1 Wednesday, 9 July 2014
2 [Open session]
3 [The accused entered court]
4 --- Upon commencing at 9.34 a.m.
5 JUDGE ORIE: Good morning to everyone in and around this
7 Madam Registrar, would you please call the case.
8 THE REGISTRAR: Good morning, Your Honours. This is case
9 IT-09-92-T, the Prosecutor versus Ratko Mladic.
10 JUDGE ORIE: Thank you, Madam Registrar. No preliminaries
11 announced. Therefore, could the witness be escorted into the courtroom.
12 Mr. Weber? Oh, you're just waiting for the witness to come in.
13 MR. WEBER: Good morning, Your Honours, yes.
14 [The witness takes the stand]
15 WITNESS: LUKA DRAGICEVIC [Resumed]
16 [Witness answered through interpreter]
17 JUDGE ORIE: Good morning, Mr. Dragicevic. Before we continue,
18 I'd like to remind you that you're still bound by the solemn declaration
19 that you've given at the beginning of your testimony.
20 Mr. Weber will now continue his cross-examination.
21 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Good morning to you and to
22 everybody else in the courtroom.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber, would you like the witness to have his
24 statement before him or --
25 MR. WEBER: It's fine for now.
1 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. Then we leave it as is. Please proceed.
2 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 65 ter 30926 for
3 the witness.
4 Cross-examination by Mr. Weber: [Continued]
5 Q. I would like to return to the document we left off with
6 yesterday. It is from the VRS Main Staff sector for morale, religious,
7 and legal affairs. It is dated 19 November 1994. This is three days
8 before you became the assistant commander in the SRK, correct?
9 A. That's correct.
10 Q. The subject of the document is entitled: "Directions on some
11 current issues regarding public information." These are directions from
12 the Main Staff on how to inform the public, right?
13 A. That's correct, yes.
14 Q. These directions were sent to the sector for morale, religious,
15 and legal affairs of the SRK, correct?
16 A. That's correct, although there is something different in the
17 typed text. It states Main Staff of the VRS as if it's typed on a
18 different machine and then the type is different in the rest of the text
19 but this is not a problem.
20 Q. Okay. When you became an assistant commander, you familiarised
21 yourself with the Main Staff directions for your department; is that
23 A. When I arrived, first of all I was briefed by the commander of
24 the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps about the general situation in the area of
25 responsibility of the corps. And, of course, with -- he informed me
1 about the elements of morale, his assessment of the current state of play
2 with respect to morale in the units.
3 Q. Sir, if you could listen to my carefully and if you could please
4 focus very precisely on what I'm asking, did you familiarise yourself
5 with the Main Staff directions that were in place for your department
6 when you became an assistant commander in the SRK?
7 A. I provided you with a correct answer. If I were to go through
8 this document, then I would be able to give you the answer with -- that
9 you're after. Initially, I was briefed about the general state of
10 affairs concerning morale in -- of the units in Sarajevo-Romanija Corps.
11 JUDGE ORIE: Witness, to tell us that you gave the right answer,
12 it may be true what you said but that's not an answer to the question.
13 The question simply was: Did you familiarise yourself with the
14 Main Staff directions that were in place?
15 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] If I were to read this document,
16 I would be able to give a correct answer to your question. I gave my
17 order about how things were. I do not know the content of this document.
18 JUDGE ORIE: We are not talking about this document. We are
19 talking about instructions given by the Main Staff previous to your
20 arrival, whether you familiarised yourself with those directions, whether
21 you, at the time, whether you familiarised yourself with them,
22 irrespective of whether this one is included.
23 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] No, no. I understood what I was
24 briefed about on the day when I arrived. Of course, later on I studied
25 in greater detail those directions and other elements of morale and
1 general guidance concerning the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps.
2 JUDGE ORIE: Next question, please, Mr. Weber.
3 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have page 2 of both
5 Q. I'd like to direct your attention to item 12, which is towards
6 the lower portion on both pages. This direction states:
7 "Mask our offensive activities maximally. Do not inform the
8 public about these but in the advance stage present them as part of the
9 natural right to self defence and a force response. In other words, a
11 This is an instruction by the Main Staff to intentionally
12 misinform the public about VRS operations, correct?
13 A. I think the text reads "do not inform the public." Well, this
14 is, in terms of military way of doing things, why should the public be
15 informed about military plans. Military plans are secret by their
17 Q. Sir, that's not my question. And sorry to cut you off, but I'm
18 going to start doing that a little bit more. My question to you was:
19 This is an instruction by the Main Staff to intentionally misinform the
20 public about VRS operations, correct?
21 A. As far as I can understand, I see that it's not claimed here that
22 public should be misinformed. It reads the public should not be informed
23 about military operations before they take place. This is how
24 I understand and read the situation.
25 JUDGE ORIE: So you take out one line of all of it and you
1 apparently ignore that the text rather clearly states:
2 "Give an image, present it in a way different from what it really
4 Any comment on that?
5 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Well, of course, this is the basic
6 rule. You have to conceal your plans about future military operations.
7 This is rule number 1, so to speak. We are not going to inform the
8 public about what we are about to do.
9 JUDGE ORIE: Next question, please, Mr. Weber.
10 MR. WEBER: Your Honours, I'm happy to follow up on these things.
11 Q. Here is how you discuss the activities of the SRK in your
12 statement in this case. I'm going to read you a few passages here. In
13 paragraph 22 you state:
14 "The main goal of the army was to defend and protect the
15 people" --
16 A. Apologise. I do not have the text in front of me.
17 Q. Sure.
18 MR. WEBER: If we could have D554, paragraph 22.
19 JUDGE ORIE: And any problem if the witness would have a hard
21 MR. WEBER: No.
22 JUDGE ORIE: Could the witness be provided with a hard copy.
23 MR. WEBER:
24 Q. Sir, here is how you discuss the activities of the SRK in your
25 statement. In paragraph 22, you state:
1 "The main goal of the army was to defend and protect the people
2 who happened to be in VRS-controlled territory. Our strategy was not to
3 occupy all of BiH but to defend those parts which ethnically belonged to
4 the Serbian people."
5 In paragraph 22, you also state:
6 "The strategy of the SRK was to defend the living space of the
7 Serbian people and to protect itself and other loyal citizens in the area
8 of Sarajevo and Romanija."
9 In paragraph 23, you state:
10 "We knew that in the coming several months, we were to face a
11 difficult period of an all-out Muslim offensive."
12 Paragraph 24, you state:
13 "We knew what we were defending and it gave us incredible
15 Just to give one more example. In paragraph 34, you state:
16 "Our fighters knew what they were defending. They were defending
17 their homes and families and they knew they would have to sacrifice their
18 lives in order to be successful."
19 In all these statements, you are presenting the SRK's activities
20 as part of a right to self defence, correct?
21 A. Yes, of course.
22 Q. You are not describing the strategy of the VRS or SRK as
23 offensive at all.
24 A. Well, you cannot have self defence without some offensive
25 operations to gain certain positions which -- to make the self defence of
1 the territory and the people effective. It doesn't -- this was not an
2 offensive to -- with the aim of taking the whole of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
3 Offensive operations were taken to gain positions which would allow us to
4 implement our strategy of defending the territory. We had to carry out
5 certain offensive operations to improve our tactical or operational
6 positions, but the essence of the strategy was defensive. It was not our
7 intention to occupy all of Bosnia-Herzegovina and subjugate other peoples
8 but to defend the right of the Serbian people to live, continue living
9 freely in the territories that they had inhabited for centuries.
10 Q. Okay. So do I understand that you're basically saying that what
11 the VRS was doing was a counteroffensive to defend themselves?
12 A. Of course. If somebody carried out offensive operations or
13 threatened certain areas belonging to the Serb people, of course. It was
14 our mission, our task, to capture those territories --
15 Q. Sir, sir --
16 A. -- and put them under our control and liberate that part of the
18 Q. Sir, if you could just answer my question. You answered it, I
19 believe, right out of the gate there.
20 MR. WEBER: The Prosecution tenders 65 ter 30926 into evidence.
21 MR. IVETIC: No objection.
22 JUDGE ORIE: Madam Registrar.
23 THE REGISTRAR: Document 30926 receives number P6646, Your
25 JUDGE ORIE: And is admitted into evidence.
1 MR. WEBER:
2 Q. Yesterday, at transcript page 23703, you acknowledged that you
3 issued work guidelines to subordinate units and to your own department.
4 How often would you issue these work guidelines?
5 A. Whenever I estimated and/or the command estimated that I was
6 given a task to do so, this happened relatively often. There was no
7 rules about them, unlike reports which had to be regular. Guidelines
8 would be issued whenever the situation necessitated or whenever a
9 superior officer demanded that of me.
10 Q. Okay. Would you issue guidelines more frequently to the
11 subordinate commands or to your own department?
12 A. When acting in my capacity of assistant commander for morale,
13 legal and religious affairs, and this was the most often the case,
14 I would issue guidelines falling within that remit.
15 Q. Okay. Not sure you answered my question. Did you more
16 frequently issue work guidelines to the subordinate commands or within
17 your own department?
18 A. Well, no. Those guidelines would be issued to subordinated
19 units. Within the department for morale, legal, and religious affairs
20 I would issue guidelines on a daily basis. Whenever we got together, we
21 discussed issues, current issues. We drew conclusions, and I issued
22 requisite orders concerning the activities of my department.
23 Q. Is it correct that you issued guidelines to all of the SRK
25 A. In principle, yes, to all of them. In other subordinated units
1 to the command of the S -- RSK [as interpreted], if there was a need to
2 separate certain brigades or parts of brigades, this was done as well.
3 This all depended on the situation on the ground. This dictated and
4 informed who we addressed those guidelines to.
5 Q. The purpose of work guidelines was to instruct members of the SRK
6 on how to improve morale, correct?
7 A. Yes, to the sections and organs for morale, religious, and legal
8 affairs of the subordinated units. Those guidelines addressed them.
9 JUDGE MOLOTO: Just can I interrupt, Mr. Weber?
10 Witness, at page 8, line 15, you are recorded as saying, the
11 command of the RSK. Did you mean RSK or SRK?
12 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Obviously it should read "SRK."
13 JUDGE MOLOTO: Thank you.
14 MR. WEBER: Thank you, Your Honour.
15 Q. As a morale officer, it was your job to keep members of the SRK
16 focused on the main objectives of the war effort of the VRS, true?
17 A. Well, first and foremost I was in charge of preserving and
18 building combat morale. This was my basic duty. And of course, I took
19 the requisite measures based on that basic task, to achieve the goals
20 that had been set to that department of mine.
21 Q. Yes. And were these to keep members of the SRK focused on the
22 objectives of the war effort of the VRS?
23 A. Of course, yes. They were aimed at making the members of the SRK
24 and to accept the overall situation, and to explain to them why they
25 should conduct themselves in the way it was described in the directions
1 and guidelines and that all of these things had a purpose and an
3 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 65 ter 30902.
4 Q. Colonel, these are the SRK command notification and guidelines
5 for the work of the organ for moral guidance dated 2 December 1994. The
6 document contains strictly confidential number 12/2-252. These
7 guidelines are type signed from you. This particular copy of the
8 guidelines was certified as true by Captain Bajic who yesterday you said
9 that you believed to be the assistant for morale of the Ilijas Brigade.
10 Is it correct that this document relates to your organ of the SRK
12 A. Although it is not very well visible, I believe this is so, yes.
13 Q. We can see that -- we can all see that this document deals with a
14 few different things, but I would like to focus your attention to the
15 fifth paragraph of these work guidelines, where you wrote:
16 "Our task is to strengthen the combat morale of our soldiers and
17 officers and to build up confidence in our capabilities and in the
18 excellence of Serbian arms. Yes, we are genetically stronger, better,
19 more handsome, and cleverer. Try to remember how many Muslims there were
20 among top ten pupils, students, or soldiers. Only a few. Why? Because
21 they are poturice and only the weakest of the Serbs became poturice."
22 My question: Do you acknowledge that this is derogatory
24 A. No. Basically this is all true and confirmed my previous
25 experience. Life experience. Since I am interested in biology I know
1 that the phylogenesis and genetic mutation is something that stems from
2 it. I stand by all of it. Of course, there is a bit of propaganda here
3 as well --
4 Q. Sir --
5 A. -- as it is one of the ways to build up combat morale.
6 Q. Sir, I'm going to go through each sentence with you but right now
7 I'd like to stop. I looked up the definition of racism in the
8 Oxford Dictionary which said -- which defined it as:
9 "The belief that all members of each race possess
10 characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race.
11 Especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another
12 race or races."
13 Sir, based on this definition, you are a racist, correct?
14 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Ivetic?
15 MR. IVETIC: Object to counsel testifying.
16 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Of course, not.
17 MR. IVETIC: Object to counsel testifying. And if he's talking
18 about race, this appears to be talking about people of the same race and
19 according to the common definition of that term.
20 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. Now, where does counsel testify, Mr. Ivetic?
21 I think he gave the basis for his question. He said what he found in a
22 dictionary as the meaning of an expression and that he wants his question
23 to be understood in accordance with that meaning of that word.
24 MR. IVETIC: And, Your Honours, during the case of the
25 Prosecution, every time we tried to present something we had to present
1 it --
2 JUDGE ORIE: No, [Overlapping speakers].
3 MR. IVETIC: -- on the screen as an exhibit.
4 JUDGE ORIE: Could we -- so the issue is that you say it's not in
5 that -- it should be established by putting that dictionary --
6 MR. IVETIC: Correct.
7 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. If that's the case, you can perhaps leave the
8 question for later if that's what Mr. Ivetic considers there should be
9 doubts about, then we should accept that.
10 Mr. Weber.
11 MR. WEBER: And if counsel can also please just quickly look up
12 the Oxford Dictionary definition of racism, I believe --
13 JUDGE ORIE: No, it's --
14 MR. WEBER: -- [Overlapping speakers].
15 JUDGE ORIE: Counsel is right that it's up for you to do that.
16 However, if you would have phrased the question not referring to that
17 specific dictionary, you could have phrased the question exactly the same
18 way and then you would not have testified, you would have explained.
