecutor.
13 Mr. Saxon, please proceed.
14 MR. SAXON: Thank you, Your Honour. For my first two questions,
15 could we please go into private session?
16 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, we are moving into private
17 session for a couple of minutes.
18 [Private session]
19 Cross-examined by Mr. Saxon:
13 [Open session]
14 MR. SAXON:
15 Q. My question was: Did you and Mr. Radic go to restaurants together
16 and chase women until 1984, when Mr. Radic was transferred to the Omarska
17 Police Department?
18 A. No. When Mr. Radic left Ljubija, we saw less of each other. For
19 some time I worked in Ljubija. After that I worked in Prijedor. I
20 actively engaged in sports and I had less time to spare and we saw less of
21 each other in Prijedor.
22 Q. Witness, DC5, perhaps my question wasn't clear. I'll try to ask
23 it again. My question was: Did you and Mr. Radic continue to go to
24 restaurants together, chase women together, from the 1970s until 1984,
25 which was when Mr. Omarska was transferred -- Mr. Radic was transferred to
1 the Omarska Police Station?
2 A. We did go out together but it was not very frequently. From time
3 to time, we would go out in other surrounding towns. Would I sometimes go
4 out after work and so did he. He had a small car, a Fiat 750, and he -- I
5 had a wife and he had a girlfriend, a stable girlfriend.
6 Q. Did Mr. Radic have a stable girlfriend in Ljubija?
7 A. She wasn't exactly from Ljubija but later when he got married,
8 it's a small place near Ljubija, it's his present wife. At that time, I
9 didn't see them go out together very often.
10 Q. After you and Mr. Radic were married in the mid 1970s, did you
11 continue to go out together and chase women?
12 A. We would meet in places, cafes, where we went out, both of us,
13 where people from Ljubija met but we no longer went out and had fun as
14 bachelors. I already said that I was employed at the time. I was also a
15 sportsman. I went -- I was busy doing my training and preparations and we
16 would meet by chance somewhere when we went out for a drink and we made
17 jokes and hoaxes together, because he was very good at that, and that was
18 the sort of fun we had.
19 Q. Let's move to the time --
20 THE INTERPRETER: Microphone.
21 MR. SAXON:
22 Q. Let's move to your detention in the Omarska camp in July of 1992.
23 You mentioned an incident -- actually, I need to go more slowly. In your
24 direct examination, you were asked about the guards at the Omarska camp.
25 This was on page 29 of the transcript. And you said that there were
1 different uniforms there but you were sure that they belonged to the Serb
2 army. My question is: Is it possible that these men who were wearing
3 different kinds of clothing were actually reserve policemen who had been
4 mobilised to serve as guards at the Omarska camp?
5 A. I do not know that. What I could see at the camp looked to me as
6 a poorly organised army, very loose, because not only did they wear a
7 variety of uniforms and black T-shirts - those black T-shirts were worn by
8 bigger men who probably wanted to show off their muscles - and some of
9 them wore drab-olive shirts, some wore grey-olive shirts, others wore blue
10 police shirts. So it was really a great variety of clothing and you
11 couldn't distinguish between ranks.
12 Q. You mentioned an incident where a beating of prisoners was going
13 on that you witnessed, and you heard a guard say, "Stop. Let's stop.
14 Krkan is coming." When that guard uttered those words, did the beating
16 A. I only heard somebody say, "Stop." I don't know whether they
17 said, "Krkan is coming." I didn't even see him then. I didn't see from
18 which side somebody was coming. There was a car coming - we could hear
19 that - but the car was far away, and it was ten minutes through the
20 beating. Maybe they had got tired of it themselves. I don't know the
21 meaning of all this. I didn't know. It was Mladjo Radic in question.
22 But as it later turned out, it was he who was coming.
23 Q. On page 30 of the transcript, at line 9, Witness DC5, your words
24 were: "One of the guards said, 'Stop. Let's stop. Krkan is coming.'"
25 My question was, and please just answer yes or no: After you heard those
1 words, did the beating stop?
2 A. Yes. Well, not right away, but they said, "Away with you. Go to
3 the garage."
4 Q. After that, did Krkan, the man you knew as Mladjo Radic, arrive at
5 the scene?
6 A. We did not see him, because they had already marched us into the
8 Q. So as far as your personal knowledge, you heard these words
9 uttered by the guard and after that the beating stopped; is that correct?
10 A. Yes.
11 Q. You mentioned how, and I think also with the assistance of
12 Mr. Radic, you and other prisoners from Ljubija were permitted to sleep in
13 the restaurant. And on page 34, this is what you said. You said: "So we
14 were a little protected in the restaurant." By the pronoun "we," are you
15 referring to yourself and your neighbours from Ljubija?
16 A. Yes. That means me and the people in my group there, because when
17 I went to ask after -- when I went to ask him, I asked for myself and the
18 people who were with me. I didn't know any others.
19 Q. Witness DC5, you mentioned that there was an outbreak of dysentery
20 at the camp, some prisoners had stomach problems. Do you know what was
21 making the prisoners ill?
22 A. Well, I don't know. Probably poor nutrition. I don't know what.
23 I'm not a doctor. I can't say that. All I know is that we asked
24 something to be done to stop this dysentery or alleviate it a little.
25 There was one doctor among the inmates who provided medicines as well, and
1 when he was not there, then we asked Mladen to bring something in. I
2 personally did not need any, but I know that some inmates who were with me
3 had in their possession a couple of pills received from the doctor who was
4 one of the inmates, some of them had pills they got from Mladjo Radic,
5 et cetera.
6 Q. Witness DC5, you described a scene where one of the guards took
7 some bread from the prisoners who were in your group - I believe you were
8 in the hangar - and the guard said to you and your fellow prisoners, "You
9 can have the rest and I'm taking this for my pigs, because they are worth
10 more than you are." This is on page 35 of the transcript of your direct
11 testimony. But in the English translation, according to the English
12 translation, you continued to say: "And when Radic heard of that, he
13 said," and then it says, "Don't tell Radic this, because darkness will
14 swallow you." I'm concerned, first of all, there may be some confusion in
15 the translation. Who was it who made that last comment, if you recall?
16 A. I didn't say that Radic said that. I said that the guard who had
17 taken away some bread from my bag -- there were several guards there
18 around the dumper gates, and they sat at desks. One of those guards, he
19 took two fourths of bread out of the bag and he said: Have the rest and
20 I'll take this for his pigs. And he said, "If I tell Radic about that,
21 darkness would swallow me."
22 Q. To your knowledge, or in your opinion, what did that guard mean by
23 that comment?
24 THE INTERPRETER: Interpreter's correction. The guard took
25 everything but two fourths of the loaf.
1 A. We, the group from Ljubija, consisted of about a hundred men, but
2 in that hangar there were 30 of us. And when he would bring bread or
3 medicines, he communicated through me, because I was the one he knew best,
4 and I divided whatever I received with the rest of the people. He was our
5 protection of some kind, and the others must have known it. I don't know
6 why this man took away the bread that Radic had brought in.
7 Q. You described a couple of guards on Krkan's shift as people with
8 "no human feeling," and you said, "It didn't take them anything to beat a
9 man up." What were the names of these guards that you're referring to?
10 A. I didn't know. All I knew that these were guards from the
11 surrounding villages, villages around Omarska, and I assume they lived
12 there because when the gates were open, when we were lying on the pista,
13 we saw them coming to their -- to work on bicycles but I didn't know any
14 of them personally. I knew them by sight, but I didn't know anyone by
15 name from that area because I came from another region, and before that, I
16 had never been -- I hadn't been to Omarska very frequently.
17 Q. What did Mr. Radic do about the behaviour of these guards who had,
18 as you put it, no human feeling?
19 A. I don't know because I didn't see it. I was in that hall, that
20 hangar. Our movement was restricted. We could only go to the toilet, and
21 sometimes they opened the doors for us to sit by the entrance where the
22 bars were outside and I couldn't overhear their conversations.
23 Q. Isn't it true, Witness DC5, that the origin of the term "Krkan's
24 shift" amongst the prisoners at the Omarska camp actually came from the
25 brutal behaviour of these inhumane guards who served with Mr. Radic on
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
1 that shift?
2 A. Those individual guards on that shift were brutal but we -
3 especially we the people from Ljubija - called it "Krkan's shift" because
4 he was on it and we watched out for his shift because we expected from him
5 some protection, some freedom of movement, and we could also expect to get
6 some of those things we needed, medicines, food, and we looked forward to
7 his shift so we could get some of those things we wanted.
8 Q. When you say "we," you're referring to the 30 other people from
9 Ljubija who you mentioned, who enjoyed the same protection as you did; is
10 that right?
11 A. Yes.
12 Q. Well, were these 30 people and yourself beaten by these brutal
13 guards who didn't have any human feeling or were they protected
14 successfully by Mladjo Radic?
15 A. The people who were beaten, when they were beaten in the hall,
16 then nobody knew who was doing the beating and what was happening because
17 it was done in the dark. When we were lying down, one across the other,
18 one over the other, because there were so many people of us there, they
19 would stamp and walk all over us, so we didn't know who was doing that.
20 However, the fact that none of us people from Ljubija were called out
21 during the night, except some perhaps who were on some lists or something
22 like that -- I don't actually know whether they were requested by someone
23 from outside or how those lists were compiled, but I think that it did
24 have an effect. That is to say, the guards bypassed us, if I can put it
25 that way, compared to the other people who were there.
1 Q. They bypassed you except when they weren't beating you and the
2 prisoners in that group; is that what you're saying?
3 A. No.
4 MR. SAXON: Objection, Your Honour. Your Honour, I see Mr. Fila
5 shaking his head. I heard the word "nay" coming from that direction.