19 MR. WEBER: Okay.
20 JUDGE ORIE: Then we would have saved five minutes and it also
21 more or less indicates that it's perhaps a bit of a non-issue.
22 MR. WEBER: Okay.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Please proceed.
24 MR. WEBER:
25 Q. You already answered the question that I had. So I'd like to go
1 through the statements in this paragraph a little bit more. You say:
2 "Yes, we are genetically stronger, better, more handsome and cleverer."
3 You are talking about people of Serb ethnicity, correct?
4 A. Yes. My life experience confirms it and I stand by it.
5 Q. You believe that you are genetically more handsome than people of
6 the Islamic faith?
7 A. I said that my experience confirms it.
8 Q. So that's a yes, that's what you believe?
9 A. Of course. If I didn't, I wouldn't have written it. I do like
10 to stress that there is some degree of calculated propaganda so as to
11 build up our soldiers' morale.
12 Q. We will come to what you just said in a second.
13 JUDGE ORIE: Could I first try to find out the following.
14 In English, we read:
15 "Yes, we are genetically stronger, better, more handsome and
17 Now, you can read that in two different ways. The first is we
18 are genetically stronger, we are better, we are more handsome; and the
19 other way of reading it is, yes, we are genetically stronger, genetically
20 better, and genetically more handsome. Now, which of the two? Do you
21 say that being better and more handsome is also genetically defined?
22 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] No. I think exactly the same way
23 as it is stated. The genetic part refers to the adjective stronger, but
24 I don't have the text before me and I'm unable to follow. It refers to
25 the first term, not the whole phrase.
1 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. Then may I advise you to more carefully
2 listen to the previous question.
3 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I apologise. The problem is not in
4 listening. The problem is in me not seeing. It's too small. Could we
5 zoom in on the passage?
6 JUDGE ORIE: Well, you can't see the question on the screen so
7 it's also a matter of listening. Could we enlarge the relevant portion
8 of the -- which is approximately in the middle of the page.
9 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Paragraph 5. But we move the English for a short
10 moment. And then enlarge paragraph 5, please.
11 JUDGE ORIE: If the translation shows some ambiguity I wonder
12 whether the original text also does so. That's not -- and I would like
13 to have that verified.
14 MR. WEBER: We had this document actually verified so the text
15 was as it is -- appears in the --
16 JUDGE ORIE: I'd like to hear from the Defence --
17 MR. WEBER: -- currently available translation.
18 JUDGE ORIE: I would like to hear from the Defence whether they
19 consider the original as ambiguous as the translation.
20 Please proceed for the time being.
21 MR. WEBER:
22 Q. Sir, this is blatantly racist language, isn't it?
23 A. No.
24 Q. When you say, "Try to remember how many Muslims there were among
25 the top ten pupils, students or soldiers," you're not just talking about
1 Muslim soldiers here, right?
2 A. Soldiers too. You can see it nicely. The question is also how
3 many soldiers there were among the rest. I worked as an officer, and I
4 know that I trained soldiers of many ethnicities and this was a
5 conclusion of mine based on experience again.
6 Q. Sir, this is not limited to soldiers, correct?
7 A. No. But it does include them as well. It's precisely as it's
9 Q. You, as a senior officer, could you tell us what impact this
10 language would have on members of the SRK? Particularly young recruits
11 who were new to the army? What was your intended effect of this?
12 A. The basic goal was to build up combat morale, and to have the --
13 to make the officers and soldiers have faith in themselves so that they
14 grow in self-confidence, confident of their own ability.
15 Q. And I take it from your testimony today that you find this to be
16 a perfectly acceptable way of trying to build up this morale in the
17 soldiers of the SRK?
18 A. These instructions were intended first and foremost for the
19 officers working on the issues of morale and religious affairs in
20 subordinate units. Given the situation in the field, this was not merely
21 a theoretical position. It was dictated by the situation --
22 JUDGE ORIE: No, Witness.
23 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] -- and among other ways --
24 JUDGE ORIE: Witness --
25 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] -- we tried to build up
1 self-confidence in this way too.
2 JUDGE ORIE: The simple question was whether you considered this
3 to be an acceptable way of achieving what you said was your task. And
4 I take it from your answer that you just say yes in your view this was an
5 acceptable way. Is that correctly understood?
6 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] The language is acceptable.
7 Perhaps the choice of words is not the best one, but I did mention that
8 there are elements of propaganda therein. If we were to discuss it
9 whether it was scientific and 100 per cent correct I'd rather not go into
11 JUDGE ORIE: Yes, you've explained that. But you considered it
12 acceptable under the circumstances?
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Precisely.
14 JUDGE ORIE: Please move on, Mr. Weber.
15 MR. WEBER:
16 Q. Going back to paragraph 22 of your statement in this case, you
17 state that the VRS strategy was "to defend those parts which ethnically
18 belong to the Serbian people." You still view the actions of the VRS as
19 being justified because of your Serb ethnicity today, correct?
20 A. I did not understand the question.
21 Q. Do you still view the actions of the VRS as being justified by
22 your ethnicity?
23 A. I fail to understand at all. What is it that you're asking of
25 JUDGE ORIE: The question is not very clear, Mr. Weber.
1 MR. WEBER: Sorry.
2 JUDGE ORIE: Could you please, because it's a rather complex
3 matter you are addressing at this moment, and I think the witness is
4 right in asking you to do it in a more elaborate way.
5 MR. WEBER:
6 Q. In your statement, when you say "to defend those parts which
7 ethnically belong to the Serbian people," you are saying that the actions
8 of the VRS were justified because of Serb ethnicity, correct?
9 A. I'm still trying to grasp the meaning of the question. If you
10 have in mind whether our offensive actions --
11 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber, I invited you not to repeat the question
12 in a different way but --
13 MR. WEBER: I was trying to work through your directions. I'll
14 move on.
15 JUDGE ORIE: You failed to do that. Please proceed.
16 MR. WEBER: All right.
17 If we could go to the next paragraph on the -- if we could
18 return, actually, to the document we were looking at on the screen, which
19 was 65 ter 30902.
20 Q. Mr. Dragicevic, I'd like to go to the paragraph that follows.
21 It's actually just one sentence that follows the paragraph we were
22 looking at. So this is approximately the sixth from the top. The
23 paragraph states:
24 "A solid and well thought out punch in the nose would make them
25 change their faith once again."
1 When you were referring to changing their faith, you are
2 referring to the "poturice," as you describe them, aren't you?
3 A. Yes.
4 Q. Sir, are you saying that religious conversion justified the
5 actions of the SRK?
6 A. No, I'm not saying that. I'm saying that they frequently changed
7 faith, and ethnicity even. Hence, I drew the conclusion that it would be
8 easy for them to do so again, to move on to the next faith or ethnicity.
9 Q. And as a person in morale, is it correct that you were seeking to
10 encourage a solid and well-thought-out punch on the nose in order to
11 accomplish this?
12 A. During a previous period while I commanded a brigade in Visegrad,
13 I have to say, at the risk of being immodest, I never suffered any
14 defeat. I always came out victorious and it was precisely that that
15 I based my experience on. This information covers that experience.
16 Q. Sir, again you haven't answered my question. Is it correct that
17 you were seeking to encourage a solid and well-thought-out punch on the
18 nose in order to accomplish this, this conversion?
19 A. Of course. In that way, I wanted to encourage those I was
20 addressing; i.e., the subordinate commands and units. The basis of my
21 statements is in my previous experience. I knew how one needs to wage a
22 fight against them to be successful, against members of the ABiH army.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Could I just try to avoid that there is a basic
25 Apparently, Mr. Weber reads "well-thought-out punch on the nose"
1 to be inflicted upon the poturice so that they would change their faith
2 once again, and I must say that sounds at least rather logic. In your
3 answer you're saying you are addressing your own subordinates. But could
4 you please tell us what you meant in your answer? You said you wanted to
5 encourage those I was addressing, it is the subordinate commands and
6 units. It looks as if you're addressing them to inflict the
7 well-thought-out punch on the nose to the "poturice," to encourage the
8 "poturice" to change their faith again.
9 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] No. The last part is incorrect.
10 This is what I wanted. It was my previous experience that I wanted to
11 convey to the people I was addressing in order to encourage them and to
12 tell them that no great effort was needed. They only needed to be
13 decisive and believe in achieving victory.
14 JUDGE ORIE: But it reads, for -- I'd say for many perhaps, that
15 you say, "Well, some force will be enough to make them change their faith
16 again," "them" being the "poturice." Is that misunderstood?
17 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I don't know whether they would
18 change faith, but no one would be forcing them to do so.
19 JUDGE ORIE: But you would use force with a certain aim, isn't
20 it? That's what the line is about.
21 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] It was directed towards achieving
22 combat success and the best possible results. That is the meaning of
23 this entire paper.
24 JUDGE ORIE: We've heard your explanation.
25 Please move on, Mr. Weber.
1 MR. WEBER: The Prosecution tenders 65 ter 30902 into evidence.
2 MR. IVETIC: No objection.
3 JUDGE ORIE: Madam Registrar.
4 THE REGISTRAR: Document 30902 receives number P6647, Your
6 JUDGE ORIE: P6647 is admitted.
7 MR. WEBER:
8 Q. I would like to change topics. In paragraph 2 of your statement,
9 you indicate that you were the chief of staff and then commander of the
10 Visegrad Brigade in 1992. Is it correct that the Visegrad Brigade was
11 part of operations group Podrinje?
12 A. During what? The term "Operations Group Podrinje" is something
13 I'm not aware of, but do be more specific in terms of period. I've never
14 heard of an operations group Podrinje.
15 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have Exhibit P3677 for
16 the witness.
17 Q. This is a VRS Main Staff order to set up
18 Operations Group Podrinje dated 14 July 1992 from General Mladic. We
19 know this is a few days before you took up your position. In the first
20 paragraph of this order, there are references to two meetings that were
21 held on 7 and 11 July 1992. Before we move on, I just want to simply ask
22 you: Did you attend either of these meetings?
23 A. No. And it is the first time that I see this document.
24 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have page 3 of the B/C/S
25 and page 2 of the English translation. I'm going to be focusing on item
2 Q. Colonel, directing your attention to item 4 which discusses the
3 setting up of Tactical Group Gorazde. In this section General Mladic
4 indicates that the 2nd Podrinje Lpbr is to be composed of certain units.
5 Before we discuss these units, is it correct that your brigade in 1992
6 was the 2nd Podrinje Lpbr?
7 A. Yes.
8 Q. According to this order, your brigade is to be composed of
9 battalions and manned with the available forces in the Visegrad and Rudo
10 municipalities. When you took over your position or when you assumed
11 your position in July 1992, who were the forces that were available to
12 man VRS battalions from the Visegrad municipality?
13 A. At the point of my arrival, the brigade was based on companies.
14 The purpose of this order, in my view, was to make command easier because
15 it was difficult to command the units spread all over that large
16 territory. Although I had never seen this order, nevertheless
17 I implemented it once I became brigade commander. The situation dictated
18 that there was a reorganisation of the brigades in this manner. However,
19 there is one thing that is not clear. The Visegrad Brigade was based on
20 personnel from the Visegrad municipality rather than from Rudo.
21 Q. Okay. Sir, I want to be clear about this. Is it correct that
22 the 1st Visegrad Light Infantry Brigade was incorporated into the
23 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade?
24 A. No. The initial title was the Visegrad Brigade. It was later
25 changed to become the 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade. It is the
1 same unit. However, it was -- there was a change of name and
3 Q. I think generally we are talking about the same thing, but just
4 to be clear, was -- the initial Visegrad Brigade, that was commanded by
5 Vinko Pandurevic, correct?
6 A. Correct.
7 Q. You also incorporated volunteers from Serbia, right?
8 A. That is correct, but I wanted to explain the procedure.
9 Q. Sir --
10 A. We as the brigade could not take anyone in. Someone had to have
11 been mobilised and sent to the brigade.
12 Q. Okay. Sir, we will go through this and if we can do it in an
13 orderly fashion. I'll keep my questions simple. The way that the Serb
14 volunteers were incorporated into your brigade was through the SJB, the
15 police station in Visegrad, correct?
16 A. No. It went through the military secretariat. The SJB was
17 included in the part of the process which had to do with the screening of
18 those people arriving, based on their own procedures related to security,
19 et cetera. The military secretariat accepted such volunteers who had
20 gone through the screening process with the SJB. They would make sure
21 they had served their military term and did their part of the job. Then
22 they would mobilise them and such people would receive a draft call which
23 they needed to bring to the brigade. The brigade received such people.
24 It couldn't take anyone in directly, otherwise it would have been
25 unlawful and it could not be done without the previous checks.
1 Q. Were members of the SJB Visegrad, so the policemen themselves,
2 conscripted into your brigade?
3 A. No. Police is a separate segment. They functioned separately
4 from us. Of course, there was cooperation concerning the situation on
5 the ground, but they themselves were not members of the brigade.
6 Q. Did the members of the SJB Visegrad participate in VRS
8 A. Yes, Of course. There would be a request sent to their superior
9 order -- organs, and if that request was resolved in a positive manner,
10 they, if needed, would take part in operations.
11 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, I see we are at time for a break. I was
12 about to move on for a little bit.
13 JUDGE ORIE: Yes.
14 MR. WEBER: If we take it right now --
15 JUDGE ORIE: Yes, if this is a suitable moment for the break.
16 We'll ask the witness to follow the usher and be back in 20
18 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you.
19 [The witness stands down]
20 JUDGE ORIE: We resume at ten minutes to 11.00.
21 --- Recess taken at 10.32 a.m.
22 --- On resuming at 10.55 a.m.
23 [The witness takes the stand]
24 JUDGE ORIE: You may proceed, Mr. Weber.
25 MR. WEBER: Thank you, Your Honours.
1 Q. Mr. Dragicevic, aside from the groups that we discussed already,
2 were there any other groups that were incorporated into the
3 2nd Podrinje Brigade? Specifically in July 1992.
4 A. To my knowledge, no. If you could be more specific, then I could
5 be more specific in my answers.
6 Q. Were there any Bosnian Serb volunteer groups, as I believe how
7 you would consider them, that were already existing prior to July 1992
8 that were incorporated into your brigade?
9 A. I already explained how one could become member of this brigade.
10 There was no other way except if a regular unit of the VRS would come to
11 help us out. But specifically, there was no other way to incorporate any
12 other groups into the brigade --
13 Q. Sir --
14 A. -- in that period that I spent there.
15 Q. Sir, I'm going to cut you off because you're explaining to me a
16 process. My question was factual in nature. Were there any Bosnian Serb
17 volunteer groups that were existing prior to July 1992 that were
18 incorporated into your brigade?
19 A. I don't know of any such thing. It was impossible for anybody to
20 enter the brigade except through going through a process -- the process
21 that I explained to you sometime ago.
22 Q. Do I understand correctly that your answer today is no, there
23 were no Bosnian Serb volunteer groups incorporated into your brigade?
24 A. As far as I know, no. In a way where a group would come to the
25 brigade and the brigade would accept it. No. Individuals had to be
1 mobilised through the mobilisation section, to be issued with draft
2 calls, and then they would be deployed in specific units. In July, the
3 brigade had only companies.
4 JUDGE ORIE: I try to cut matters short. Were individuals
5 incorporated which were known to have been before they were incorporated
6 to be a group of volunteers, even though admitted individually?
7 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Well, the procedure is the same.
8 Nobody could enter a brigade without --
9 JUDGE ORIE: Don't repeat your previous answers. Were -- in
10 accordance with the procedure you already described, were individuals
11 incorporated which were known to have formed a group before they were
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I don't know about that. That's
14 possible, but the mobilisation centre would determine who would go into
15 which brigade.
16 JUDGE ORIE: You don't know. Please proceed.
17 MR. WEBER:
18 Q. Is it correct that you testified before the high court in
19 Bijelo Polje Montenegro on 19 February 2002?
20 A. I can't remember the year, but it is true that I testified before
21 a high court in Bijelo Polje.
22 Q. In that case you testified to events that related to the
23 abduction of over 20 Muslim men at the Strpci train station in Rudo on
24 27 February, 1993. That's what the case was about, correct?
25 A. That's correct.
1 Q. During that testimony, did you take an oath to tell the truth?
2 A. Yes.
3 Q. Was that oath similar to the one you took before your testimony
4 in this case?
5 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber --
6 A. I can't recall.
7 JUDGE ORIE: -- how many different oaths you are aware of to tell
8 the truth and different -- a bit of the truth or all of the truth? I
9 mean, it's a useless question, unless there is any specific reason to put
10 it to the witness if you have any reason to believe that these oaths are
11 different from what they are everywhere else in the world.
12 MR. WEBER: Fine, Your Honour.
13 JUDGE ORIE: Please proceed.
14 MR. WEBER:
15 Q. In your testimony before the high court in Montenegro, is it
16 correct that you discussed your time as a commander in the
17 Visegrad Brigade and those who were under your command?
18 A. Yes, I testified about the period while I was brigade commander.
19 Q. Are you aware that Milan Lukic has been convicted before this
20 Tribunal for crimes committed against the Muslim population of Visegrad?
21 MR. IVETIC: Object, beyond the scope of the indictment.
22 Visegrad is not in the indictment.
23 MR. WEBER: This goes to the witness's credibility, and I'm just
24 asking if he was aware of this.
25 JUDGE ORIE: The objection is denied. Please proceed.
1 MR. WEBER:
2 Q. Are you aware that Milan Lukic has been convicted before this
3 Tribunal for crimes committed against the Muslim population of Visegrad?
4 A. Yes. I learned it from the media, about the judgement that was
5 handed down here.
6 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 65 ter 30929 for
7 the witness.
8 Q. Before you is the trial record of your testimony in February 2002
9 before the high court. I'm going to go through a number of statements
10 that you made during these proceedings. While we go through these
11 statements, I may have a few additional questions. After I go through
12 these statements we will discuss some material related to the statements
13 that you made. Do you understand?
14 A. I understood. I hope I will be able to see what I had testified
15 about concerning the gist of your question.
16 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have page 2 of the B/C/S
17 and page 3 of the English translation.
18 Q. First, I would like to discuss what you said about the
19 composition of your brigade. Toward the middle bottom part of the page
20 before you, the trial record states:
21 "The brigade was made up of companies. It included an
22 intervention company. Boban Indjic from Visegrad was the commander of
23 this intervention company until he was wounded, when Rade Tanovic came."
24 First, do you see this portion?
25 A. Yes.
1 Q. Can you confirm that this was your testimony about your brigade
2 and Boban Indjic?
3 A. I confirm all the text that you read out loud.
4 Q. Toward the bottom of the same page, you are recorded as stating:
5 "I knew Milan Lukic of Visegrad by sight. And I know that he was
6 neither a member of my brigade nor a soldier."
7 MR. WEBER: Could we please have the next page of the B/C/S
8 original for the witness.
9 Q. It continues: As far as I know he was in prison in Uzice and
10 Belgrade during the time I was brigade commander. I do not know anything
11 about his activities in the Visegrad area."
12 Can you confirm that this was your testimony about Milan Lukic?
13 A. Yes, I confirm everything.
14 Q. In this testimony, you say that you knew Milan Lukic by sight.
15 Where would you see him?
16 A. Well, specifically, the first time I saw him was in town. I very
17 rarely went through town because I had no time for that. I was in a car.
18 The driver pointed out him -- pointed him to me. It was in town in front
19 of a cafe that he owned. He was standing in front of it.
20 Q. Okay. You said that was the first time. When was it?
21 A. Maybe late autumn. It was quite cold, very cold, foggy, frosty.
22 Could be the end of 1992 or the beginning of 1993. I can't be more
23 specific than that.
24 Q. Okay. How often would you see Milan Lukic?
25 A. During combat operations in Visegrad, in other words while I was
1 brigade commander, and after that head of -- chief of the tactical group,
2 very rarely. I can't really recall whether I saw him any other time.
3 I remember that he was wearing not military-issue camouflage fatigues.
4 It looked more like a police-issue fatigues, white and grey stripes.
5 Q. We will come back to this.
6 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have page 5 of both
8 Q. In the third paragraph on the page before you, this is also in
9 the upper portion of the page of the translation, you are recorded as
11 "There were two volunteer platoons. In military operations,
12 these platoons were attached to the intervention company. I know that
13 they had official designations as our units but perhaps the soldiers had
14 other slang names for them. I heard some of the names used by the
15 soldiers such as Osvetnik, Garavi Sokak, and that that was what they used
16 to call each other. However, none of the units had official names like
18 Can you confirm that this was your testimony before the high
20 A. Yes, I confirm.
21 Q. You refer to the Osvetnik and Garavi Sokak in this statement.
22 Isn't it correct that these were groups of Bosnian Serb volunteers who
23 existed in Visegrad that then came under your brigade's command?
24 A. Well, all -- not all conscripts could be volunteers from the area
25 of Visegrad. They were mobilised and they cannot by definition be
1 volunteers if they come from Visegrad, if they are conscripted.
2 Q. Okay. These groups -- individuals from these groups were
3 conscripted into your brigade, correct?
4 A. I don't know whether those were groups or not. I never dealt
5 with that problem. But at any rate, people who did -- who had done their
6 military service, military term, they were conscripted and mobilised into
7 the Visegrad brigades and which later on became 2nd Podrinje Light
8 Infantry Brigade.
9 Q. Okay. We will come back to these groups. At the end of this
10 page you stated in response to a question concerning whether smaller
11 units from the Visegrad Brigade could carry out operations without you
12 knowing. You stated:
13 "A unit could not carry out any military operation as a unit
14 without my knowledge."
15 Was this your testimony?
16 MR. IVETIC: Object, Your Honours. If he's going to quote the
17 testimony, he's going to have quote the same -- the whole testimony, not
18 take one sentence and stop there and say that's the whole testimony.
19 JUDGE ORIE: Well, I take this to be an invitation for Mr. Weber
20 to give a larger quote than he did.
21 MR. IVETIC: That's correct.
22 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber.
23 MR. WEBER: Well, Your Honour, I was just merely putting the fact
24 to him. But if you want me to read the question and the answer I can.
25 Q. The trial record states:
1 "Asked by the prosecutor whether one of the small units from the
2 Visegrad Brigade could carry out a military operation without him knowing
3 about it, the witness replied:
4 "'A unit could not carry out any military operation as a unit
5 without my knowledge.'"
6 Was that what you said?
7 MR. IVETIC: And the answer continues.
8 JUDGE ORIE: Well, something for re-examination, I think.
9 Unless -- Mr. Weber, I have not read what follows. If that sheds
10 a totally different light on it, then of course it's a bit narrow-minded
11 to just put a thing where you know that later the other part will be put
12 to the witness. I have not read it.
13 Mr. Ivetic, you know what the remedy is.
14 And Mr. Weber is reminded that that doesn't make much sense.
15 Again, I haven't read it so I have no opinion about it.
16 MR. WEBER: Yeah.
17 JUDGE ORIE: Let's proceed.
18 MR. WEBER:
19 Q. Sir, that was your testimony before the high court, correct?
20 A. Yes, yes. This is how I testified. I commanded my subordinated
21 units, not platoons which are lower level but the two battalions and the
22 intervention company and staff units. These were my direct, immediate
23 subordinates, and I commanded over them.
24 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have page 8 of the B/C/S
25 and page 7 of the English translation.
1 JUDGE ORIE: Witness, you do agree that you were asked in that
2 proceedings about smaller units and you didn't make any distinction
3 between platoons or battalions? You agree with that?
4 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I did not fully understand you, but
5 what I can tell you is that I commanded directly the subordinate units
6 which are battalion level and the intervention company which was part of
7 the brigade by establishment.
8 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. I was asking you about the testimony you gave
9 in those other proceedings, not about what happened on the ground. But
10 if you don't understand it, let's move on.
11 MR. WEBER:
12 Q. At the very beginning of this page --
13 MR. WEBER: This is near the top of the page of the translation
15 Q. -- the trial record records you as stating:
16 "I was also informed about the other abduction which occurred in
17 Sjeverin through the media as well, just as I was about this Strpci
19 Can you confirm that this is what you said?
20 A. Yes.
21 Q. I'd just like to ask you about your awareness of this other
22 abduction. Are you aware that the Sjeverin abduction occurred on
23 22 October 1992, and it involved the taking of 16 Muslims from Sandzak,
24 15 men and one woman who were riding a bus, that these individuals were
25 abducted in the village of Mioce [phoen] and taken to Visegrad where they
1 were never seen again? Are you aware of these facts?
2 A. Yes, I know about this. I learned from the media about these
4 Q. When you testified before the high court, were you aware that
5 Milan Lukic was a suspected perpetrator for both the Sjeverin and Strpci
7 A. Yes. I learned of that, yes.
8 Q. Before I test the truthfulness of some of the statements that
9 you've confirmed from the high court, I'd also like to ask you: Are you
10 aware that Milan Lukic was arrested on unrelated gun possession charges
11 four days after the Sjeverin abduction, precise date being 26 October
13 A. I know that he was arrested and I learned, of course, that the
14 reason for the arrest was possession of weapons. But I can't remember
15 the time. I believe it was in November/December 1992, I think.
16 Q. Okay. We're going to go through some materials related to this
18 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 65 ter 30932 for
19 the witness. The Prosecution requests that this document not be
20 broadcast to the public.
21 Q. This is a Republic of Serbia State Security Service Uzice Centre
22 Official Note dated 2 November 1992. In the first line of this document,
23 it indicates the source of the information is Milan Lukic, the leader of
24 the Osvetnici group. During your 2002 testimony in Montenegro, this was
25 the group that you said was attached to the intervention company of your
1 brigade, right?
2 MR. IVETIC: Objection, misstates the evidence.
3 JUDGE ORIE: It does, Mr. Weber. I think the witness testified
4 that people were incorporated which were called, although not officially
5 named, as the Avengers. But that they were called that, although it
6 wasn't their official name.
7 But that -- but --
8 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, I dis --
9 JUDGE ORIE: If you read --
10 MR. WEBER: I disagree because I read him his quote from his
11 state court testimony which said:
12 "In military operations these platoons were attached to the
13 intervention company..."
14 And he went on to say that they used slang names for them
15 including the names Osvetnik and --
16 JUDGE ORIE: Which suggests that it's the same --
17 MR. WEBER: Yes.
18 JUDGE ORIE: -- but which has not been established yet. To that
19 extent it misrepresents. Although it's on a detail, I'm aware of that.
20 But the more precise your language, the more you'll avoid these kind of
22 MR. WEBER:
23 Q. This is the group that you referred to in your high court
24 testimony, correct, the Osvetnik?
25 A. I testified before the high court that the soldiers would call
1 one another in their argot different names. Specials, poison, avengers.
2 These were internal nicknames. This is what I heard.
3 Q. Are you stating that you heard of the group Osvetnik?
4 A. I did not hear about the group Avengers, but what I said here and
5 what I said at -- before the high court, this I maintain.
6 Q. Okay. I'd like to just show you a little bit of -- have you look
7 at a little bit of information before we move on to another part of this
8 report. According to this Official Note, this interview of Milan Lukic
9 occurred on 26 October 1992 after he was stopped at a check-point in
10 Serbia and found to be in possession of weapons. Do you see this
11 information on the page before you?
12 A. Yes. That's what it says.
13 Q. Before I move on, I just want to note for the record the weapons
14 because we will come back to them later. These weapons included a
15 Thompson submachine-gun, a 7.62 millimetre rifle, hand grenades, and a
16 7.65 millimetre pistol, according to the document.