6 This is a court of law and we have to be careful, I believe, that what the
7 court hears is the witness's own testimony, not any kind of coached
8 version of events.
9 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] First of all, Mr. President, I did not
10 say a single word. I did not utter a single word. I was nodding my head
11 and looking at Mr. Saxon because there was a mistake in the
12 interpretation. And if you come here to my seat, you can see that I can't
13 see the witness at all from where I'm sitting. Secondly, all my years of
14 service, you know, I do not use tricks like that. Perhaps they exist in
15 America, but in Yugoslavia where I come from, I don't use tricks of that
17 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Saxon, I did not hear any
18 words. I did not observe what happened. But we have Mr. Fila's word and
19 we have what you said. It is true that we know [In English] pictures
20 speak louder than words. [interpretation] And so verbal communication is
21 stronger. I -- that is to say, pictures are stronger. I myself did not
22 hear but maybe you have reason to think what you think. Anyway, let us
24 MR. SAXON: Thank you, Your Honour.
25 Q. Witness DC3 -- excuse me, DC5, you mentioned that you spent a
1 number of nights sleeping in the restaurant; is that correct?
2 A. Yes, that's right.
3 Q. You also just testified that no -- no one from Ljubija was called
4 out at night except perhaps for some people who were on lists; is that
6 A. Yes, that's right.
7 Q. And if I understand your testimony, you said that Mr. Radic
8 communicated through you because "I was the one that he knew best." Does
9 that mean that he, Mr. Radic, communicated through you to other prisoners
10 from Ljubija?
11 A. When he would bring me some bread or anything else, he would call
12 me to hand it over to me, to give me the bread for me to distribute it
13 amongst the others. And when we were on the pista, I would see others --
14 not when I was shut up in the hall but on the pista. When I was on the
15 pista, when we were allowed to get up a bit, then I could see him move
16 around many of the detainees and talk to them, whereas the other guards
17 didn't even enter the -- that mass of people, mass of detainees who were
18 out there on the pista, lying down, standing up or sitting down.
19 Q. When you were in the restaurant at night and Mr. Radic wanted to
20 communicate in some way with the prisoners from Ljubija, would he
21 communicate through you? Would he call you out of the restaurant?
22 A. When we were in the restaurant, he never -- nobody called us after
23 that. It was the -- we were -- received the order to lie down and go to
24 sleep and then early on in the morning, at 5.00 a.m. we would go out on to
25 the pista.
1 Q. Before the war, -- before the war, in 1992, did you know a man
2 from the town of Ljubija named Ismet Taras?
3 A. Ismet Taras? I think his surname was Taras and if it's the same
4 person, Ismet Taras, he was also a policeman in Ljubija.
5 Q. Ismet Taras was also detained at the Omarska camp, wasn't he?
6 A. I didn't see him but I heard one night, when they came to look for
8 Q. Tell me what you heard.
9 A. I was in the restaurant at that time. Three or four guards turned
10 up. We were lying down and not looking who they were. They just asked,
11 "Is Ismet Taras here?" And they repeated that two or three times. And
12 when I responded, they went out and left.
13 Q. So in other words people did come to the restaurant at night to
14 call prisoners out. Isn't that true?
15 A. Yes.
16 Q. Here is what one former detainee from Omarska said about you and
17 Ismet Taras: "One night around the 10th of July, you tried to call Ismet
18 Taras out of the crowded restaurant" --
19 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila?
20 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Mr. President, I don't understand. One
21 witness happened to say somewhere something, perhaps somewhere privately,
22 with Mr. Saxon, while I was not in -- we should like to know which
23 witness, when did he say that, and where was he when he said that. What
24 did he mean that a man said something sometime somewhere? What does that
25 mean? Was it like that or was it not? I don't know. And it is not
1 customary to tell one witness what another witness said, according to the
2 rules of procedure of this Tribunal.
3 MR. SAXON: May I respond to that, Your Honour?
4 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Saxon.
5 MR. SAXON: Your Honour, if Mr. Fila is concerned about hearsay,
6 well, the prior witness to this witness spent half an hour here giving
7 hearsay evidence, so obviously that is a common occurrence, not only in
8 this courtroom, but also in this Tribunal. Rule 90(H)(2) -- Your Honour,
9 may I continue? Rule 90(H)(2) says that:
10 "In the cross-examination of a witness who is able to give
11 evidence relevant to the case for the cross-examining party, counsel shall
12 put to that witness the nature of the case of the party for whom that
13 counsel appears which is in contradiction of the evidence given by that
15 Now, according to the Rule, I have to put my case to this
16 witness. I have to put the Prosecution's case to this witness. If the
17 Prosecution has information that suggests that this -- that the evidence
18 given by -- that contradicts the evidence given by this witness, and it's
19 relevant to the Prosecution's case, under the Rules, I have to be able to
20 put that to the witness.
21 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] I am going to give the floor to
22 Mr. Fila, but before I do so, I do not think that that was the point that
23 Mr. Fila raised. What Mr. Fila said -- he didn't say that you don't have
24 the right to say what you said. All he asked was who the witness was and
25 where you took the quotation from.
1 Is that right, Mr. Fila?
2 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Yes. I apologise, Mr. President. That
3 is precisely what I was going to say. If it is Mr. Saxon's testimony,
4 perhaps he is a witness in this trial, and then I heard it and that's all
5 right. Perhaps he was there.
6 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Saxon, could you tell us the
7 name of the witness or the page of the transcript, and we shall resolve
8 the issue straight away.
9 MR. SAXON: It is a person who has given information to the
10 Prosecution, Your Honour. If I'm going to give the name of the witness,
11 I'd like to go into private session, please.
12 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Before we move into private
13 session, let's hear Mr. Fila. You wish to reply?
14 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Once again, that witness' name was not
15 disclosed previously, which means that something is kept back from us,
16 because we have no idea about it. So you cannot use something that you
17 say was said to you, to somebody from the Prosecution. How do I know what
18 you say to each other? But that is irrelevant for me. And second, your
19 time was up a long time ago.
20 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, that is true. The second
21 point is true.
22 Mr. Saxon --
23 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Just one question. Why is Mr. Saxon
24 nodding his ahead now? I don't understand what that nodding means. And
25 you don't permit me to nod my head, so why should he be allowed to nod his
1 head? Why is he nodding now?
2 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] We are entering into a dangerous
3 field now, so let us proceed with caution. Let us move into private
4 session to give Mr. Saxon a chance to explain.
5 [Private session]
13 Page 8903 redacted – private session
13 Page 8904 redacted – private session
22 [Open session]
23 THE REGISTRAR: We are in open session.
24 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila, for the redirect.
25 Re-examined by Mr. Fila:
1 Q. The name that was mentioned -- don't repeat the name, but the name
2 that was mentioned, do you know that man by that name?
3 A. I think I do, from Ljubija, but -- I knew all the people from
4 Ljubija and they knew me, but I didn't know all their names. (redacted)
5 (redacted). I think it is a younger man. There were
6 several people with that same surname.
7 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Saxon. You were going
8 to say that the name was uttered; is that right? We shall have it deleted
9 THE INTERPRETER: Mr. Fila says that he did not mention the name.
10 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
11 Q. When you spoke about the fact that Krkan in some way protected the
12 people of Ljubija, did that refer to 30 of them or to more people?
13 A. Well, as far as I know, there were that many people from Ljubija
14 at that particular place at that time, but I heard from detainees earlier
15 on who were from Ljubija and who knew -- I didn't contact the people I
16 didn't know because there were many detainees from around Prijedor, and I
17 would go into the group that I knew, of the people I knew, and nobody ever
18 said that Mladjo took anybody out to be beaten or that he saw him beat any
19 anyone or anything like that.
20 Q. And my last question for you, Witness DC5, do you know whether
21 Mladjo Radic, nicknamed Krkan, was superior to the man who took the bread
22 away from you? Was he superior to anybody else?
23 A. Of course not. I really don't -- couldn't say that anybody was
24 superior to anybody else. It was such a mixture, everybody did what they
25 pleased. There was no discipline whatsoever amongst the guards. So that
1 I cannot say that he was superior in any way to anybody or the function
2 and post he held. I know that of the higher up people that came, if
3 anybody came that was higher up, they would come -- they would go to the
4 offices up there. And if anybody higher up would come, we would have to
5 lie down face downwards on the pista, not to see who was coming from the
6 commission, from a committee of any kind or from commanders of any kind.
7 Q. Can we therefore conclude that nobody issued orders for somebody
8 to beat you or anything like that?
9 A. No. It was at random. When they were feeling bored, they would
10 just lash out at you for no reason at all.
11 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Thank you, that's all.
12 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you very much, Mr. Fila.
13 Judge Fouad Riad has the floor.
14 Questioned by the Court:
15 JUDGE RIAD: Thank you, Mr. President. Good morning, witness, I
16 can't say your name. Could you hear me?
17 A. Yes, good morning.
18 JUDGE RIAD: I just would like your opinion or your explanation
19 for certain things you said. You mentioned that the guards bypassed your
20 group, the 30 people from Ljubija. If you compare them to the other
21 people, you were more or less exempted from beatings or torture or -- and
22 so on. Did you notice other groups, too, which were privileged like your
23 group and who were treated with more kindness?
24 A. No. I didn't notice groups. Perhaps some individuals who had
25 contact. I would see them speaking with a guard. I don't know what they
1 would be talking about, whether it was something private or something
2 official. But like I said, if there had been more guards like Mladjo
3 Radic so that they could protect a group, I think that that would make a
4 good number of protected people.
5 JUDGE RIAD: Because you mean Radic could only -- cannot extend
6 his protection to everyone?
7 A. Well, I don't know what his options were, what he could do.
8 JUDGE RIAD: Now, in the two instances you mentioned that you said
9 Krkan - you mentioned him under the name of Krkan - that he was considered
10 by the people who were beating, one of them, which you said twice, when
11 one of the guards said, "Let us stop beating, Krkan is coming." And you
12 explained that the Prosecutor and to the Defence counsel. I will not go
13 back to it. And then another case, the case concerning the bread, I
14 think, when he took the bread to give to the pigs, "I told you -- don't
15 tell Radic -- don't tell Radic that because darkness will swallow you" and
16 so on. And also you said there was no difference whatsoever among the
17 guards. What in your opinion made them take Radic's presence in
18 consideration and have this kind of respect for him?
19 A. I don't know. Thinking about it now, I wouldn't say it was any
20 kind of respect. First of all, I would say that it was more going against
21 him because Radic was helping a few of the inmates, people who were not of
22 Serbian ethnicity.
23 JUDGE RIAD: Well, was it against him, for instance, that you were
24 more or less privileged, the people from Ljubija, and you were not beaten
25 like the others, as you said? That was almost a privilege and some kind
1 of respect for the people whom he was a friend of?
2 A. I think that it was that mostly. People are not all the same.
3 They don't have the same feelings. And also what I said at the beginning,
4 I grew up with a lot of those people. We would go out together for years,
5 have fun. We would play together. But the majority of them forgot me
6 overnight. But in my case, this didn't happen as far as Radic was
8 JUDGE RIAD: But this privilege was not only extended to you? It
9 was extended to all the people from Ljubija, wasn't it?
10 A. Yes. That group. We got together as a group on our own
11 initiative because we were from Ljubija. We knew one another. We would
12 help one another if somebody didn't feel too well. Other groups did that
13 too. Muslims were in their own group, depending on which area they were
14 from, so that's what we did. We made up our own group from Ljubija.
15 JUDGE RIAD: But what you called Radic -- what you called "Krkan's
16 shift" did not hurt this group as a whole?
17 A. I didn't understand.
18 JUDGE RIAD: This group was not badly treated by what you called
19 "Krkan's shift" or by anyone else?
20 A. Well, individuals did act. You couldn't really choose your
21 place. If you walked by, the guard would hit you, regardless of whether
22 something was your fault or not. This was especially done after the
23 cleaning of the bathrooms, after the bathrooms were cleaned. It was a
24 sort of entertainment for the guards to wait for two or three inmates and
25 to beat them. This was just something that individuals did. It was a
1 kind of abuse carried out by individuals.
2 JUDGE RIAD: Perhaps what you said before, that when it was in the
3 dark or somebody, there was no distinction, and nobody could distinguish
4 who is who. But when you were together, the people from Ljubija, were you
5 subject to mistreatment or were you treated better than the others?
6 A. No. Anyway, during the day, there wasn't so much mistreatment.
7 During the day, we were not really touched in the hall. Only if you went
8 to get water, for example, or went to the toilet, then a guard would
9 either hit you or do something like that. At night, they used to come in
10 and they would ask for money, watches, valuables. Then they would sort of
11 search us. They would thrust their hands into our pockets.
12 JUDGE RIAD: Also to the group -- to your group in particular?
13 A. We were in a group all mixed up together, so to tell you the
14 truth, one of the inmates was in the hall, who, how can I put it, was used
15 by certain guards and he did that work for them. He would walk amongst us
16 and then, during the day, he would know whether any of us had money or
17 cigarettes or cookies, and then during the day they would see that. And
18 then at night, he would work for those guards, he would collect the money
19 or whatever we had, so that that particular inmate -- I know that his own
20 people beat him up at Manjaca because he left with us together for
22 JUDGE RIAD: Thank you very much.
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you, Judge Riad. Madam
24 Judge Wald has the floor.
25 JUDGE WALD: You said at one point in your testimony that after
1 you had been at Omarska a couple of days, you knew that all guards were --
2 all the guards, you said, were from surrounding villages. Those are the
3 words that I took down. Did you mean by that all the guards were
4 policemen, reservists from the surrounding villages, or all the guards,
5 some were reservists and some were army people from surrounding villages?
6 Were you able to distinguish between those guards who were policemen like
7 Mr. Radic, reservists and those guards who were members of some kind of
8 army unit?
9 A. I didn't say -- maybe I said -- maybe I said I knew, but I just
10 assumed that those soldiers or guards were from the neighbouring area.
11 There were a lot of Muslims where whose villages bordered with these other
12 villages so that they knew these people better, so that -- they knew there
13 were hills around the camp so that they know that some guard would come
14 from there, somebody would walk to work, somebody would come on a bicycle,
15 so it was assumed that they would come to the shift from their homes.
16 JUDGE WALD: Okay. I'm more interested in whether or not you were
17 able to tell whether the guards were from the police in the local
18 villages, like Omarska, or whether they were from a mobilised army unit.
19 Were you able to tell, make that distinction, whether the guards were
20 policemen, former policemen, or policemen like Mr. Radic or whether they
21 were part of an army unit.
22 A. No, no, I couldn't say. There were different uniforms really so I
23 really don't know. I --
24 JUDGE WALD: Did the police like Mr. Radic wear uniforms that were
25 different from the people who were in army units? Or were they all mixed
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
2 A. They were completely mixed. Some people were in blue police
3 shirts. Next to him would be another soldier who would be wearing an
4 olive-grey shirt. Then there were others.
5 JUDGE WALD: Okay. At the time that you were being beaten, when
6 one of the guards said, "Krkan's coming" and they let you people go back
7 into your rooms, could you tell then whether or not the ones who were
8 beating you were soldiers or policemen guards? Just were you able to tell
9 whether they were?
10 A. I couldn't because after that lunch, when we had to run outside
11 with our heads bent, our head was always bent down, and then we were told
12 to crouch down and so when we were beaten, these people were behind us, so
13 we never knew who it was who was beating us. And a lot of time has passed
14 so I can't really remember anything much about the uniforms.
15 JUDGE WALD: When you were recounting the story of the guard that
16 took the bread from you, in two different places the translation came
17 through to me differently, and I just want to get it straight from you,
18 whether or not what the guard said was, "If you tell Krkan, darkness will
19 swallow me," or was it, "If you tell Krkan, darkness will swallow you"?
20 A. "Darkness will swallow you," meaning me.
21 JUDGE WALD: Yes, but it came across differently twice. My last
22 question is: While were you there, who did you think was in charge of the
23 camp? I mean, did you think there was any head man in the camp? You
24 talked about the guards being -- having no discipline and doing a lot what
25 they wanted to, but was it yours and the other detainees' impressions, who
1 shared those impressions with you, that anybody was in charge? I mean,
2 was there anybody at the head of this camp? Were there any people who had
3 some more power over how the camp ran than other people? I mean, it would
4 be very difficult to have a camp with 6.000 people in it in which nobody
5 was in charge. What was your impression of how the camp was run?
6 A. I don't know. To tell you the truth, I wasn't really interested
7 that much. I was only looking to survive it all. What we could see,
8 whether there were any commanders, any familiar faces, when they would
9 come to the camp, we had to lie down on our stomachs with our heads
10 covered so that we wouldn't see those people who would be coming there in
11 the shift or who would be going to the administrative building, so I don't
12 know what the schedule was. I know that it wasn't really strictly so that
13 a guard would be standing in one fixed spot with a rifle. No. They would
14 be walking around generally throughout the camp.
15 JUDGE WALD: But you have told us that you did feel more
16 protected, a little bit more protected, when Mr. Radic's shift was there.
17 You felt you had some kind of a friend or a protector? That's what you
18 said, I think, very directly.
19 A. Yes.
20 JUDGE WALD: Were there any --
21 A. Yes.
22 JUDGE WALD: To your knowledge, was there anybody else among the
23 guards that you or other detainees that you knew of felt that way about,
24 felt that they had a little more protection when that particular person
25 was on the spot? Was he the only one?
1 A. I just concentrated on Krkan and I did have the sense that he
2 would help me after our first meeting when he saw me. I know that he said
3 the first time that he would see, with his colleague, the one who was
4 doing the allocating, if he could perhaps switch us, transfer us to the
5 restaurant. And perhaps the other guards saw that we often talked with
6 him and that he would approach us, so perhaps that's why they didn't abuse
7 us so much. Perhaps because it could have been some other person.
8 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you very much, Judge Wald.
9 Witness, on several occasions you mentioned the fact that not to
10 see the committee or the commanders or anybody else in higher authority,
11 you had to lie down, face downwards, on the pista. Did I understand you
13 A. Yes.
14 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] How do you know that that was
15 so? How did you come to that conclusion?
16 A. We knew more or less when the committee would come in the
17 morning. They would come in a small mini van. We could see it coming
18 from far off. And then we would be issued with the order, "Lie down on
19 your stomachs and put your heads down." Then we would be ordered to get
20 up again when the committee went inside the offices, upstairs.
21 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] What led you to conclude that
22 you were ordered to do so so as not to see those people?
23 A. Well, as soon -- I don't know if it was an order, but we would be
24 sitting around or standing, and then we would be told, "Lie down on your
25 stomachs and heads down," and that was all.
1 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Just that? They didn't say "Lie
2 down with your heads down" so that you should not be able to see the
3 people? They didn't give that additional explanation?
4 A. No.
5 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well. So it is from this
6 order and what followed the order, you were able to conclude that you were
7 ordered to do so, to lie down, so as not to be able to see the people
8 passing; is that correct?
9 A. Yes.
10 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Did you ever see the people?
11 Did your curiosity not lead you to have a peep at the people? Did you
12 ever see one or more of those people who were coming in?
13 A. Well, no, it didn't. Fear was greater. I couldn't raise my head,
14 out of fear. I didn't do so personally. I don't know if any other people
15 did that.