17 MR. WEBER: Could we please have page 2 of both versions.
18 Q. In the middle of the page, Milan Lukic is recorded as stating:
19 "I participated in all important military operations in the
20 Visegrad area. This was a real interethnic war and I came to the front
21 with only one goal: To protect Serbs and Serbdom in this area. Since
22 the arrival of Vinko Pandurevic, I was under his command, in legal units
23 of Republika Srpska."
24 Before I move on to another statement, do you see this part of
25 the document before you?
1 A. I see it.
2 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have page 3 of both
4 Q. Toward the top of this page, Milan Lukic is recorded as stating:
5 "In Visegrad, I found a bad situation, a small numerical
6 strength, low morale with commander Luka Dragicevic and commander of the
7 Tactical Group 1, Vinko Pandurevic, who was at the Rudo front together
8 with Lieutenant-Colonel Mitrasinovic."
9 Based on these statements, is it correct that Milan Lukic was in
10 fact part of your brigade?
11 A. No. He never was. I never heard of his individual participation
12 in any brigade command activity. He couldn't have because he was not a
13 member of it.
14 Q. We are going to go through some more documents.
15 MR. WEBER: But, Your Honours, at this time the Prosecution
16 tenders 65 ter 30932 into evidence under seal.
17 MR. IVETIC: Objection, Your Honour. During the Prosecution case
18 whenever we tried to use statements of third parties not brought as
19 witnesses, Your Honours said you have to bring the persons to attest to
20 the statement. This is a statement. Therefore we object. The
21 Prosecution cannot enter this document for the truth of the matter
22 asserted in this matter.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Do you make any distinction between different kinds
24 of statements? If it was a statement taken for the purposes of
25 proceedings before this Tribunal, certainly you're right. Now, did we
1 always insist on that if statements were taken for other purposes? And
2 if so, could you please assist us in pointing at the decisions we took in
3 that respect?
4 MR. IVETIC: I'd have to ask some time review the record.
5 I can't recall the transcript page off the top of my head, but I could at
6 the break look for it. So if we could then mark for identification and
7 perhaps resolve the matter and wait for the submissions.
8 JUDGE ORIE: The objection pending, Madam Registrar, could you
9 assign a number so that we can mark for identification this document.
10 THE REGISTRAR: Document 30932 receives number P6648, Your
12 JUDGE ORIE: And is marked for identification. Under seal.
13 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 65 ter 30934, page
14 3 of the B/C/S and page 4 of the English translation.
15 Q. Sir, coming up before you is the criminal report related to
16 Milan Lukic's arrest on 26 October 1992. I'm just showing you this
17 document --
18 MR. WEBER: Excuse me, Your Honours.
19 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Could we enlarge it? I can't see
20 it well.
21 MR. WEBER: Your Honours, just out of an abundance of caution,
22 based on what Ms. Stewart just informed me, if we could not have it
23 broadcast for the time being.
24 Thank you, Ms. Stewart.
25 Q. I'm just showing you this document before we move on to another
1 document so you see the serial numbers of the weapons - in particular,
2 the serial number for the Thompson, which is 91053; and the serial number
3 for the 7.65 millimetre pistol, which is K315414. This criminal report
4 also indicates there were four grenades. Do you see this information,
5 before we move on?
6 A. I see it.
7 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution now please have 65 ter 08519,
8 page 2 in both versions. And, Your Honours, I plan on tendering this
9 document with the next one.
10 If I could please have the next page of both versions. I believe
11 it's the other page of the B/C/S. I do not believe we have the correct
12 page of the B/C/S on the screen.
13 JUDGE ORIE: I think we have -- or isn't it? No, perhaps not all
14 of it, but I see number -- let's have a look. Perhaps it's partly here
15 and partly on the next page.
16 MR. WEBER: Is this page 1 or page 2 in the B/C/S?
17 JUDGE ORIE: Let's have a look. We have the various --
18 MR. WEBER: I'm sorry, page 1 in the B/C/S. If we could have
19 that. Here we go.
20 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. Yes, it's the same form but filled in. Yes.
21 Please proceed.
22 MR. WEBER:
23 Q. This is a receipt for weapons received by Milan Lukic dated
24 28 September 1992, almost a month before his arrest. At the bottom we
25 see that this receipt contains the stamp of the army of the republic of
1 the Serbian Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina Visegrad command. And the
2 serial numbers of the Thompson and the pistol match the ones in the
3 criminal report we just looked at. There is also reference to hand
4 grenades. I put it to you that the Visegrad command supplied Milan Lukic
5 with weapons.
6 A. I cannot confirm that position of yours. But the logistics
7 person at the command could confirm it or deny. There is a problem with
8 the date, though, because it seems to have been changed, the 28th of
9 September 1992. I think originally it was a different month, and then it
10 was changed. This is what I can see at a first glance. There is nothing
11 else I can say about the document. I didn't issue it and I was not in
12 command at the time. I don't know how it came about. You would need to
13 ask those who had issued those weapons.
14 Q. Okay.
15 A. This is a receipt. I don't think regular soldiers were issued
16 against receipts -- issued with weapons.
17 Q. Okay. Let's go through one more document.
18 MR. WEBER: And actually I'll tender all three together. Could
19 the Prosecution please have 65 ter 02555 for the witness.
20 Q. Before you are certificates from you, for Milan Lukic and
21 Dragutin Dragicevic. According to the top certificate, Milan Lukic was
22 engaged in units of the VRS in Visegrad from 19 May 1992 to the present.
23 The stamp on the documents are the same as the ones we just saw on the
24 weapons receipt. I put it to you that you have not been truthful about
25 your knowledge of Milan Lukic and his association to your brigade and
1 these certificates that I've just shown you demonstrate that. Do you
2 have any comment?
3 A. Of course, I responsibly claim that you are incorrect. This is a
4 fake document. First of all, I didn't sign it, although we can see my
5 name printed. But please show me the date when this certificate was
6 issued, and the place where there should be a date seems to have been
7 covered. It's black.
8 Q. So, sir, are you denying that these are your initials on the
9 certificate by the signature line? I get it, it's type signed.
10 A. As you could see from all other documents, I never initialled
11 them. I signed them. It was the only signature I used and it was on my
12 military ID when I was made 2nd Lieutenant; that is to say, an active
13 officer. I have always used that signature, including the present.
14 I never initialled it. This is obviously a fake certificate. If you
15 show us the date --
16 Q. Sir, sir --
17 A. -- you will be able to see for yourself. Please let me explain,
18 if you want --
19 Q. Sir, I do have more questions about it. Are you saying you do
20 not recognise these initials?
21 A. Of course I don't recognise them and the initials aren't mine.
22 That is not my signature.
23 Q. Were there occasions when people signed for you?
24 A. Show me the date of issue for this certificate, and I'll explain
25 it all.
1 Q. That wasn't my question, sir.
2 JUDGE ORIE: You told us that again and again. If it's a fake
3 document, what would be the purpose of concealing the date? Can you
4 explain that to me? Because you insist so much on it.
5 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Of course. I insist upon it so as
6 to make it clear for you. This is poor grammar as well. Somebody
7 managed to get ahold of a form and obviously they didn't --
8 JUDGE ORIE: Stop. I'm stopping you there. You insist that
9 looking at the date would clarify issues for us. First question I put to
10 you: What is the -- what's the purpose of, if you want to make a fake
11 document, to conceal it? Or is it a forged document; that is, that it is
12 your signature but that the date has been removed which sheds then light
13 on what you just told us? Which of the two: Is it entirely fake or is
14 it changed as far as the date being taken off, taken out?
15 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] The document is completely fake.
16 The date is important because it needs to be compared with the stamp
17 because the stamp changed.
18 JUDGE ORIE: If I indicate that you should stop speaking because
19 I have the next question. I have now an answer to my first question.
20 You say it's a completely fake document. And then my question is: What
21 is the purpose, if you create a fake document, to conceal a date?
22 I would put -- on such a totally fake document, I would put on it the
23 date which is most convenient to me. Could you tell us what the purpose
24 of erasure of the date is?
25 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] The purpose is obvious. These two
1 appeared before a court, both. This document was created for the court
2 so as to show before the court that they belonged to the VRS, whereas
3 they did not. They were both sentenced in Belgrade. Let alone the fact
4 that this was not filled out in a soldierly way.
5 First of all, we did not have a reconnaissance sabotage platoon
6 but we had a sabotage reconnaissance platoon. Next --
7 JUDGE ORIE: That goes beyond my question. My question was what
8 was the purpose of erasing the date. I've received an answer to that
10 JUDGE MOLOTO: I have a question.
11 Mr. Dragicevic, could you please tell us to what institution the
12 stamp on this original belongs?
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] As you can see, on the stamp, this
14 is the first stamp that was used, one can clearly see it reads: "The
15 Army of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina." Later on, we became
16 the Army of Republika Srpska and the stamp was changed.
17 JUDGE MOLOTO: Thank you.
18 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber.
19 MR. WEBER:
20 Q. Just on the notion of the stamp, that would have been the stamp
21 that would have been used prior to that change, correct?
22 A. Yes. While that was the case, we used this stamp and this kind
23 of template. But this form, this kind of certificates, could not have
24 been issued for that purpose. Its purpose was different. It served to
25 acknowledge that members of the army were in receipt of assistance, say,
1 from the Red Cross or another organisation.
2 Q. In response to Judge Orie's question, you said this document was
3 created for the court so as to show before the court that they belonged
4 to the VRS. How do you know that?
5 A. I testified twice at the district court in Belgrade and I know of
6 this document. These two appeared before the court and were sentenced,
7 and it's quite clear that this kind of form was allegedly issued to them
8 at the relevant time. It begs no further clarification. If there was a
9 date, everything would be clear.
10 JUDGE ORIE: It's therefore your conclusion that it must have
11 been produced for court purposes. Is that how I have to understand your
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes. I'm completely convinced,
15 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber.
16 MR. WEBER:
17 Q. Are you aware that the Uzice district court terminated the
18 detention of Milan Lukic on 4 November 1992 because evidence was
19 presented which indicated that Milan Lukic and the co-accused
20 Dragutin Dragicevic were members of the Visegrad Brigade of the Army of
21 Republika Srpska? Are you aware of that?
22 A. I'm not aware of it. Had he been a member of the army, we would
23 have had that piece of information.
24 JUDGE ORIE: [Overlapping speakers]
25 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] However, he had not been and we
1 never had that information.
2 JUDGE ORIE: Could you please stop talking when I give you a
3 clear sign to do so? You've answered the question, you're not aware of
4 it. We are not seeking, unless specifically asked for that, your further
5 elaborations. You're not aware of it. That answers the question.
6 Mr. Weber.
7 MR. WEBER:
8 Q. I'm simply putting this to you, that you -- actually, your
9 brigade issued this certificate for these individuals to secure their
10 release back in late October, early November 1992. Do you have any other
12 A. That is absolutely untrue. It did not take place with my
13 knowledge. I was even threatened with murder by the relatives of this
14 Milan Lukic because they wanted me to issue a certificate of -- like
15 that, and risking my life, I refused. He had not been mobilised, he was
16 not a soldier, and not a member of the brigade. My life was under threat
17 directly. I believe many others feared him, and that out of fear they
18 may have been prone to issue fake certificates, although I'm not sure.
19 That is my assumption.
20 Q. Okay. You've been claiming up till now that you did not have
21 much knowledge, and then you just said: "I was even threatened with
22 murder by the relatives of this Milan Lukic because they wanted me to
23 issue a certificate...," when did this happen?
24 A. It happened when he was in the Uzice prison, during that time.
25 Their explanation was that if he were to receive an army certificate, it
1 would be a mitigating circumstance because he had certain weapons
2 illegally and that was what he was charged with.
3 MR. WEBER: Your Honours, I'm going to move on to some additional
4 materials somewhat related to the topic. I can tender the three
5 documents now or actually tender them with another two that I'm going to
6 be using.
7 JUDGE ORIE: Perhaps you then wait.
8 Could you -- Mr. Weber, could you shed a bit more light on the
9 provenance of these documents?
10 MR. WEBER: I can if we can do that -- [Overlapping speakers].
11 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. Because I'm not asking you to do it now but
12 before the Chamber will further consider admission.
13 MR. WEBER: Sure.
14 JUDGE ORIE: Please proceed.
15 MR. WEBER: Actually, Your Honour, then could we have them all
16 marked for identification. I believe with the other MFI, if we can just
17 pool these together and then discuss them all at once.
18 JUDGE ORIE: Yes, we could do so.
19 Mr. Ivetic, I see you are apparently in agreement.
20 MR. WEBER: And I can read the 65 ter numbers if you'd like.
21 JUDGE ORIE: Well, you could do that, yes.
22 MR. WEBER: The Prosecution would be tendering 65 ter numbers
23 30934, 08519, and 039 -- excuse me --
24 JUDGE FLUEGGE: 02555.
25 MR. WEBER: 02555. Thank you, Your Honours.
1 JUDGE ORIE: Madam Registrar.
2 THE REGISTRAR: Document 30934 receives number P6649.
3 Document 08519 receives number P6650. And Document 02555 receives number
4 P6651, Your Honours.
5 JUDGE ORIE: All three marked for identification, under seal.
6 Only the first one under seal, that is P6649. The others public
8 MR. WEBER: Thank you, Your Honours. I believe we are at a time
9 for a break.
10 JUDGE ORIE: We are.
11 Witness, we take a break of 20 minutes. You may follow the
12 usher, and we'd like to see you back at 10 minutes past 12.00.
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Certainly. Thank you.
14 [The witness stands down]
15 JUDGE ORIE: We resume at 10 minutes past 12.00.
16 --- Recess taken at 11.51 a.m.
17 --- On resuming at 12.12 p.m.
18 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber.
19 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, I just wanted to alert the Chamber and
20 the parties that I might not use the full day today.
21 JUDGE ORIE: Okay.
22 MR. WEBER: I might not need the last session.
23 JUDGE ORIE: I take it that Mr. Ivetic may need some time for
25 MR. IVETIC: Yes, Your Honours. At this stage probably 15
2 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. So therefore there is a fair chance that we
3 would conclude the testimony of this witness today, which is appreciated.