16 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] But how did you know that those
17 people were commanders or members of this committee or whatever?
18 A. I don't know whether they were commanders, but I knew that they
19 were members of the interrogation committee. I knew that from talking
20 with the inmates, because they would come at a certain fixed time and they
21 would leave at a certain fixed time, as if they had set working hours.
22 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Okay. Very well. We have no
23 further questions for you, Witness DC5. We should like to thank you very
24 much for coming to the Tribunal and we wish you a good return back to your
25 place of residence. The usher will now escort you out of the courtroom.
1 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you very much, and I would
2 just like to say goodbye to everybody in the courtroom.
3 [The witness withdrew]
4 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila, as you see, non-verbal
5 communication is also a strong form of communication, and I understood,
6 without you having to say anything, that this witness would be very brief
7 and that we would get through him before the lunch break. Was I correct
8 in my assumption? You didn't say anything, but I understood everything
9 through our non-verbal communication. Who is the next witness? DC6,
11 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] DC6. It's also a witness that we
12 didn't have a chance to see up until yesterday. He lives outside of
13 Bosnia and Herzegovina.
14 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Susan Somers, do you have any
15 comments to make, any objections to make with respect to the next
17 MS. SOMERS: Your Honour, I would ask that if any type of summary,
18 even a brief one, is available moments before the witness testifies, that
19 it be provided to the Prosecution. I think that would be appropriate.
20 And it is my understanding Mr. Saxon will be able to proceed. However, I
21 am concerned inasmuch as we are held to the same standard of providing
22 whatever we can.
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] So I believe that we know the
24 principle, but it was not always a rule from the viewpoint of the
25 Prosecution. But I believe that Mr. Fila has explained the principle
1 now. I believe he will do it as soon as possible.
2 Very well. Yes, please have the witness ushered in.
3 [The witness entered court]
4 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Good afternoon, Witness. Can
5 you hear me now?
6 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes.
7 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Please read the solemn
8 declaration that has been given to you.
9 WITNESS: WITNESS DC6
10 [Witness answered through interpreter]
11 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I solemnly declare that I will speak
12 the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
13 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Please be seated. Make yourself
14 as comfortable as you can. Thank you very much for having come here. You
15 will now be answering questions put to you by Mr. Fila.
16 Yes, thank you, Mr. Fila.
17 You will now be shown a piece of paper which has your name written
18 on it. You will confirm, yes or no, if it is indeed your name.
19 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes.
20 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Mr. President, I would like to go
21 briefly into private session for the sake of the particulars of this
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] We are moving into private
24 session, yes.
25 [Private session]
13 [Open session]
14 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
15 Q. Witness, did you know a person named Mladjo Radic before the war?
16 A. Yes.
17 Q. How did you come to know him and how well do you know him?
18 A. I have known him since 1977, when I moved to that place. We met
19 at the police station, because my military service consisted of doing a
20 turn in the reserve police. We were attached to the reserve -- to the
21 police station as assistants, and we conducted patrols in surrounding
22 villages and towns, we did inspections and checks. We also met in the
23 hunting club, where we were both members and through which we went hunting
24 together with more of our friends who were with us, and those friends were
25 of various ethnicities.
1 Q. At that time, what could you tell us about the attitude of Mladjo
2 Radic to other ethnicities?
3 A. He did not discriminate among nationalities. In our group of
4 hunters there were three Muslims, including myself, several Croats, and
5 the others were Serbs. I don't know exactly how many of us there were.
6 Two of us Muslims were doctors.
7 Q. Until what time were you in the reserve force of the police?
8 A. Until the 4th of June, 1992.
9 Q. What were you told then?
10 A. Before the outbreak of the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina I
11 was serving on the reserve police force for quite a while. Perhaps two or
12 three months I didn't go to work to my company as usual, but I was helping
13 out on the reserve police force. And on the 4th of June, 1992, that
14 morning our commander was allocating assignments and he asked me to stay
15 behind in his office because he had something to tell me. I did indeed
16 stay behind, and he said, "I'm sorry, but you will have to be relieved of
17 your duties today."
18 At that moment I had on me a pistol that was issued to me as a
19 reserve policeman. He told me that I should go home and bring back the
20 other things that I was issued with: a uniform and other weapons. That
21 was an automatic rifle. I did go home then and returned to the police
22 station and returned all those things.
23 Q. Witness DC6, we will now turn our attention to the day when you
24 were arrested. And will you please tell us, where were you taken and who
25 did you see in that place where you were taken?
1 A. On the 21st of July, at 8.00 in the morning, since there is no
2 doorbell in the apartment where I resided - I was still sleeping - they
3 knocked -- somebody knocked on the door, I got up and opened it. There
4 were two policemen there, both of whom I knew. One was a reserve
5 policeman, another was an active-duty policeman. They told me I was to go
6 to the police station with them to give some sort of statement. I thought
7 it had to do something with my returning the uniform and the weapons I had
8 been issued with. I was aware that I hadn't signed any document to
9 certify that I had returned them, so I said, "Okay. No problem. I'll be
10 right back. Just let me dress." They said, "No, no, no. Don't. You
11 don't need anything, no clothing, nothing. You just come with us."
12 So I put on my shirt. They had a van outside. They put me in the
13 van and took me to the police station. I entered, but there was no
14 interview with anyone. I thought there would be an interview with a
15 superior of some kind, but they just put me in a chair and told me to
16 wait. I waited for about half an hour. Then another policeman came and
17 told me to -- that I should go downstairs with him, because at that time
18 we were on the upper floor.
19 We went outside the building. There was a van and he told me to
20 enter from behind. Inside there were two other guys whom I didn't know.
21 They were younger men, 20-ish. And I asked them, "Where are we going?"
22 He told me, "I don't know." And I said, "Will you please pass by my
23 apartment so that I can take my jacket or something warmer. It's so cold
24 outside." He said, "Okay. No problem." But when we were passing by the
25 building where I lived, he simply rushed by without stopping. It was
1 rather suspicious to me. I didn't know where we were going.
2 I know the roads there, and I know he took the Prijedor-Banja Luka
3 road and he drove me to Omarska. When we entered through the gate, he
4 drove me to some kind of building, a house. We left the van -- we were in
5 the van. There was one active-duty policeman escorting us and the reserve
6 policeman was behind the wheel.
7 When we arrived, Mladjo Radic came. I didn't see him coming. And
8 he said, "How come you're here?" And I said, "I don't know. They just
9 picked me up this morning, without any explanation." And then he asked
10 this escort, this policeman, he asked him why I was brought, and the other
11 man answered that he didn't know. He showed him some papers and he said,
12 "Let me see those papers. I'll go and check. It must be a mistake of
13 some kind." And he left with those papers in his hand.
14 In the meantime, another man came wearing a camouflage uniform and
15 ordered us out of the van. He took us inside, into the hallway, and
16 ordered us to face the wall, raise our arms and put our hands on the wall,
17 and then he frisked us. He asked us whether we had any weapons or
18 anything. He searched us, but he was rather crude. He called us -- he
19 cursed us and yelled. But when Mladjo Radic came back, he brought the
20 papers and he said to the driver that we should be driven back to Ljubija,
21 that it was all a mistake and that we shouldn't be there.
22 So we were put back into the van and they took us away. I thought
23 we were driving toward my home. They stopped in Prijedor, in a side
24 street behind the department store, and they said they were going to the
25 Prijedor Police Station to ask what to do next. But since I know well
1 where the police station is located, I was aware that they could have
2 parked in the yard of the police station.
3 We were locked up in that van for two or three hours. I don't
4 know exactly how long, but it was close to three hours. It was very hot.
5 I don't know whether they had been in the police station or in a cafe. I
6 had no way of knowing. But they came back, started the van again, and we
7 thought that we were going home. However, they took us to a place which I
8 didn't know exactly what it was. I thought it was some kind of factory.
9 That was Keraterm. And that's where they took us, all three of us. We
10 were asked to produce our identity papers at some sort of reception desk.
11 They took my particulars down and took us inside. There I found some of
12 my neighbours, friends, and that's where I stayed.
13 Q. Very well. You didn't see any more of Mladjo Radic there, did
15 A. No.
16 Q. And my last question: In your opinion, did Mladjo Radic try to
17 help you that day when you were there, when you were taken away?
18 A. Yes, of course he did, because if he hadn't, he wouldn't have said
19 that it was a mistake and that we were to be taken back home.
20 Q. And how do you explain the fact that you were not actually taken
21 back home but to Keraterm?
22 A. I don't know. It might be that those people who were driving us,
23 who were inside the van, it may be that they thought that Mladjo was not
24 supposed to do something like that, that he could not reverse somebody's
1 Q. And my last question: In that period, what was Mladjo Radic?
2 Because you were a reserve policeman, you should know.
3 A. He was a foot policeman, a policeman on the beat.
4 Q. Is there a rank lower than that?
5 A. The only thing lower than that was a reserve policeman. That's
6 what I was.
7 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] As I have promised, I'm finished.
8 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well. It wasn't even
9 necessary to promise such a thing. So we are going to -- we have been
10 working since 9.30. We need a break. And we should not be in a hurry.
11 Will you please see the witness out of the courtroom?
12 [The witness stands down]
13 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] So we will take a 50-minute
15 --- Luncheon recess taken at 12.55 p.m.
16 --- On resuming at 1.49 p.m.
17 [The witness takes the stand]
18 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Please be seated.
19 Are there any other Defence counsel who wish to put questions to
20 this witness? I see a negative sign of the head on the part of all the
22 Mr. Saxon, you have the floor for the cross-examination of Witness
23 DC6. Please proceed.
24 MR. SAXON: Thank you very much, Your Honour.
25 Cross-examined by Mr. Saxon:
1 Q. Witness DC6, if you can tell me your profession without giving
2 information that will identify yourself. Can you tell me what you do for
3 a living?
4 A. Do you mean now or what I did for a living earlier, in the past?
5 Q. Well, let's say what you were doing for a living in 1992.
6 A. I worked as a driver of a rather large vehicle.
7 Q. Is your wife a Serb?
8 A. Yes.
9 Q. You described how, on the 4th of June, 1992, you were working as a
10 reserve police officer when your commander called you in and told you that
11 you would have to be relieved of your duties on that day. Did your
12 commander tell you why you were being relieved of your duties?
13 A. No, he didn't say why, but from the events which were taking place
14 at the time, it was clear to me, because in the company where I worked
15 before I was dismissed on the 22nd of May without any explanation.
16 Q. When you say it was clear to you, can you be a little bit more
17 specific? What was clear to you, so the Judges understand?
18 A. It was clear to me, because on the 22nd of May, when I was
19 discharged, all those who worked in the same company as I did and were of
20 Muslim ethnicity or were Catholic or Croatian, they were all dismissed;
21 they were all fired. And by the same token, in that police station, the
22 majority of my comrades who worked on the reserve police force and were
23 Muslims or Croats had been told, even earlier, that the same thing would
25 Q. You said that on the 21st of July, 1992, you were arrested by an
1 active-duty police officer and a reserve police officer. What were the
2 names of these police officers, if you know?
3 A. Is it important for me to say their names?
4 MR. SAXON: Your Honour, if we need to go into private session for
5 a moment, perhaps that would be important.
6 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes. We shall move into private
8 [Private session]
20 [Open session]
21 THE REGISTRAR: We are in open session.
22 MR. SAXON:
23 Q. Witness DC6, you mentioned that when you were taken to the Omarska
24 camp, Mladjo Radic appeared and asked your escort why you had been brought
25 there, and then the escort showed Mr. Radic some papers. And then you
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
1 said that Mladjo Radic took these papers to check. Can you explain what
2 you mean by that? What was Mr. Radic going to check?
3 A. I can not explain that because I don't know what was written in
4 those papers. He had a look and returned them to the escorting policeman
5 and who was sitting in the van on the passenger side. He probably looked
6 for the names.
7 Q. Did Mr. Radic say with whom he was going to check, with whom he
8 was going to speak to?
9 A. No. I didn't hear him say anything like that. He only said he
10 was going to inquire whether that was a mistake. Whom he intended to ask,
11 I have no idea.
12 Q. When you say Mr. Radic said -- thank you. I understand your
13 response now. Were you able to see where Mr. Radic went?
14 A. No. I couldn't see where he went because I was inside that van,
15 which had a glass window only on the back, and on the sides there were
16 small windows only. I could only see the upper part of his body through
17 that small window. We were sitting on the floor of the van rather lower
18 than the level of the window, so I couldn't see much.
19 Q. Witness DC6, did you serve in the Army of the Republika Srpska?
20 A. Yes.
21 Q. From when to when?
22 A. I do not remember the dates, but it was the winter of 1992, maybe
23 late autumn, until May, 1995.
24 Q. Why did you serve -- since you are of Muslim ethnicity and by
25 religion, why did you serve in the Army of the Republika Srpska as opposed
1 to, for instance, the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina?
2 A. I was born and I lived in the territory of what is now Republika
3 Srpska. All my closer friends came from the ranks of Serbs.
4 Q. Where did you serve? What places did you serve at?
5 A. I was in the area of Modrica and the environs, if I can put it
6 that way.
7 Q. If I could have the Court's indulgence for a moment, please?
8 Did you see combat while you were serving in the Army of the
9 Republika Srpska?
10 A. I have seen it but I haven't participated in any.
11 Q. Did the units in which you served participate in combat, although
12 perhaps you did not personally?
13 A. No.
14 Q. Can you tell us the name of the unit that you served in?
15 A. I don't know the exact name but it was a battalion originating
16 from that area. And since I was a craftsman, if I can call myself that -
17 I was an auto mechanic - I worked on the repair of vehicles.
18 Q. Did you work on the repair of vehicles during the entire time that
19 you served in the Army of the Republika Srpska?
20 A. Yes. Occasionally on the frontline and sometimes in the area
21 where I resided, because there was a workshop there where I went to repair
23 Q. Can you recall the name of the commander of the unit in which you
25 A. I could not say that, because the commander often changed.
1 MR. SAXON: May I have the court's indulgence, please? Thank you,
2 Your Honour. I have no further questions.
3 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Fila, any redirect?
4 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Mr. President, I have only one further
6 Re-examined by Fila:
7 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
8 Q. Witness, is it a fact that there were Muslims in the Serbian army
9 as well?
10 A. Yes.
11 Q. Was there a Jovo Divjak?
12 A. Yes.
13 Q. What was he?
14 A. I think he was a general. I heard that from the media, from the
16 THE INTERPRETER: Sorry, interpreter's correction, the question
17 was: Were there any Serbs also in the Muslim army, not vice versa.
18 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Sorry, I think there is a
19 problem. Before giving the floor to Mr. Judge Riad, I see that the
20 interpreter says that the question was in fact: Were there also Serbs in
21 the Muslim army, and not vice versa. Mr. Fila, do you have anything to
22 add? That's all.
23 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] My question was also does he know the
24 name Jovo Divjak.
25 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] I do not understand why the
1 interpreter said this.
2 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] It would be better for me to repeat
3 this to clarify this completely.
4 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, I think that is the best
5 way. You have the floor.
6 MR. FILA: [Interpretation]
7 Q. Were there any Serbs in the Muslim army?
8 A. Yes, there were.
9 Q. Do you know the name Jovo Divjak?
10 A. Yes, I know that name.
11 Q. Was he a Serb by ethnicity?
12 A. Yes.
13 Q. What was his rank in the Muslim army?
14 A. I don't know what the ranks were in that last war, but I know that
15 the rank of General was mentioned.
16 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Thank you very much.
17 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Saxon.
18 MR. SAXON: Thank you, Your Honour. My objection goes to concern
19 for clarity of the record. We have been hearing the term now "Muslim
20 army." I believe the army that is being referred to has a formal name,
21 and perhaps Mr. Fila could ask the witness the name, the formal name of
22 that army, just as I used the name Army of the Republika Srpska.
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] No, Mr. Saxon. We are not here
24 for the counsel to testify. The witness said he served in that army, and
25 we cannot put into the witness' mouth the words that you would like to
1 hear. The witness said "Muslim army." That's what I believe I've heard.
2 We cannot put words in his mouth.
3 MR. SAXON: Counsel used the term "Muslim army," Your Honour, and
4 our objection is we don't understand what that means. That's our
6 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Fila.
7 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] The official term, I agree, is the Army
8 of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but it is also true that Republika Srpska is
9 not the so-called Republika Srpska, as Prosecutor Niemann [sic] and the
10 other Prosecutors refer to it. And Republika Srpska has its army. It had
11 it then also, and it was called the Army of Republika Srpska, whereas the
12 Prosecutor refers to it as the Serbian army.
13 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] All right, then.
14 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] If I may finish, please. All I want to
15 say is that in all those armies there were people of various ethnicities,
16 and that's all. Thank you.
17 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] I believe it is clear, and what
18 is the problem here finally? I don't see why these questions arise. This
19 has been explained several times. Please, appreciate that we are
20 intelligent people and we all understand it. We are all professionals
21 here, you in the Office of the Prosecutor and the Defence counsel. It is
22 not necessary to explain one and the same thing two or three times. From
23 the start, I don't see why we should waste time, so let us finish with
25 Judge Riad, you have the floor.
1 Questioned by the Court:
2 JUDGE RIAD: Witness DC6, good afternoon, if you hear me?
3 A. Good afternoon. Yes.
4 JUDGE RIAD: [Previous translation continues]... concerning your
5 activities in the police and in the army. You were in the reserve police
6 force till the 4th of June, 1992, till 1992; is that right?
7 A. Yes.
8 JUDGE RIAD: And then you went to the army from winter 1992 till
9 May 1995; is that right?
10 A. Yes.
11 JUDGE RIAD: So you said you were dismissed from the police
12 without justification. Were you dismissed to go into the Army of
13 Republika Srpska?
14 A. No.
15 JUDGE RIAD: So how did this happen? I mean, you were dismissed
16 from the police. This was for some kind of ethnic reasons or conduct?
17 What was it? Was it because you were a Muslim?
18 A. Yes, that's why I was discharged from the police force.
19 JUDGE RIAD: And if you are discharged from the police force,
20 being a Muslim, would you be accepted in the Army of the Republika
21 Srpska? Is it the same institution, the same policy, or was there a
23 A. Well, I can't quite explain the difference between the police
24 force and the army, but I volunteered for the army myself.
25 JUDGE RIAD: Thank you very much.
1 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you, Judge Fouad Riad.
2 Judge Wald has the floor.
3 JUDGE WALD: Witness, I have only one question, and it's about
4 your experience in the reserve -- your own experience in the reserve
5 police force before you went to Omarska and Keraterm. You said, when you
6 were describing Mr. Radic as just a foot policeman, you said, "There's
7 nothing lower than that except a reserve policeman," and I just wanted to
8 find out what you meant by that. Did you mean by that that a reserve
9 policeman somehow is underneath or takes orders from or is lower in rank
10 than any active policeman, or what?
11 A. There is no lower rank. A reserve policeman wasn't in fact a
12 lower rank, but as we, as reserve policemen, only worked from time to
13 time, that was our own personal opinion. We considered that active
14 policemen had more experience and -- well, that's what I meant. That was
15 the difference, that they had more experience, whereas we had equal
17 JUDGE WALD: Just to follow up: So that if you were working
18 alongside an active policeman and you were a reserve policeman, could the
19 active policeman give you orders or tell you what to do?