4 MR. IVETIC: And I guess while we're waiting, Your Honours, I can
5 direct Your Honours to transcript page 18652 through 18654 in relation to
6 a non-ICTY statement of an out of court person, 1D1370, which was denied
7 admission in relation to the Prosecution case in chief.
8 JUDGE ORIE: Let's have a look.
9 [The witness takes the stand]
10 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber, you may proceed.
11 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 65 ter 30936.
12 Q. This is a report from the 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade
13 dated 22 February 1993, from a deputy security commander,
14 Captain Vucelja. At this time, were you the commander of this brigade?
15 A. Yes.
16 Q. This report indicates that there are no paramilitary formations
17 or groups in the brigade but there are groups under the brigade command
18 including the Osvetnik. After having seen this document, do you agree
19 that the groups that are mentioned here were respecting your brigade's
21 A. I think I've already explained. Soldiers addressed each other
22 with these names that meant something to them, but among our formations
23 there were no groups called this. There were platoons, companies, and
24 later battalions, when the establishment was changed. It could only have
25 been the 1st Platoon of the 1st Company or the 1st Company of the
1 1st Battalion and so on. As for the different names, they used all sorts
2 of names.
3 Q. These names that these individuals used, these are the names
4 that -- the group names that they used, right?
5 A. I can't confirm that. I don't know if they called each other
6 those names individually or more of them accepted such nicknames.
7 I really never bothered.
8 Q. I put it to you that this document shows -- also shows that
9 Milan Lukic's group, the Osvetnik, were respecting your brigade's
10 command. Do you have any comment?
11 MR. IVETIC: Objection, states facts not in evidence.
12 MR. WEBER: Disagree, Your Honour.
13 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. One second, please. What is not in evidence?
14 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, if we have a discussion about this --
15 JUDGE ORIE: Oh, is it about the document not being in evidence
16 yet? What -- what -- I do not fully understand your objection, Mr.
18 MR. IVETIC: No. The --
19 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, for this discussion the --
20 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. I don't know whether it's -- if it's -- could
21 you take off your ear-phones for a second.
22 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, I believe the witness said --
23 JUDGE ORIE: No, the witness said he knows some English. Then
24 could the leave the courtroom for a second and to remain standby.
25 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I said I don't speak English.
1 JUDGE ORIE: Very limited from what I understand but
2 nevertheless. Even in the English language, some issues might be raised
3 which could be overheard.
4 [The witness stands down]
5 JUDGE ORIE: What's not in evidence, Mr. Ivetic?
6 MR. IVETIC: I don't believe it's in evidence -- and I just lost
7 the question.
8 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, maybe I can assist --
9 MR. IVETIC: Milan Lukic's group.
10 MR. WEBER: In the Serbian DB report that we looked at, it
11 started that Milan Lukic was leader of the group named the Osvetnik, so
12 that is the basis of this. The witness has disagreed with it. I'm going
13 through this line of cross-examination to test his credibility, and I'm
14 confronting him - which is the way I phrased my question, that I put it
15 to you - and I'm putting the proposition to him. I believe this is
16 perfectly proper.
17 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. Mr. Ivetic, if you put something to a witness
18 as a proposition then it doesn't need to be in evidence. As a matter of
19 fact, you seek that to become evidence, isn't it?
20 MR. IVETIC: But it doesn't say "I put it to you Milan Lukic...,"
21 it says "I put it to you that this document shows," this document being
22 the one on the screen now.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Yes.
24 MR. IVETIC: So we're mixing apples and pears.
25 JUDGE ORIE: No. It's the proposition that this document is
1 indicative for what Mr. Weber says. Now, whether he's asking for a
2 conclusion on the document, that's a different matter, would perhaps be a
3 different objection, but Mr. Weber puts that to the witness. This
4 document shows that. It's not in evidence. It's clear, what he seeks.
5 As a matter of fact, he seeks the witness to draw conclusions which --
6 MR. IVETIC: But this document does not mention Milan Lukic.
7 That's my point. They're trying to.
8 JUDGE ORIE: No, doesn't need to do that. That's because it's
9 about conclusions.
10 MR. IVETIC: Okay.
11 JUDGE ORIE: And that -- could the witness be escorted back into
12 the courtroom. It may go without saying but the objection is denied.
13 [The witness takes the stand]
14 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber, perhaps you again put to the witness what
15 you wanted to put to him.
16 MR. WEBER:
17 Q. Sir, drawing your attention back to the document, I put it to you
18 that this document further shows that Milan Lukic's group, the Osvetnik,
19 were respecting your brigade's command. Do you have any comment?
20 A. Of course I can. It says here that those names could bring about
21 an association or are reminiscent of existence of paramilitary groups.
22 I also said that they called each other different names but group -- as a
23 group could not have existed. There are 1st Detachment, 1st Platoon,
24 1st Company, 1st Battalion, et cetera, et cetera.
25 JUDGE ORIE: Witness, you are -- the one who reports here uses
1 the expression "group," isn't it? All these groups. So he refers to
2 them as groups. Have you any comment on that? And I see that in the
3 original also the word "grupa" is used.
4 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] He used that term but there were no
5 other groups. There are detachments, which are part of a platoon,
6 platoon is a part of a company. How large were those groups? I don't
7 know. But there were no groups as groups.
8 JUDGE ORIE: We've heard your explanation.
9 Please move on, Mr. Weber.
10 MR. WEBER:
11 Q. In the last answer you just used a pronoun, you said "he." Who
12 are you referring to?
13 A. Whoever signed this document.
14 MR. WEBER: The Prosecution tenders 3096 -- 30936 into evidence.
15 JUDGE MOLOTO: Before we do that, I have one or two questions.
16 Witness, do you know Captain Veselin Vucija?
17 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Of course I know him. He was, as
18 it's stated here, assistant security -- or deputy security commander.
19 JUDGE MOLOTO: Of which unit?
20 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry
22 JUDGE MOLOTO: Are you able to tell us to what institution the
23 stamp there on the original belongs to?
24 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] It's not very legible. I can't
25 make out anything except to establish that there is a rubber stamp.
1 JUDGE MOLOTO: Is it any better now?
2 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Well, I can make out command of the
3 2nd Podrinje and the rest is illegible, but it's evident that this would
4 be a command of the 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade.
5 JUDGE MOLOTO: I thank you very much.
6 Yes, Mr. Weber.
7 JUDGE ORIE: You tendered the document. I think we marked them
8 for identification. Or is this a new series which is not --
9 MR. WEBER: This is new series [Overlapping speakers].
10 MR. IVETIC: No objection.
11 JUDGE ORIE: No objection to this one.
12 Madam Registrar, the number would be?
13 THE REGISTRAR: Document 30936 receives number P6652, Your
15 JUDGE ORIE: P6652 is admitted.
16 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 30933, page 1 of
17 the original and page 2 of the translation. The Prosecution asks that
18 this document not be broadcast to the public.
19 Q. Sir, before you is another Serbian DB official note from the
20 Uzice centre. This one is dated 4 March 1993 and it relates to the
21 Strpci abduction on 27 February 1993. Directing your attention to the
22 bottom of the page before you --
23 MR. WEBER: Which I believe is on the next page of the
24 translation. I think we've gone one page too far in the translation.
25 There we are.
1 Q. -- there is a reference to -- there is actually multiple
2 references to Boban Indjic who is described as the leader of the
3 Garavi Sokak. And there is also references to a truck that was used or
4 is associated with the Strpci train abduction. Do you see this
6 A. I can see it, yes.
7 Q. Is it correct that the Boban Indjic that is referred to here is
8 the one that you referred to in your previous high court testimony as
9 being a part of your infantry -- intervention company?
10 A. Yes. He was commander of the intervention company.
11 MR. WEBER: Could we please have the next page in the B/C/S for
12 the witness before I ask my next question.
13 Q. Sir, I just wanted you to see the complete information. On this
14 page of the report at the top, it indicates that a policeman from Rudo
15 saw the truck proceeding along the route from Strpci after the abduction
16 of the passengers on the train. According to this report, the policeman
17 recognised Indjic as one of the people in the truck. Do you see this
19 A. If you could please specify whether it's towards the top or
20 bottom or?
21 Q. It should be at the very top of the page before you.
22 A. On the next page? I have page 2 here.
23 Q. I'll refrain from stating the name of the individual, and if you
24 could do the same --
25 A. Yes, yes.
1 Q. -- but if see a reference to a policeman from Rudo --
2 A. Yes, I can see it now, yes. Thank you.
3 Q. Okay. Have you read that first paragraph on this page?
4 A. Well, no. I looked for those family names. Am I supposed to
5 read it out loud.
6 Q. Yes, sir. I just want to give you an opportunity to read
7 the paragraph before I ask you a question. The very top paragraph.
8 JUDGE ORIE: There is no need to read it out loud but just to
9 familiarise yourself with the names in there.
10 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] That's clear, yes, thank you. I've
11 read it.
12 MR. WEBER:
13 Q. Sir, my question to you based on this information is simple.
14 I put it to you that the men from your brigade participated in the Strpci
15 abduction on the 27th of February 1993, based on this information. Do
16 you have any comment?
17 A. According to this information, it seems to be so, judging by the
18 name. And source of information is a policeman from Rudo. I'm not sure
19 whether he would be the right person to be able to recognise anybody but
20 I'm not going to dwell on that. But, however, I maintain that the
21 brigade had nothing to do with this incident or abduction in Strpci,
22 neither did it have such a crazy idea, neither did it have any plan, nor
23 did it use any of its units for such an act. This would be an interstate
24 problem and no sane commander would really want to go into it.
25 Q. You just made a bunch of denials. Did you personally investigate
1 whether or not men from your intervention company were involved in the
2 Strpci abduction?
3 A. No. I never received that kind of information before the trial,
4 before the high court in Bijelo Polje. Only then, or sometime earlier
5 from the press, I'd learned that one of the members of the brigade, a
6 volunteer by the family name of Stojisavljevic, had been arrested
7 initially reportedly because of smuggling, and then later on I found out
8 that this was -- the reason was Strpci. But this was after the war.
9 Only then did I learn that some members of the Visegrad Brigade had taken
10 part in such crime. By that time, I was not in a position to take any
11 action because the brigade had ceased to exist and I had left that
13 MR. WEBER: The Prosecution tenders 30933 into evidence at this
14 time under seal.
15 JUDGE ORIE: Madam Registrar.
16 THE REGISTRAR: Document 30933 receives number P6653, Your
18 JUDGE ORIE: P6653 is admitted.
19 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution --
20 JUDGE ORIE: As under seal, yes.
21 MR. WEBER: Thank you. Could the Prosecution please have
22 65 ter 02556. Okay.
23 Q. This is a 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade command report
24 dated 21 October 1993 from a Major Pajevic. Is it correct that you were
25 the Chief of Staff of the Visegrad tactical group at this time? You were
1 no longer in this brigade specifically?
2 A. Yes, that's correct. Let me point out one obvious --
3 Q. Sir, sir, I'm going to ask you about the document. If you could
4 please wait.
5 A. [Overlapping speakers]
6 Q. Sir, sir --
7 JUDGE ORIE: Witness, Witness, you are here to answer questions.
8 If there is anything you would like to add to that, you may ask for my
9 permission to do so. So then you address me and you just do not continue
10 to speak out what you had on your mind. Is that clear to you?
11 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I apologise.
12 JUDGE ORIE: Please proceed.
13 MR. WEBER:
14 Q. Sir, let's see if we address what's on your mind.
15 JUDGE ORIE: The witness would like address me --
16 MR. WEBER: Okay.
17 JUDGE ORIE: -- and I gave him an opportunity to do so. What is
18 there you want to address at this moment? And I add to that which cannot
19 wait until later.
20 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] But it is important. If you take a
21 closer look, you see that --
22 JUDGE ORIE: No, no, no.
23 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] -- he was a member of the brigade
24 from -- well, the brigade did not exist at the time.
25 JUDGE ORIE: Witness, witness, witness, you had asked for
1 permission, that is what. And I asked you what is there what could not
2 be said at the end. Take a pencil, make it a little note if you want to,
3 and at the end of your testimony you'll have an opportunity, if not
4 already covered by the re-examination, and you'll be re-examined, and
5 then you'll have an opportunity at the end to add anything which is
6 relevant in relation to the questions that were put to you. Please
7 proceed, Mr. Weber.
8 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you.
9 MR. WEBER:
10 Q. Was the 2nd Podrinje Brigade part of the Visegrad tactical group?
11 A. Yes, after the Visegrad tactical group had been formed. But let
12 me note that the tactical group is a temporary formation, the
13 Visegrad Brigade or rather 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade was part
14 of the Drina Corps.
15 Q. I appreciate what you're saying. My next question would be: In
16 October 1993, was the Visegrad -- was the 2nd Podrinje Brigade part of
17 the Visegrad tactical group? Was the Visegrad TG in existence at that
19 A. Yes, the TG Visegrad did exist, but its competences lie primarily
20 in coordinating combat operation --
21 JUDGE ORIE: No one asked you about the competences. In the
22 answer to your previous questions you added already something Mr. Weber
23 was about to ask you. Here, whether Mr. Weber is interested in
24 competences, "yes" or "no," wait for the next question which you may now
25 put to the witness, Mr. Weber.
1 MR. WEBER: Thank you, Your Honour.
2 Q. Sir, I'm going to go through each part of this report with you.
3 The first sentence of this report indicates that Milan Lukic's dad asked
4 for a certificate confirming his participation in the brigade. Were you
5 aware of this? That on the 21st of October 1993, Milan Lukic's dad asked
6 for this certificate?
7 A. I don't know. By that time, I'd transferred to the staff of the
8 tactical group. I was chief of staff. This document is something that
9 Vojko Pajevic drafted and he can explain everything about that. At that
10 time I was not part of the 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade. I held
11 no post there. I was at the tactical group Visegrad.