20 A. No. We could work together on the basis of agreement.
21 JUDGE WALD: Okay. Thanks.
22 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you, Madam Judge Wald.
23 Witness, we have no further questions for you. We thank you very
24 much for coming to the Tribunal and we wish you a safe journey back to
25 your place of residence. Thank you. The usher will now accompany you out
1 of the courtroom.
2 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you too.
3 [The witness withdrew]
4 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] From now -- from this time onwards we
5 won't be needing the blinds down.
6 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, I think that our usher,
7 assistant usher, will be helping us. Our apprentice usher will help us.
8 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Next week, we only have one witness
9 with protective measures, coming from America, just one, Your Honour.
10 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Well, just one witness, I see.
11 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] I thought you meant just one witness
12 but one witness with protective measures.
13 [The witness entered court]
14 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Good afternoon. Can you hear
15 me, witness?
16 THE WITNESS: Good afternoon, Your Honour. Yes, I can.
17 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] You are now going to read the
18 solemn declaration handed to you by the usher. Please go ahead.
19 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I solemnly declare that I will
20 speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
21 WITNESS: RANKO RADIC
22 [Witness answered through interpreter]
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Please take a seat. Thank you.
24 Are you sitting comfortably?
25 A. Yes, I am, thank you.
1 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you for coming. You are
2 going to start off by answering questions put to you by Mr. -- could you
3 remind me of the name? To be frank, I've forgotten it.
4 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Your Honour, Zoran Jovanovic is my
6 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, the most famous person
7 here, but nonetheless it slipped my mind. Anyway, please proceed.
8 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour.
9 Examined by Mr. Jovanovic:
10 Q. Could you tell us your name and surname?
11 A. My name is Ranko Radic.
12 Q. When were you born?
13 A. On the 10th of May, 1952.
14 Q. Where?
15 A. The village of Lamovita, Prijedor municipality.
16 Q. Where do you reside now?
17 A. Lamovita, Prijedor municipality.
18 Q. What are you by profession?
19 A. I am a qualified driver.
20 Q. What is your ethnicity?
21 A. I am a Serb.
22 Q. Your faith?
23 A. Serbian, orthodox.
24 Q. Mr. Radic, in 1992, the investigations centre or camp was
25 established of Omarska in Omarska. Were any of your friends in the camp?
1 A. Yes.
2 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Your Honours, may I have the
3 court's indulgence for a few moments and may we move into private session
4 for the next answer?
5 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, let us move into private
7 [Private session]
13 [Open session]
14 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation]
15 Q. How did you learn that they were in the camp?
16 A. Mladjo told me that they were there, and I went to visit them.
17 Q. Could you explain, please, whether you are any relation to Mladjo
19 A. We are cousins.
20 Q. What is Mladjo Radic to you?
21 A. He is my uncle, my father's brother.
22 Q. Did you express the desire to assist those people?
23 A. Yes, I did, and that is why I went to visit them.
24 Q. Who did you ask for permission?
25 A. I asked Mladjo because at that time he happened to be there. He
1 didn't actually --
2 Q. Very well, thank you. Please continue. What did he actually
4 A. He said that it was forbidden but that in secret I could sort of
5 try and get to them somehow, without anybody knowing.
6 Q. Was this assistance distributed to them?
7 A. Yes. The food I had brought and the personal hygiene items, I
8 gave them to Mladjo and he handed these items to them and they personally
9 confirmed receiving those items.
10 Q. How many times did that happen?
11 A. I don't remember how many times, but I went several other times,
12 taking things. Sometimes in the presence of Mladjo, I would hand them
13 over these things but on many occasions he did this himself, he handed
14 over the items himself.
15 Q. On the occasions when you yourself handed the items you had
16 brought over --
17 A. Yes, Mladjo was present there too.
18 Q. What was Mladjo's behaviour during those occasions?
19 A. He behaved normally. Because he didn't know those friends very
20 well, actually, but he knew they were my friends.
21 Q. In those situations, were you able to talk to anybody else who was
23 A. Yes, I was. I knew some people there who had travelled with me
24 while I worked in the transport business and so I would chat to them about
25 the conditions there, whether they had any problems, and they would tell
1 me that they didn't have any problems but -- and that when Mladjo was in
2 the shift, that he helped them as much as he was able to, to the best of
3 his ability.
4 Q. Thank you. Mr. Radic, you said that you are a professional
5 driver. Tell us, please, which company you worked for?
6 A. I worked in Autotransport Prijedor as a bus driver and I worked
7 there for about ten years.
8 Q. Did you know an individual by the name of (redacted)?
9 A. Yes. I knew her. (redacted)
11 Q. Tell us, please, what are your recollections of that person?
12 MS. SOMERS: Objection, please.
13 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Ms. Somers?
14 MS. SOMERS: Your Honour, I do not know the degree to which the
15 summaries that are provided to us are supposed to be road maps or not of
16 witness testimony but the summary which I was provided for this witness -
17 who by the way is out of order; we were supposed to have had him after
18 another witness by the same last name - makes no mention of the name (redacted)
19 (redacted)and therefore any preparation for cross has not been done with that
20 in mind, just so the court is aware that we accept in good faith the
21 presentations given to us and -- and at this point, clearly they have gone
22 beyond their own scope. I must make this objection.
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Let me remind you, Ms. Susan
24 Somers, that you were not in the courtroom but how many times - how many
25 times - did the Prosecution step aside from the summaries and how much
1 time have we lost over that here? But we will take note of your
2 objection, Ms. Somers, but I'm also going to give the floor to
3 Mr. Jovanovic.
4 Ms. Susan Somers, this trial -- these proceedings have had a great
5 number of incidents and we wish to arrive at the end of this trial, at the
6 end of this proceeding, these proceedings, and we shall do so. But as I
7 say, we will take note of your objection and I'm now going to give the
8 floor to Mr. Jovanovic but I cannot spend time reacting in this way.
9 Mr. Jovanovic, you may respond.
10 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour. There is
11 a summary in the statement we handed out which implies quotations from the
12 statement, and in one of the paragraphs, it mentions that we shall be
13 discussing this point. I am sorry if the Prosecution has not received
14 this addition.
15 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Very well. Nevertheless, I said
16 what I said. I apologise for saying it in the manner I said it but I did
17 so because the Chamber is always mindful of having -- of giving equal
18 treatment to all parties concerned, and I shall never give that principle
19 up. I am always mindful of treating all the parties in the case equally,
20 on a footing of equality. That's what I wanted to say. And having said
21 that, Mr. Jovanovic, you may proceed.
22 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honour.
23 Q. Let me repeat the question, Mr. Radic. May we have your
24 recollections with respect to the individual we mentioned, how she behaved
25 at work, at least as far as you yourself were able to note?
1 A. Well, all I can say about this woman is that she was somebody who
2 was not serious. She had problems with disciplinary action in the company
3 because she had appropriated some money, and she worked with tickets and
4 money, and disciplinary action was taken against her. She was
6 Q. Thank you for that answer, and I have one more question. We heard
7 from you that you were engaged in the reserve police force, if I'm
9 A. Yes, you are. That's right.
10 Q. If you can, could you please tell us whether, in the formal
11 competencies that you had once you were engaged in the reserve formations,
12 the reserve police force, did your authority and competence differ in any
13 way from the authority and competence that your cousin Mladjo Radic
14 enjoyed as an active-duty policeman?
15 A. From the time a reserve policeman is activated within the police
16 force, from that moment on he has all the authorisations as the
17 active-duty policeman, as we call him. So once I am mobilised and put on
18 a uniform, from that time on I too am, to all intents and purposes, an
19 active policeman.
20 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Your Honours, I have no further
21 questions. I should just like to take advantage of this opportunity to
22 tell you that the Defence of the accused Radic has tendered formal
23 statements which bear out the testimony of this witness here present, and
24 they are formal statements, affidavits, of the witness Dr. Slobodan Savic,
25 Dr. Slobodanka Banovic, Nenad Brkic, and Rade Strika. Thank you, Your
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
2 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Jovanovic, but we shall
3 have to consider that question apart. You asked -- the affidavits you
4 mentioned, we will consider them, and we shall hear the opinion of the
5 Prosecution as well.
6 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Thank you, Your Honours.
7 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Would any of the other Defence
8 counsel like to ask any questions? No, nobody. I see negative signs
9 coming from the Defence counsel.
10 Ms. Susan Somers, your witness for the cross-examination. Please
12 MS. SOMERS: Thank you.
13 Cross-examined by Ms. Somers.
14 Q. Mr. Radic, where did you serve as a reserve policeman, please?
15 Physically, which department, which municipality, which area?
16 A. From the 17th of September, 1991, when I was mobilised and sent to
17 the traffic control section on the road running from Banja Luka to
18 Prijedor in Prijedor municipality. The police station department of
19 Omarska, actually. It's not a police station; it's just this department.
20 Q. One of your obligations would have then been to have restricted
21 the freedom of movement of people coming and going; is that correct?
22 A. No. It was my duty to control the traffic, traffic control.
23 Q. Which is movement, is it not?
24 A. No. It's the regulation of traffic on the road, to ensure that
25 traffic evolves normally, traffic flows normally.
1 Q. You indicated that your uncle, the accused Radic, informed you of
2 the presence of two friends of yours, whose names I will not repeat as
3 they were given in closed session, who were found in the Omarska camp.
4 Just to clarify, with no further detail, would you please tell us the
5 ethnicity of these two individuals.
6 A. They were Muslims.
7 Q. In order for you to have access to Omarska camp - which is your
8 testimony, is it not, that you actually went into Omarska camp? - what
9 identification, pass, authorisation, did you obtain, please?
10 A. Well, I didn't need them, because many people knew me there; they
11 knew I was a policeman. And those who didn't know me, they asked -- I had
12 to say who I was and why I was going there.
13 Q. Now, were you a policeman at the Omarska Police Department that
14 your uncle, the accused, was at, that was assigned to handle security at
15 the camp?
16 A. Yes.
17 Q. So you were working out of Omarska?
18 A. Yes. No, not in Omarska but on the Prijedor-Banja Luka road, and
19 that is about five kilometres away from Omarska.
20 Q. Please tell us, who was your commander at the police department
21 physically where you were working? Who was your commander?
22 A. For a time, at the beginning it was Milos Bujic, and later on he
23 was replaced by a man who I think was called Ljuban.
24 Q. I'm afraid I'm not quite clear. You were a reserve police officer
25 through the Omarska police department, then, the same one that Mladjo
1 Radic was serving at?
2 A. Yes.
3 Q. Were you given a tasking at any time to work as a police officer,
4 reserve police officer, in the Omarska investigation centre or camp, as we
5 call it?
6 A. No, I was not.
7 Q. So how many times, please, did you go on to the premises of the
8 Omarska camp and talk with or see or be in contact with detainees there?
9 A. As far as I remember, I went three times. Once I talked to some
10 of the people who knew me and whom I knew, but that was just briefly.
11 Q. Can you please give us the dates on which you went?
12 A. I can't. I don't remember. A lot of time has gone by since then,
13 I'm afraid.
14 Q. Tell us, please: When you went, was Mladjo Radic, the accused,
15 always with you?
16 A. Mostly he was, because I tried to get a bag in to my friends' when
17 he was on duty, because I was afraid that if anybody else was there, they
18 would send me back, wouldn't let me get it through.
19 Q. So it was Radic's presence that enabled you to get into the camp,
20 your uncle, Mladjo Radic; is that a fair statement?
21 A. Not because of him; because of my friends. But it was surer when
22 he was there. I was more certain of being able to get through and take
23 what I was taking to my friends.
24 Q. So having decided to visit the camp when your uncle, the accused,
25 was there, did he go with you when you came in contact with the prisoners
2 A. You mean with those friends of mine? Yes.
3 Q. Well, with -- I don't know if you limited your contacts to just
4 your friends. It's unclear. You said in your statement: "During these
5 visits I met people I knew who were detained there. I could speak to
6 them, and I asked them about conditions in the centre and their
7 well-being. Some of them asked for cigarettes," et cetera, et cetera. So
8 are these other people besides the two Muslims that you talked about,
9 other people?
10 A. Yes, there were people whom I took cigarettes to. In passing,
11 they would ask me for something, and so when I came back the next time I
12 would bring them the cigarettes or what they had asked for.
13 Q. So you knew other people, not just the two Muslims about whom you
14 spoke a bit earlier. I just want to make sure we're clear on that.
15 A. Yes. Yes, that's right.
16 Q. Now, was your uncle, the accused, Radic, with you when you spoke
17 to these individuals about the conditions in the camp?
18 A. No. I talked to them alone. It was upon my return, when I would
19 be leaving, after having seen my friends, I would talk to them.
20 Q. Then you were free to walk through the camp unescorted, although
21 you were not assigned to that particular location; is that what you're
22 telling us?
23 A. Well, it's as you get out of the building where they were, and
24 when I leave that building it meant that I was practically at the end of
25 the camp; I was at the exit to the camp.
1 Q. And where was your uncle, the accused, when you were leaving the
2 camp? Did he part ways with you somewhere before that? Was he at his
3 office somewhere?
4 A. The office, in the office.
5 Q. And where was his office, please, if you know?
6 A. In that building. I don't know what the building was called. It
7 was the administration building of the mine, and when you go upstairs, on
8 the first floor, on the landing, the right-hand side, was this office, as
9 far as I remember.
10 Q. Did you see the office yourself? Were you there? Did he bring
11 you in there?
12 A. Yes. Well, I didn't go inside, but the door was open and I was
13 outside in the corridor.
14 Q. Did he personally conduct you up there to show you where he
16 A. No. I asked to come into contact with him for me to be able to
17 hand over the food to the friends.
18 Q. When you came to the camp, were you permitted in before you met
19 your uncle, the accused, or did you have to wait for him to come to the
20 gate to get you?
21 A. Well, I didn't have to wait at the gate. I said that people would
22 let me pass because they knew me.
23 Q. Did you tell your uncle, Mladjo Radic, in advance that you would
24 be coming so that the people you were going to see would be prepared to
25 see you?
1 A. No, I didn't.
2 Q. While you were talking with various persons about the conditions
3 of the camp, were there other guards or police officers around?
4 A. No.
5 Q. Were there detainees other than the ones you were talking to
6 around those people? In other words, was it just you and those people
7 alone in a room or were there other people there as well?
8 A. It was on the way out, when you come out of the building, in front
9 of the building. There were other people there.
10 Q. What ethnicity were these people with whom you were speaking on
11 the way out?
12 A. They were Muslims.
13 Q. Would you please tell us their names.
14 A. I couldn't tell you that. I know that one of them was called
15 Hase. He worked in my company as a mechanic. There were others, but I
16 really can't remember their names now.
17 Q. Did you expect to hear anything negative from them?
18 A. I don't know what I expected. They were where they were. Mostly
19 they told me that it wasn't so bad, that it was okay. I don't know much
20 about camps. I was never in one so that I can't really say much.
21 Q. Did they know that the accused Radic, who was working at Omarska
22 at that time, was your relative?
23 A. Mladjo?
24 Q. Yes.
25 A. Some probably knew. I can't say, but I believe that some probably
1 did know.
2 Q. Did you ask them if there was anything you could tell your uncle
3 to make life easier for them on their behalf?
4 A. He also did what he could to help as much as he could, and that's
5 what I heard from them as well, and I heard that they would say when he
6 was in the shift, that he would help them as much as he could.
7 Q. Were these Muslims, about whom you spoke earlier and whose names
8 we will not discuss, from the same town as you?
9 A. They were from Prijedor.
10 Q. Did your uncle, the accused, give you any other names of persons
11 in the camp whom you knew?
12 A. No.
13 Q. Which area of Omarska did you speak to your friends in? What
14 building, please?
15 A. In that building where I went in, the first building that I
16 mentioned. That's where it was. I spoke with them in the corridor and
17 that's where I gave them the things that I had brought for them.
18 Q. I'm sorry, if you could just tell us a description? There are
19 several buildings there, so if you could maybe be a little more specific.
20 When you say the first building, is that the administration building, the
21 hangar? Which one was that?
22 A. I think it was the building of the mine where their offices were.
23 I don't know whether that was the administrative building. I never really
24 paid much attention to that because I never went inside when the company
25 was operational. But I think that was a building that belonged to the
2 Q. While you were there -- by the way, was it daytime or night-time
3 when you would make these visits, do you remember?
4 A. It was in the daytime, the daytime.
5 Q. Every visit was made during the daytime?
6 A. Yes, during the daytime.
7 Q. Did you see any visible signs of injuries on any of the inmates or
8 prisoners there?
9 A. Not on those people that I met with.
10 Q. Can you tell us if you heard any sounds that might suggest that
11 people were in pain, screaming, being terrorised?
12 A. No.
13 Q. How did you find the place to smell? Did you find it fragrant?
14 A. I don't know. It was normal for me. It was daytime. The weather
15 was nice. It was normal.
16 Q. On any of the occasions when you were in Omarska camp, did you
17 observe any women there?
18 A. Yes. (redacted)
19 (redacted) and I asked her about the conditions. I asked her how she
20 was feeling, how it was for her, and then she said everything was okay,
21 that she didn't have any complaints.
22 Q. Did you see any other women whom you may have known at the camp?
23 Or even if you didn't know them, did you see any other women?
24 A. No.
25 Q. So the only woman you saw was the one whose name you mentioned
1 earlier? Is that your testimony?
2 A. No, no. There was another woman with her, whom I also knew, and
3 it was just the two of them. Let me just try to remember her name. I
4 think we used to call her Nuska.
5 Q. When you would come to visit during the day, was that while you
6 were on duty for your job on the road, the traffic-related job?
7 A. No, no. I did that in my free time.
8 MS. SOMERS: Excuse me just one minute, Your Honour. Thank you
9 very much. No further questions.
10 A. Thank you.
11 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Jovanovic, do you have any
13 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Yes, Your Honours. I have one
15 Re-examined by Mr. Jovanovic:
16 Q. Mr. Radic you were born and you live in Lamovita?
17 A. That's right.
18 Q. In 1992, when you were in the police reserves, was there a section
19 or a station in Lamovita?
20 A. Yes, there was, and I was transferred to Lamovita because the
21 station was closer to my home. So that's when I was transferred to
23 Q. Who was the commander at that department?
24 A. Zivko Kos was commander for a while, briefly, and then he was
25 replaced by Prvoslav Sekulic.
1 Q. Was there anybody there by the name of Grahovac?
2 A. Ljuban, Ljuban Grahovac, yes. He also went there with us. He was
3 also a commander. He was a policeman just like we were.
4 MR. JOVANOVIC: [Interpretation] Thank you.
5 A. You're welcome.
6 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you. Judge Fouad Riad has
7 the floor.
8 Questioned by the Court:
9 JUDGE RIAD: Mr. Radic, good afternoon. Can you hear me?
10 A. Good afternoon. Yes, I can hear you well.
11 JUDGE RIAD: I just have two small questions. When you went more
12 than once, you said three times, I think at least, at Omarska camp, you
13 went to the office of your uncle in that administration building, as you
14 said. What kind of office was that? Did he share it with others? Was it
15 a big office? What was the kind of office that was that?