12 Q. Do I understand your simple answer then is you were not aware of
13 Milan Lukic's asking -- father asking for a certificate on this date?
14 A. That's correct.
15 Q. This report continues to state that Milan Lukic joined the
16 brigade as a volunteer on 26 April 1992 and is still a member of it.
17 However, he was in prison at the time of this report. Do you know what
18 Milan Lukic was in custody for at this time?
19 A. No.
20 Q. In your earlier high court testimony, you said you were aware
21 that Milan Lukic was in custody. How did you know that?
22 A. I said that I was aware about November and December 1992. Of
23 course, I heard later that he was detained on several occasions, but I
24 didn't know when or on what grounds. I knew about his detention in Uzice
25 because I was directly in a way involved because I received threats
1 corroborated by weapons and being asked to give a certificate about his
2 membership in the brigade but he was not a member. He was not part of
3 any platoon. And this is the basic document which testifies to
4 somebody's membership in a brigade.
5 Q. This document then indicates that Milan Lukic made a contribution
6 in liberating Visegrad, and "the army grew to like him for being who he
7 was. And they request his release so he could lead his company again."
8 Based on this document from your former brigade that you were commander
9 of, is it correct that you have not provided truthful testimony
10 concerning your brigade's relationship with Milan Lukic?
11 A. No. In no way could this be said, particularly because I was
12 personally exposed to threats of death. This document in my opinion
13 serves a purpose concerning Lukic but he was never a member of the
14 brigade and by the same token he could not have been a commander of a
15 company in that same brigade.
16 Q. Did you ever report or communicate the threats you received to
17 your superiors?
18 A. No, because a security organ was present at the time and he may
19 have informed the station -- the public security station because those
20 people were civilians, those who threatened me were civilians, not
21 military personnel.
22 Q. Did your -- did you ever take any action, your brigade, to remove
23 these civilians or individuals from your zone of responsibility, that
24 were threatening you?
25 A. No. That was within the purview of security organs or the
1 police. But frankly speaking, I did not pay much attention to that.
2 There were so many other duties concerning combat operations that it
3 never crossed my mind. I suppose that I should have done something but
4 I simply did not have the time for that, except for carrying out my basic
5 duties and missions.
6 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, the Prosecution tenders 65 ter 2556 into
8 MR. IVETIC: No objection.
9 JUDGE ORIE: One second, please.
10 Madam Registrar.
11 THE REGISTRAR: Document 2556 receives number P6654, Your
13 JUDGE ORIE: And is admitted into evidence.
14 MR. WEBER:
15 Q. I want to change topics now.
16 JUDGE ORIE: Before we do so --
17 MR. WEBER: Okay.
18 JUDGE ORIE: -- can we perhaps then briefly deal with the earlier
19 objection that is about the admission of the statement given before the
21 Mr. Ivetic, you referred us to certain transcript pages and in
22 relation to a certain document. Isn't it true that the situation there
23 was that portions of that statement were read to the witness and that the
24 person who had given the statement was on the list of witnesses to be
25 called and that under those circumstances, where the Defence said that it
1 was sufficient to have read out the relevant portions of the statement,
2 the remainder of it to be irrelevant, that -- and also in view of the
3 fact that the person who gave the statement would be called as a witness
4 later on, that under those circumstances, you objected to admission,
5 which leads me -- first of all, is that your recollection as well?
6 MR. IVETIC: Unfortunately, it's not a witness I dealt with nor
7 was I in the courtroom for that one.
8 JUDGE ORIE: But I take it that if you take me to the transcript
9 pages --
10 MR. IVETIC: Yes.
11 JUDGE ORIE: -- that you have read them yourself?
12 MR. IVETIC: I have read them.
13 JUDGE ORIE: Yes.
14 MR. IVETIC: And my recollection is that at that time we did not
15 have a witness list.
16 JUDGE ORIE: But was it announced that that person would be
17 called as a witness?
18 MR. IVETIC: I believe --
19 JUDGE ORIE: I mean, I read that pretty clearly --
20 MR. IVETIC: -- that my colleague said -- my colleague said
21 perhaps he'll be a witness or probably he'll be a witness, yes.
22 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. So there was a fair chance that he would be
23 called as a witness.
24 Now, Mr. Weber, you've read the relevant portions of the
25 statement before the Court.
1 MR. WEBER: No, Your Honour. I mean if you do require
2 submissions I would like to have an opportunity to actually look at the
3 stuff associated with this.
4 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. Then we will further consider it. But you
5 know at least the reference Mr. Lukic made. Let me see.
6 MR. IVETIC: I believe there were two inferences -- yeah.
7 JUDGE ORIE: "I will probably bring that witness to our case,"
8 that's probability, but at least in that expectation and the relevant
9 portions to have been read out to the witness, that altogether led to a
10 denial of the objection. That's the circumstances.
11 Mr. Weber, perhaps you consider that and see whether that would
12 need you to read other portions of the statement to the witness. I do
13 not know.
14 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, I'll fully respond at a time where I'm
15 fully informed.
16 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. But please keep this in the back of your mind
17 in continuation of your cross-examination. Please proceed.
18 MR. WEBER: Yes.
19 Your Honour, just for the record, though, we do believe that the
20 document itself is properly admissible and does not constitute a
21 statement that in the fact of what counsel is describing. So I'll fully
22 respond later, but just --
23 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. We'll later hear them from you. For the time
24 being, please proceed with as you said you would tackle a new area.
25 MR. WEBER: Yes.
1 JUDGE ORIE: Please proceed.
2 MR. WEBER: Thank you, Your Honour.
3 Could the Prosecution please have Exhibit P4439.
4 Q. Sir, coming up before you is the SRK combat readiness report
5 dated 23 June 1994, at the bottom, and I believe the date 29 June 1994
6 appears at the top. I know this document is from before your time in the
7 corps command, but I want to go through a few portions of it to see what
8 you're aware of before you became a commander.
9 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have page 2 of both
11 Q. This combat readiness reports starts with an introduction by the
12 SRK commander. In June of 1994, were you aware that this was Stanislav
14 A. I knew about this information that he was a commander of the
15 Sarajevo-Romanija Corps, but I never knew him personally.
16 Q. Okay. I want to go through some of what is said here. In the
17 second paragraph, that's before you, the report states:
18 "Looking back on the past 27 months, I would say that not one day
19 had gone by without combat (either defence or in attack) and measures
20 being taken to control the territory and secure the facilities. As far
21 as the implementation of the tasks set for us in the Main Staff VRS,
22 Directives 1 through 6, this corps has executed all its tasks with a
23 varying degree of success."
24 Before I read the next paragraph, I just want to ask you: As a
25 commanding officer, were you aware of Directives 1 through 6?
1 A. No.
2 Q. Okay. The next paragraph starts: "The following can be viewed
3 as success. The unwavering blockade of the Muslim part of Sarajevo and
4 the prevention of frequent attempts of the de-blockading both from within
5 the city out and from outside the city in."
6 And then there is further details about operations. Were you
7 aware of this information prior to becoming an assistant commander in the
9 A. Do you have in mind all of this? I wasn't aware of it. I said
11 Q. Okay. Let's ask for a very simple thing. Were you aware that
12 there was an unwavering blockade of the Muslim part of Sarajevo before
13 you became a member of the SRK?
14 A. No. I knew that the SRK blocked the 1st Corps of the ABiH, which
15 used most of Sarajevo as its base to engage the SRK. That is true.
16 Q. Are you saying that you first learned this when you joined the
17 SRK or you knew this before you became an assistant commander in the SRK?
18 A. When I became assistant commander, then I learned of it, of
19 course, and I could see it myself because I went in the field to find out
20 the truth. I saw it personally.
21 Q. Just while we're on this page, if you could just read it and let
22 me know if you know anything about the -- if you knew anything about the
23 operations that are mentioned in this paragraph. Just "yes" or "no."
24 A. I knew. I had information about these operations, but as the
25 officer. I think I was still in Visegrad at the time.
1 Q. In fact, operation Lukavac 93 which is mentioned here involved
2 the Drina Corps, correct?
3 A. Yes.
4 Q. You participated in this operation?
5 A. Yes.
6 Q. This was an offensive operation, correct? It sought to liberate
8 A. The goal was to liberate Serb areas which had been occupied. In
9 order to conduct the operation, we needed to traverse certain parts that
10 were controlled by the ABiH.
11 Q. You do not mention this operation in your statement, correct?
12 A. I don't think so.
13 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have page 7 of the B/C/S
14 and page 10 of the English translation?
15 Your Honours, and just to inform the Court, I believe that there
16 is a translation error in the portion that I'll be reading. The word
17 "blokadi" has been translated as "siege," but I believe it should be
18 "blockade." I just wanted to give everyone a heads-up on that.
19 JUDGE ORIE: As always, the parties' knowledge of what the
20 translation should have been, that may be a reason for you to resubmit
21 it --
22 MR. WEBER: Of course.
23 JUDGE ORIE: -- to CLSS and not to bring your own interpretation.
24 MR. WEBER: Yes.
25 JUDGE ORIE: That's what I always tell all parties. If there's
1 any doubt it should be verified by and if need be corrected by CLSS.
2 MR. WEBER: And we are doing --
3 JUDGE ORIE: But already I do understand for present purposes
4 that you think that there may be a mistake.
5 MR. WEBER: Yes.
6 JUDGE ORIE: And that we therefore should carefully look at the
7 original language.
8 Please proceed.
9 MR. WEBER: Thank you, Your Honour.
10 Q. Before you is the part of the combat analysis where the SRK
11 reports on its own situation. I'd like to direct your attention to the
12 bottom portion of the page before you which is also towards the bottom in
13 the translation. The paragraph states:
14 "What we cannot present through numbers and which has a crucial
15 effect on the situation in the units are the assessments showing the
16 morale of units to still be at the satisfactory level which is also
17 confirmed through facts that Sarajevo is successfully held under...," and
18 this is the word, in the translation it says "siege," in the B/C/S I
19 believe the word is "blokadi," "... and all of the more important tasks
20 were carried out successfully."
21 When you became an assistant commander in the SRK, did you assess
22 the morale of the soldiers in the SRK in a similar way as this? Which is
23 based on whether or not -- which appears to be based on whether or not
24 they successfully held Sarajevo under blockade?
25 A. Of course I carried out assessments, to the extent possible.
1 I was aware that the war had been underway for over three years by the
2 time I reached the SRK, and that the units and commands encountered
3 numerous problems. Because of its duration it had a significant impact
4 on the personnel. However, through work conducted by assistant commander
5 for morale, we tried and succeeded, as confirmed by our victory in their
6 latest offensive, to --
7 Q. Sir --
8 A. -- convince the people that despite those problems we had to
9 soldier on, and we succeeded.
10 Q. Sir, if I can just interrupt you, in your assessments, did you
11 assess the morale of SRK members based on whether they successfully held
12 Sarajevo under blockade?
13 A. No. It was whether they were successful in implementing their
14 combat tasks.
15 Q. Yes. And if their combat tasks included keeping Sarajevo held
16 under blockade that would have been one of those tasks, right?
17 A. Holding the 1st Corps of the ABiH under blockade was one of the
18 predominant tasks of the SRK. It was not to hold Sarajevo under
19 blockade, because a part of Sarajevo was under our control.
20 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have Exhibit P6523 for
21 the witness.
22 Q. Before you is an order with conclusions and tasks dated 1 April
23 1994 from General Galic. In the beginning paragraph of the document,
24 there is reference to Operation Zvijezda, excuse me if I pronounce it,
25 94, which the SRK was taking part in with the Herzegovina Corps and the
1 Drina Corps. Did you participate in this operation?
2 A. I think I did, but I'm not sure what is understood by Star 94?
3 Yes, yes, I did take part.
4 Q. Okay. If we could then go down to the second paragraph, there is
5 a reference to forces and combat equipment which "on the request and per
6 agreement of the Chief of Staff and commander of Visegrad TG." You were
7 the Chief of Staff of the Visegrad tactical group at this time, am I
9 A. I can't find it. Which paragraph did you say?
10 Q. It's the second paragraph of the document before -- above the
11 word "tasks."
12 A. No. This had to do with the Chief of Staff of the corps and his
13 agreement with the Visegrad tactical group commander. I didn't take part
14 in that agreement.
15 Q. Do you not see the words "Chief of Staff" and "commander of
16 Visegrad tactical group," Visegrad grad TG?
17 A. I see it, but as the Chief of Staff it was up to me only to
18 implement what the TG commander ordered me to do so. This obviously
19 concerns the Chief of Staff of the SRK and the commander of the Visegrad
21 Q. Okay. Well my question was really simple. It was were you the
22 Chief of Staff of the Visegrad TG at this time? The document is dated
23 1 April 1994.
24 A. Yes.
25 Q. Under the heading of the document, in the subject line, it
1 indicates that these are conclusions and tasks from a briefing at SRK
2 command on 31 March 1994. Did you attend this briefing?
3 A. No.
4 Q. Did you attend any briefings at the SRK command before you --
5 before you joined the SRK?
6 A. No, never. I never attended it, and I was never present at any
8 Q. The tactical group commander was Dragisa Masal correct?
9 A. Yes, Colonel Dragisa Masal.
10 Q. And it says my reference wasn't complete. He was the commander
11 of the Visegrad tactical group?
12 A. Precisely.
13 Q. Would he attend meetings at the SRK command related to joint
14 operations between the Drina Corps and the SRK?
15 A. I don't know that. But what we just read states that it was as
16 per agreement and request as arranged between the Visegrad TG commander
17 and the Chief of Staff of the SRK. I don't know where they reached that
18 arrangement, whether they were somewhere in the field or in Sarajevo.
19 I was not present.
20 Q. Okay.
21 MR. WEBER: If we could go to page 2 of the English translation.
22 Q. Under item 8, it states:
23 "Fortify positions around Sarajevo by erecting wire and concrete
24 barriers which would in turn strengthen the belief that they really are
25 blocked (in a camp)."
1 Were you aware of these tasks which came from the SRK commander
2 at that time when you joined later that year, in 1994? Did you become
3 aware of this?