16 A. I said that I didn't -- I wasn't in the office. I was in the
17 corridor, and the door of the office was open when I got there, and I
18 didn't see any other people there because he had already come out of his
19 office. He had left the office.
20 JUDGE RIAD: Yes. So you didn't see any other people there?
21 A. No.
22 JUDGE RIAD: But it was his office?
23 A. I don't know that.
24 JUDGE RIAD: And you spoke about (redacted) and Nuska, who were
25 in the camp, the two women. Did you know why they were there?
1 A. No.
2 JUDGE RIAD: You saw her and she said no complaint. Did you ask
3 her why she was there?
4 A. I didn't ask her but mostly she said she didn't have any
5 complaints about the conditions. Both (redacted) and Nuska told me that.
6 JUDGE RIAD: Thank you very much.
7 A. Thank you.
8 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Thank you, Judge Riad. Madam
9 Judge Wald has the floor.
10 JUDGE WALD:
11 Q. Mr. Radic, when you testified, I believe, that when you first saw
12 Mr. Radic and asked him about the possibility of visiting these two
13 friends, he said that visits were forbidden but you could try. My
14 question is: The first time that you tried to make a visit to your
15 friends, did you just show up at the camp or did you get in touch with
16 Mr. Radic first and say, "I'm going to try to come to the camp. Will you
17 be there? Will you meet me?" Did you make any arrangements with him
18 ahead of time before your first visit to the camp?
19 A. No. I set out to enter the camp and then if I was turned back,
20 all right, but in this case, he happened to be there. And when I got to
21 the gate, I said that I would need to go, and if he was there, I would
22 need to go and visit him, and it turned out that he was there.
23 JUDGE WALD: So just let me make sure I've got it right. The
24 first time -- the first time that you went there, you didn't get in touch
25 with him ahead of time but when you got to the gate, did they let you --
1 A. Yes.
2 JUDGE WALD: Did they let you get through the gate and then you
3 saw him some place on the camp?
4 A. They knew that he was working but I didn't know and they told me
5 he was there.
6 JUDGE WALD: Okay. So they knew -- the ones at the gate knew that
7 you were somehow connected with him and they told you that he was there,
8 before they let you in or after they let you in, through the first gate?
9 A. The people on the first gate knew both me and him. They knew we
10 were cousins.
11 JUDGE WALD: Okay. That's what I wanted to know. My second and
12 last question is: During your three visits, did you see anybody else or
13 hear from other detainees or anyone else about other people besides
14 yourself who didn't work in the camp but were allowed to come and make
15 these visits? Or to your knowledge, are you the only person who was
16 allowed to make these visits if, as your uncle said, they were generally
17 forbidden? Did you know of other people that were allowed to visit their
18 friends or relatives in detention?
19 A. Since I went there just very rarely - I was there, as I said three
20 times - I really don't know the answer to that question.
21 JUDGE WALD: Well, so it's fair to say you haven't heard -- you
22 didn't hear specifically about -- or see anybody else who didn't work at
23 the camp who was there? Okay, thank you.
24 A. Yes.
25 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Mr. Radic, we know that you went
1 at least three times to the investigation centre. Did you go at least
2 once without your uncle being there or was he there all the times that you
4 A. He was there all three times when I went because I knew that if he
5 was down there, at least I assumed that they wouldn't turn me back, those
6 three times that I entered.
7 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Well, thank you for that
8 answer. We have no further questions. Thank you for coming to the
9 Tribunal. We wish you a safe return to your place of residence. The
10 usher will now escort you out of the courtroom.
11 A. Thank you, Your Honours.
12 [The witness withdrew]
13 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Fila?
14 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] Well, there is no point in starting
15 another witness. We have two witnesses for tomorrow, Your Honour. They
16 will be brief. And if you planned anything else for tomorrow, we shall
17 have time to go into that as well. Thank you.
18 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Yes, Mr. Fila. Thank you very
19 much. We shall be here again tomorrow. We have some rulings to make. We
20 are going to make the rulings orally. I do not know if the parties would
21 like to discuss anything special tomorrow. Perhaps you could tell us
22 about that, Mr. Fila.
23 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] I have a problem and that is the
24 following. The Trial Chamber should decide whether, for the following
25 week, it is necessary for a psychiatrist from Holland - I'm afraid I have
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French
13 and English transcripts.
1 forgotten his name again - Mr. van den Bussche. He said he would be
2 available on Monday or Wednesday but I don't know him personally. So if
3 the Trial Chamber decides tomorrow to bring him in, then somebody will
4 have to do that.
5 As regards the other witness, it is Mr. Beatovic and we suggested
6 that his findings be presented and the cross-examination be conducted in
7 the -- the cross-examination was conducted in the Kunarac case so we need
8 not call him back. Now, I would like to hear your opinions and your
9 decision tomorrow. It would be a little difficult to bring that
10 particular expert back because he lives in Yugoslavia whereas the other
11 one is here at hand. That is the only controversial issue between myself
12 and Ms. Somers. That is all for the moment. Thank you, Your Honour.
13 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] I don't think there is ever a
14 problem between you and Ms. Somers. That would be impossible, Mr. Fila.
15 But at any rate, I will be responding tomorrow. I apologise, Ms. Susan
16 Somers, I think we ought to lighten the atmosphere a bit.
17 MS. SOMERS: No problem, Your Honour. I was greeted with a
18 Women's Day greeting earlier so this follows that, I'm sure. Your Honour,
19 I do want to let the Chamber know, because under 94 bis, we did file our
20 objections and we indicated our wish to cross-examine, we will of course
21 seek that cross-examination. I think it's quite important that we do so.
22 And therefore, if tomorrow -- if the time between now and tomorrow makes a
23 difference for my learned counsel, I do not want to make a problem for
24 them but we will seek cross-examination either Monday or Wednesday as it
25 suits the schedule.
1 On Beatovic, I have spoken with Mr. Jovanovic and indicated that
2 we would probably seek to exclude based on the Foca ruling, on the Kunarac
3 ruling. There may be some room to discuss certain aspects of it, and if
4 they would like to talk about possibly limiting what might go in, I would
5 be very happy to do so. But I think that if the Chamber reads the ruling,
6 much of it was deemed irrelevant, and I don't know that it would be of
7 much use. But I would be very happy to continue the discussion which we
8 started earlier this week. Thank you.
9 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] I am a little confused now. Ms.
10 Susan Somers, if I understood you correctly, you are saying that you would
11 like to continue the discussion with regard to the reports tomorrow? Was
12 that it?
13 MS. SOMERS: No. Just so the Chamber knows, our position was a
14 firm request, the right under the rule to seek cross-examination for
15 objections as to both, but clearly, on van den Bussche, we will want to
16 cross-examine. On Beatovic, because of the recent Foca case ruling, the
17 Kunarac ruling, there may be some room for agreement about part of it
18 going in without potential objection, but of course we would have to
19 discuss exclusion of another part, so I would like to be able to discuss
20 it with counsel, just to let the Chamber know we have been discussing it.
21 If perhaps by tomorrow we could make some type of announcement to the
23 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] What I have in my own mind, what
24 I remember, is that the Prosecutor objected to accepting the report
25 without a cross-examination because, with respect to Mr. Van den Bussche,
1 he stepped out of the standards, professional standards, if I can use that
2 term. I think that that was it. Whereas with regard to Mr. Beatovic, the
3 question was irrelevant for the case. So with respect to the other
4 expert, you very cordially followed the request of the Chamber with
5 respect to handing in a written view, written -- is that right, Ms.
7 MS. SOMERS: It is, thank you, Your Honour. With respect to
8 Kecmanovic, we are preparing and will have filed next week the written
9 paper by our own expert in refutation of the points raised by Kecmanovic;
10 that is correct. It was the other two who were still left subject to live
11 cross-examination and I will try very hard -- certainly on van den
12 Bussche, we do ask for the live, and if there is some accommodation we can
13 reach on Beatovic, given the recent ruling, I would like to try to work
14 that out with my colleagues if possible.
15 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] I think I understand. Mr.
16 Fila? The question is that we have already prepared the ruling and I can
17 give you the ruling now but I will wait nonetheless. But go ahead, Mr.
19 MR. FILA: [Interpretation] The essential difference between me and
20 Ms. Somers - not the misunderstanding but the difference - is that the
21 Kunarac decision in the Kunarac case was a precedent. That was the first
22 time the decision was taken that this was the international and so on.
23 And we agree on that wholeheartedly. The difference lies in the
24 following. In the application of the rule -- provisions of the statute,
25 where it says that the practice of the former Yugoslavia would be taken
1 into consideration, I cannot get an expert witness who is going to speak
2 about rape as an international act and crime, because that is -- it is a
3 crime of that type for the first time, and there are no experts like
4 that. There are just experts in local law, whether it be the United
5 States, your own Portugues law or my own Serbian law, but it just exists
6 for local -- in a local character, and that is the only difference because
7 I think that he is there to speak about the local situation. In other
8 words, we see it locally whereas Ms. Somers considers that this is
9 irrelevant because it is -- that is a local question whereas this present
10 question is an international one. And so that is the crux of the problem,
11 the part of the problem which requires a ruling, and I'm not interested in
12 rape as an international crime in international terms. I'm interested in
13 rape as a local phenomenon.
14 JUDGE RODRIGUES: [Interpretation] Anyway, it is Women's Day,
15 International Women's Day, and all the other days are men's days. I just
16 wish to seize this opportunity to congratulate all the women working here
17 with us -- and I think that I speak on behalf of all the men here
19 So we reconvene tomorrow morning at 9.20 as usual, and my homages
20 to the women and shall we end on that note?
21 --- Whereupon the hearing adjourned at
22 3.05 p.m., to be reconvened on Friday the 9th day
23 of March, 2001, at 9.20 a.m.