4 A. No, but "in a camp" is in quotation marks indicating that it
5 wasn't a camp, at least that's what our grammar dictates.
6 Q. Okay. Well, a more general question: Do you think that people
7 kept inside wire and concrete barriers under the conditions where they
8 would feel like they were really being blocked would feel like they were
9 under siege?
10 A. I don't understand. What people?
11 Q. Well, if there were positions that were fortified around Sarajevo
12 by erecting wire and concrete barriers which would strengthen the belief
13 that they are really blocked, wouldn't this create a feeling that people
14 were under siege by the SRK? Do you agree with that?
15 A. I'm asking you what people you have in mind? Who was supposed to
16 feel that way?
17 Q. Those people inside the barriers. Whomever they are.
18 A. In my view, these are actions and procedures aimed at persuading
19 the enemy side, i.e. members of the 1st Corps of the ABiH, that they are
20 under blockade. It is obvious and can be seen from here that no complete
21 blockade was possible. It was just to create that impression with the
22 enemy. That is the gist of it.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Could I also ask -- yes. Could I ask one question.
24 You emphasised that "in a camp" is in quotation marks and you explained
25 that this means in your language that they were not in a camp, but I read
1 that - and please correct me when you're language dictates otherwise -
2 that as if they were in a camp, that that is what it means although not
3 really being in a camp. That is how I understood it in the English
4 translation. If you have any comment on it, please give it.
5 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] You are perfectly right. That was
6 the point, to create the impression of.
7 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. We have heard sufficient evidence about
8 Sarajevo to know that it's not strictly a camp.
9 Please proceed.
10 Yes, yes, Judge Moloto may have one question.
11 JUDGE MOLOTO: Sir, you earlier said that this surrounding was
12 surrounding the 1st Corps of the ABiH, but this paragraph 8 here says
13 fortify positions around Sarajevo, and this is what Mr. Weber has been
14 putting to you, that the surrounding was around Sarajevo, not just around
15 the 1st Corps of the ABiH. Do you have any comment?
16 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Of course, that's what it reads.
17 But in soldierly parlance, we never discuss civilians. When we say
18 Sarajevo, we have in mind the units of the enemy placed in Sarajevo.
19 There is much confusion and imprecision but it's always meant the enemy
20 side, the enemy forces; i.e., armed units and personnel. It does not
21 include civilians. When we refer to personnel, we mean enemy soldiers,
22 not the inhabitants.
23 JUDGE MOLOTO: We have heard evidence to the effect that units of
24 the ABiH Army were within the civilian population of Sarajevo. How did
25 you surround them and exclude surrounding the civilians?
1 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] In my statement, I say that the
2 position of Serb settlements had been in existence for many centuries
3 before the war. They were naturally located around the urban part of
4 Sarajevo. Of course, there were Serbs in Sarajevo itself as well. When
5 the war broke out, the inhabitants organised themselves to provide
6 defence but it was around Sarajevo. That's where their homes were,
7 that's where they lived. No one brought them in and no one came from
8 elsewhere to surround Sarajevo.
9 JUDGE MOLOTO: I didn't suggest that they were brought in. I
10 said how did you obviate surrounding civilians when you surrounded the
11 army? I don't think what you said answers my question, but if you don't
12 have an answer to my question, just say so.
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Of course I have an answer. Those
14 who held their own civilians captive were supposed to free them rather
15 than using them as a shield. They used their own people, their
16 civilians, in the town itself as a shield in front of the forces of the
17 1st Corps. They are responsible for the plight of civilians in Sarajevo
18 and not those who fought the 1st Corps.
19 JUDGE MOLOTO: Thank you very much. You're not answering my
21 You may proceed.
22 MR. WEBER: If I could just ask one question before we --
23 JUDGE ORIE: One question, Mr. Weber.
24 MR. WEBER:
25 Q. Sir, is what you've just been answering to Judge Moloto basically
1 what you put out in your propaganda during the war?
2 A. No. That's the truth. What the gentleman asked me, it is
3 mission impossible. How could anyone do that? To select in the city
4 itself? Make a distinction between civilians and soldiers?
5 JUDGE ORIE: We take a break. Could the witness be escorted out
6 of the courtroom.
7 Meanwhile, Mr. Ivetic, I'm addressing you when the witness leaves
8 the courtroom. One of the other differences the Chamber notices in
9 relation to what is found on transcript pages 18652 to 18654, that the
10 statement we discussed at that time was a statement by a third person,
11 that third person, perhaps to be called as a witness or not, but at least
12 was not in court at that moment to answer any questions about the
13 statement he had given. It was a third person. Now, does that change
14 your position in any way?
15 MR. IVETIC: It strengthens it, Your Honour. The statement that
16 they're trying to admit here is the third person not in court. That's
17 the bases of my objection.
18 JUDGE ORIE: I thought we were referring to this witness giving
19 testimony in --
20 MR. IVETIC: No, I did not object to that document. I objected
21 to the statement of Milan Lukic who is not in court and who is not giving
22 evidence in this case, and therefore was the bases of my objection to
23 that document.
24 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, we're mixing a whole bunch of things up
25 and I don't agree with that. And it's an Official Note of an interview
1 with Milan Lukic from the Serbian DB, and if we -- you'd like
2 submissions, we can make them at the proper time.
3 JUDGE ORIE: Then I mixed it up. My apologies for that. We take
4 a break and we will resume at 25 minutes to 2.00.
5 [The witness stands down]
6 --- Recess taken at 1.17 p.m.
7 --- On resuming at 1.37 p.m.
8 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Lukic, the Chamber -- Mr. Ivetic, we have looked
9 at the transcript. Mr. Weber introduced 65 ter 30929 and said this was
10 the trial record of your testimony in February 2002 before the high
11 court. Now, a couple of pages later after we had dealt with that, we see
12 that Mr. Weber said:
13 "Q. We are going to go through some more documents.
14 "MR. WEBER: But, Your Honours, at this time the Prosecution
15 tenders 65 ter 30932," which is still the same court record.
16 And then -- under seal. And then you said:
17 "Objection, Your Honour. During the Prosecution's case whenever
18 we tried to use statements," et cetera.
19 So we understood this in direct response to the tendering of the
20 trial record known under number 65 ter 30392 but apparently you had
21 something else in mind.
22 MR. IVETIC: Yes, Your Honour, and I note the record now reflects
23 three different numbers that you have said.
24 JUDGE ORIE: Well, if there is any need to correct the record if
25 at that moment - and it's not about me, but it's about Mr. Weber saying
1 that we are going to go through some more documents, but at this time the
2 Prosecution tenders and then that number into evidence. If he has
3 mentioned any others at that point in time, then we need a correction of
4 the provisional transcript.
5 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, I think this is actually becoming more
6 confused. 30929 is the witness's -- is the trial record from the
7 witness's previous testimony in 2002.
8 JUDGE ORIE: 309 --
9 MR. WEBER: 29.
10 JUDGE ORIE: Oh, yes. I see that it's 932, yes.
11 MR. WEBER: And then 30932 is a state security report from the
12 Serbian DB. So I was using a separate document at that time, and my
13 reference in the Serbian DB document I believe was to using even more
14 documents along the lines of to further support what Milan Lukic had said
15 in that document.
16 JUDGE ORIE: Yes.
17 MR. WEBER: So --
18 JUDGE ORIE: We have to sort that out. I was confused by the
19 numbers now. And --
20 MR. IVETIC: I can clarify it by reminding Your Honours that with
21 respect to this witness's prior testimony, my objection was that the
22 entire answer was not being read into the record.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Yes.
24 MR. IVETIC: And with respect to the Milan Lukic interview, that
25 is the one that I objected to under the grounds and the transcript
1 reference that I cited of the other witness.
2 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. I see that now. I think we have misunderstood
3 it. Apologies for that. And we'll further consider the objection and
4 what was tendered.
5 [The witness takes the stand]
6 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber, if you're ready, you may continue.
7 Apologies, Mr. Dragicevic for dealing with another matter when
8 you entered the courtroom which is not very polite. Please proceed.
9 MR. WEBER: Thank you, Your Honours.
10 Q. A few minutes ago before the break, you said:
11 "How could anyone do that? To select in the city itself? Make a
12 distinction between civilians and soldiers?"
13 Sir, as a senior commander in the SRK, is it your evidence that
14 you believe it was not possible to distinguish between the civilians and
15 soldiers in Sarajevo during your operations?
16 A. I didn't say that. I said what I said. It is impossible if you
17 are blocking a corps, which uses most of Sarajevo as its base, not to
18 block the civilians who are being held captive by the very same 1st Corps
19 of the ABiH. That's what I said.
20 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Weber, and the way in which you phrased the
21 question is, of course, twisting the evidence of the witness. It was
22 about blockades, not about any operations. And therefore, if you would
23 put that to the witness, it should be clear that he's not confused
24 because he was talking about a blockade and you are now saying are you
25 saying that it was not possible to distinguish between civilians and --
1 during operations. Now, that's a different matter and you should have
2 alerted the witness on the shift you made.
3 Now, the witness happily enough was aware of it, apparently, but
4 it was up to you, in all fairness to the witness, to have done that.
5 Please proceed.
6 MR. WEBER: Moving on, could the Prosecution please have
7 Exhibit P361. And specifically could the Prosecution please have page 56
8 of the B/C/S original and page 46 of the English translation. I was
9 looking for the original, if we could. I believe that there is a B/C/S
10 transcription but there is also a handwritten original. Okay.
11 Q. This is an entry from General Mladic's notebooks dated 7 May 1994
12 related to an analysis of operation Zvijezda 94, or Star 94. We see in
13 the text that it relates to a presentation that was held on this date
14 which appears to have taken place in Srbinje. Were you present for this
15 meeting, this presentation?
16 A. Yes.
17 Q. Okay.
18 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please go to page 60 of the
19 B/C/S original and page 50 of the translation.
20 Q. I'd like to direct your attention towards the bottom of the page.
21 Before you are General Mladic's own notes about his own presentation
22 given at this meeting. Toward the bottom of the page, the notes state:
23 "We are not completely done with the M in the enclave of Gorazde.
24 The enclave" --
25 MR. WEBER: And if we could please have the next version in both
2 Q. "The enclave needs to be cut down, reduced, and made to suffer
3 losses, especially on the outskirts, beyond a 3 KM perimeter. And in
4 this way ensure there is no perspective for the survival of the M in this
6 Do you agree that the notation M stands for Muslims?
7 A. Yes, Muslims under arms. This is primarily referred to, armed
8 Muslim forces.
9 Q. Okay. You're interpreting that, right? It just says M.
10 A. Well, if -- you said yourself that M stands for the Muslims, I'm
11 just explaining that what is referred to is the Muslims, their armed men
12 and units.
13 Q. Okay. When -- when -- the statement in this way, ensure that
14 that there is no perspective for the survival of the M in this area,
15 isn't that referring to all Muslims in the area of Gorazde? Don't you
17 A. I cannot agree with you because all of us very often use the term
18 "Muslims" but -- when meaning the "Muslim army." I do believe that this
19 is what is referred to here. Muslims is Muslim army.
20 Q. Is it correct that you were personally involved in these
21 operations, to cut down and reduce the Gorazde enclave to the point where
22 there was no perspective for Muslims in the area? I'm just putting it to
24 A. Yes, I did take part to use combat operations to incapacitate the
25 Muslim forces. Let's not forget that in 1992, Serbs who had lived there
1 were en masse driven out of the territory of Gorazde.
2 Q. Sir, let's stay focused on the matters at hand.
3 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 65 ter 30937 for
4 the witness.
5 Q. This is a 7 April 1994 TG Visegrad order related to the Zvijezda
6 94 operation. Is it correct that this document is from you?
7 A. That's correct, yes. But it's the left hand part is not very
9 Q. I appreciate that. With that being noted I just wanted to ask
10 you about some specific information that is legible. In the document,
11 you ordered the transfer of guns to the Cabra area and tell the
12 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade to position them in a way that will
13 allow them to directly fir eon the town.
14 Can you see this information?
15 A. Yes. They are to be positioned in the way that will allow them
16 directly to fire, but when this term "grad," "town," refers to Muslim
17 positions within the town.
18 Q. Okay. Sir, just please stay focused on my question. I'm going
19 to go through the information. Where is the Cabra area?
20 A. This is located on the left bank of the Drina and the left bank
21 of the Praca, above Ustipraca which is an elevation above Ustipraca.
22 Q. What town could be directly fired upon from this area?
23 A. We did not target any town. We targeted their positions along
24 that axis. This is to do with the orientation of the guns towards their
25 trenches and other fortifications which were located along the axis of
1 our attack.
2 Q. Sir, I'm not asking for an explanation of the order. I'm just
3 merely asking you what the order states. It says "in a way that will
4 allow them to directly fire at the town." What town are you referring
6 A. It refers to the positions in the town of Gorazde or, in other
7 words, in the positions along the axis of Ustipraca and Gorazde.
8 JUDGE ORIE: So the town referred to here, and that was the
9 question, Gorazde. That's clear.
10 Could the witness also tell us what the reference to 1091 would
11 mean? Does this number say anything to you, after the portion that is
13 A. I'm sorry. Thank you, Mr. President. I erred. This does not
14 refer to the town of Gorazde but to a fortification immediately before
15 Gorazde, opposite Ustipraca. Now I was in two minds. I'm not sure that
16 ZIS artillery cannot reach Gorazde from Cabra. A Cabra is a strong
17 fortification called "grad." I presume that 1091 may refer to the number
18 of the target. And this is illegible. I could not make out. But 1091
19 is the reference number of a target.
20 JUDGE ORIE: Is there a target list with those numbers?
21 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I cannot claim decisively but we
22 did determine the targets to be fired at. In my opinion this may refer
23 to that. I cannot read the whole text. But this does not specifically
24 refer to the town of Gorazde but to a hill which is named Grad. It can
25 be seen from Ustipraca with the naked eye. It's semi- to the right in
1 that direction.
2 JUDGE ORIE: Both parties are invited to provide whatever
3 additional documentary evidence which would shed light on what 1091 may
4 refer to. An elevation or a number on a target list, whatever. Please
6 MR. WEBER: The Prosecution tenders this document into evidence.
7 It's 65 ter --
8 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Most probably this is an elevation,
9 number of the elevation, but I'm not sure.
10 JUDGE ORIE: Then it should perhaps not be too difficult to find
11 it for the parties.
12 MR. IVETIC: No objection to the tendering of the document.
13 JUDGE ORIE: Madam Registrar.
14 THE REGISTRAR: Document 30937 receives number P6655, Your
16 JUDGE ORIE: And is admitted into evidence.
17 Mr. Weber, any chance that you would finish within the next few
18 minutes? So as to --
19 MR. WEBER: I just have one more document to show the witness.
20 JUDGE ORIE: Yes, please.
21 MR. WEBER: Could the Prosecution please have 65 ter 30901.
22 Q. Sir, this is a SRK command order dated 2 September 1995. It
23 appears to be from you, correct?
24 A. Yes, but not from the command of the SRK but from IKM and the
25 number is illegible. I think it's IKM at 2 at Vogosca. That would be
1 forward command post of the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps where I was as
2 commander of that forward command post.
3 Q. In this document at number 3, it says that Igman and Ilidza
4 infantry brigades would prepare AB launchers which will be ready for
5 taking over of military posts according to the Talus 1 -- I believe that
6 that's a Talus 1 operation.
7 A. Not military code but firing position,
8 "vatrinja polozje [phoen]," firing position.
9 Q. Yes. AB launchers from those positions. Then we see a little
10 further down in the document that the Igman and Ilidza Brigade will
11 prepare two FABs each of 250 and 105 kilogramme and load them on the
12 vehicle of the Igman Infantry Brigade, and 3rd Sarajevo Infantry Brigade
13 will also load. My question to you on this document is very simple. Is
14 it correct that you issued orders related to the launching or
15 preparations for the launching of modified air-bombs?
16 A. No. This is my order, but it states here clearly on the basis of
17 an order by the SRK commander. On the basis of that order I write my
18 order addressed to the units which I currently command and that would be
19 the IKM 2 Vogosca.
20 Q. Okay. Thank you for that clarification.
21 MR. WEBER: Your Honours, I tender this document.
22 MR. IVETIC: No objection.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Madam Registrar.
24 THE REGISTRAR: Document 30901 receives number P6656, Your
1 JUDGE ORIE: And is admitted into evidence.
2 MR. WEBER: Your Honours, no further questions at this time.
3 JUDGE ORIE: Thank you, Mr. Weber.
4 Re-examination by Mr. Ivetic:
5 Q. Colonel, yesterday at transcript page 23702 you were asked about
6 your education and training in legal matters. Now I want to ask you, did
7 you have people with legal training in the department to assist you with
8 your work? And by "department" I mean the department for morale,
9 religious affairs, and legal affairs within the SRK?
10 JUDGE MOLOTO: I thought he mentioned that yesterday, that he did
12 JUDGE ORIE: And I think it's also in his statement.
13 MR. IVETIC: Okay.
14 JUDGE ORIE: Please proceed.
15 MR. IVETIC:
16 Q. You mentioned an assistant for legal affairs,
17 Captain Milenko Kuzmanovic. Was he a lawyer or legally trained?
18 A. Yes, he held a law degree.
19 Q. Now returning to your department's work at the SRK giving
20 lectures on adherence to laws, international criminal law, who actually
21 conducted the trainings? Was it you?
22 A. No. That would be my legal affairs assistant within the
23 department. But also at brigade level we would have people with law
24 degrees who would deal with legal affairs within brigades, within the
25 section for morale, religious, and legal affairs.
1 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Ivetic, the reference to the international
2 criminal law, where do I find that?
3 MR. IVETIC: The law of war it should be. The law of war it
4 should be the reference. I apologise.
5 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. You said international criminal law, which is
7 MR. IVETIC: Different.
8 JUDGE ORIE: Please proceed.
9 MR. IVETIC:
10 Q. If we can ask first for you to clarify, you said your legal
11 affairs assistant within the department. Was that person trained as a --
12 trained in law?
13 A. Yes, he held a law degree.
14 Q. Now I'd like to turn to your time spent in Visegrad. And we
15 talked today about two volunteer platoons within the Visegrad Brigade.
16 Why were they called volunteer platoons, sir?
17 A. Well, those were people who resided outside the territory of the
18 municipality of Visegrad or outside the Republika Srpska. They would
19 come from Montenegro for the most part, Serbia, other parts of
20 Bosnia-Herzegovina, some from Russia. We called them that but they
21 entered and were incorporated into companies as platoons or as
22 individuals. These were not groups. These were platoons.
23 Q. Okay.
24 MR. IVETIC: And if we can turn briefly to 65 ter number 30929,
25 page 5 in both versions. It would be page 6 in the B/C/S and page 5 in
1 the English.
2 Q. You were asked earlier today about your prior testimony in the
3 trial in relation to Mr. Ranisavljevic, and at that time you were asked
4 about whether one of the smaller units from the Visegrad Brigade could
5 carry out a military operation without you knowing about it. And in your
6 answer, only the first line was read that said: "A unit could not carry
7 out any military operation as a unit without my knowledge," and then your
8 answer continued:
9 "I again emphasise that none of the units could move about in the
10 field without my knowledge because I would have to find out about it.
11 However, individuals from the brigade who were given a furlough by a
12 company commander for visiting their relatives to bathe and partake in
13 other free time activities, the movements of these soldiers could not be
14 followed, nor could I know where they were going. This was not my task
15 and the brigade commander could not do this."
16 Do you stand by this prior testimony from this trial as being
17 truthful and accurate?
18 A. Yes. This is completely true. I commanded units, not
20 Q. Okay. And if we could look at the answer to the next question,
21 which is at the bottom of page 5 in English, and it will be on the same
22 page in page 6 in the B/C/S, where you were asked whether volunteers from
23 Serbia were assigned to the Visegrad Brigade, and your testimony is
24 recorded as follows:
25 "Volunteers coming from Serbia would report to the Visegrad MUP,
1 Ministry of the Interior, and then to the military recruiting office, and
2 they would then receive a summons for mobilisation by which they were
3 assigned to the Visegrad Brigade thereby becoming an integral part of it.
4 This was the case for the accused Nebojsa Ranisavljevic."
5 Is this the procedure that you described earlier today when you
6 mentioned the SJB and the recruitment office?
7 JUDGE ORIE: Mr. Ivetic, I can answer the question. It's exactly
8 the same --
9 MR. IVETIC: Okay.
10 JUDGE ORIE: -- he described, so therefore there is no need to
11 ask it again.
12 MR. IVETIC: Fair enough. If we can call up 65 ter 02555.
13 THE REGISTRAR: For the record, it's number P6651 MFI'd, Your
15 MR. IVETIC: Thank you, Madam Registrar.
16 Q. Sir, this was the document shown to you by the Prosecution. The
17 heading says "Command of the 1st Visegrad Light Infantry Brigade." Did
18 such a command or such a formation ever exist, to your knowledge?
19 A. To my knowledge, no. Maybe at the time of being set up, but
20 I never heard of us being referred to. We were 1st Visegrad Brigade and
21 then 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade, but this is not the gist of it.
22 What the --
23 Q. Understood?
24 A. -- misuse of this certificate is the gist of the -- the crux of
25 the matter.
1 Q. We have limited time. I'd like to try and get through everything
2 so we can finish you today.
3 Now you mentioned the absence of a date. Is anything else
4 missing from the header of this document that you would expect to find
5 from a legitimate document issued by the VRS?
6 MR. WEBER: Your Honour, I think that there is some leading
7 aspect to that but there is also -- it's vague. There are many different
8 types of documents issued by the VRS.
9 JUDGE ORIE: The objection is denied. The witness may answer the
11 Anything that strikes you as missing? That's --
12 MR. IVETIC: Yes.
13 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Well, for such a document, this is
14 a certificate. It's a common document. This form can stand. There may
15 have been other details in the letter head but this certificate serves
16 local purposes.
17 JUDGE ORIE: You were not asked about that. Is there anything
18 that strikes you as missing compared to what you would expect for such a
19 document? From your answer I take it that it's nothing.
20 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Maybe the date below.
21 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. We have paid attention to the date already.
22 MR. IVETIC: Thank you.
23 JUDGE ORIE: Are you done with this document?
24 MR. IVETIC: No. No, I'm not.
25 JUDGE ORIE: Okay. Please proceed.
1 MR. IVETIC:
2 Q. We talked about the stamp earlier. I'd like to direct your
3 attention to the number that is indicated in the stamp, number 1. What
4 officer in the brigade would be assigned the number 1 stamp?
5 A. Personnel officers. Personnel officers had custody of rubber
7 Q. Do you recall as chief of staff what the number of your stamp
8 would have been?
9 A. I can't.
10 MR. IVETIC: Your Honours, I'm done with this document. If you
11 have something further.
12 JUDGE ORIE: I have one question. The document is a double one,
13 the one dealing with Milan Lukic, but there is another part which refers
14 to Dragutin Dragicevic. To your knowledge is that person any way related
15 to you?
16 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] No, although I did have quite a lot
17 of problems because of his surname being the same as mine. I don't
18 believe that he was from Zvornik, not from Visegrad at all.
19 JUDGE ORIE: Well, the answer is no, that is sufficient.
20 Please proceed, Mr. Ivetic.
21 MR. IVETIC: Thank you.
22 Q. And following up on Your Honour's question, was
23 Mr. Dragutin Dragicevic ever a member of the Visegrad Brigade?
24 A. To my knowledge, no.
25 Q. Thank you. Now if we could turn to Boban Indjic. During the
1 time period you were at either the Visegrad Brigade, the
2 Visegrad tactical group, or the 2nd Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade, did
3 anyone ever report to you that Boban Indjic had been accused of
4 committing a crime?
5 A. No. Not only Boban Indjic but any other member of the brigade.
6 Q. Okay.
7 MR. IVETIC: If we could turn to 65 ter number 02556.
8 THE REGISTRAR: For the record, this is Exhibit P6654, Your
10 MR. IVETIC: Thank you, Madam Registrar.
11 Q. This is another document that the Prosecution showed to you. And
12 earlier you wanted to point something out to us in this document about, I
13 believe, the dates that are listed that Milan Lukic joined the brigade.
14 Could you please complete your submission that you wanted to say? What
15 is the significance of the date 26 April 1992?
16 A. The 26th of April, at that time Visegrad Brigade did not exist.
17 It was established 19th of May 1992. Therefore, he could not have been a
18 member of that brigade. Of course, I stand by my statement that he was
19 never a member of the Visegrad Brigade as long as I was in Visegrad
20 either as commander, Chief of Staff of the brigade, and commander of the
21 tactical group -- Chief of Staff of the tactical group.
22 Q. Did you ever receive or see this document during the time period
23 that you were at the Visegrad tactical group?
24 A. I never saw it, and it can't be deduced from this document who is
25 the addressee, who this document is addressed to for consideration or
1 decision. There is no addressee of this document. There is no
2 indication of who is this document addressed to.
3 Q. Thank you, Colonel.
4 MR. IVETIC: I apologise to the interpreters and the transcribers
5 for the speed of my questioning, but I've completed my redirect.
6 Thank you, Your Honours.
7 JUDGE ORIE: Judge Moloto has one or more questions for you.
8 Questioned by the Court:
9 JUDGE MOLOTO: Thank you.
10 Sir, at page 82 lines 22 to 23 of today's transcript, you say --
11 sorry, let me just find it. You say you had quite a lot of problems
12 because of this Dragutin Dragicevic having the same name as you. What
13 kind of problems did you have?
14 A. By inertia everyone thought he was a cousin of mine because of
15 his last name, and they wanted me to be able to provide some kind of
16 protection due to that fact during the proceedings at the district court
17 in Bijelo Polje and the high court in Belgrade. It came from the
18 defence; that is to say, the counsel for the accused.
19 JUDGE MOLOTO: Okay, thank you so much. That's fine.
20 JUDGE ORIE: Have the questions of the Bench triggered any need
21 for further questions?
22 If not, Mr. Dragicevic, I'd like to thank you very much for
23 coming to The Hague and for having answered all the questions that were
24 put to you by the parties. But before I conclude, I told you that you
25 would be given an opportunity at the end to add anything you thought we'd
1 need to know directly related to any question put to you. If there is
2 anything you'd like to add to that, so not general statements but
3 anything that you said for a proper understanding of this and this answer
4 to that and that question, you need to know A, B, or C, you have an
5 opportunity to do so.
6 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] First of all, I'd like to thank
7 you. Second of all, it seems to me that I owe you a response to a
8 question I did not hear yesterday. And I don't want to leave it without
9 a reply if in any way able to do so so as to correct my mistake.
10 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. The only thing: You say I owe you a response
11 to a question I did not hear yesterday. If that is a question which was
12 not put to you, there is no need to reply to that. And I was a bit
13 confused by you then saying, "And I don't want to leave it without a
14 reply." But what question was it that you say you didn't hear?
15 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] You put it but I was unable to hear
16 it, and I don't know what the question was at all. Maybe you can recall
17 it. In any case, I'm just sorry for not having provided you with an
19 JUDGE ORIE: Yes. Well, that's appreciated that you're concerned
20 about my questions being answered. I have no recollection of any
21 questions which I've put to you to which I did not receive an answer such
22 that I would invite you to answer that question now.
23 So we will then leave it to that. Thank you again and I wish you
24 a safe return home again. You may follow the usher.
25 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you as well.
1 [The witness withdrew]
2 JUDGE ORIE: We adjourn for the day and we resume tomorrow,
3 Thursday, the 10th of July, in this same courtroom, I, at 9.30 in the
5 --- Whereupon the hearing adjourned at 2.19 p.m.,
6 to be reconvened on Thursday, the 10th day of July,
7 2014, at 9.30 a.m.