1 Monday, 8 May 2006
2 [Open session]
4 [The accused entered court]
5 --- Upon commencing at 5.35 p.m.
6 JUDGE VAN DEN WYNGAERT: Good afternoon. Can I ask the registrar
7 to call the case, please?
8 THE REGISTRAR: This is case number IT-95-12-S. The Prosecutor
9 versus Ivica Rajic.
10 JUDGE VAN DEN WYNGAERT: Thank you.
11 Mr. Rajic, can you hear me in a language that you can understand?
12 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Yes, I can.
13 JUDGE VAN DEN WYNGAERT: For the sake of the record, can we have
14 appearances please. Prosecution first.
15 MR. SCOTT: Yes, Your Honours, Mr. -- Madam President, excuse me,
16 Your Honours, Kenneth Scott for the Prosecution. I am joined by
17 Ms. Josee D'Aoust.
18 JUDGE VAN DEN WYNGAERT: Thank you very much.
19 For the Defence.
20 MS. KOSTA: [Interpretation] Yes, Your Honour. Doris Kosta,
22 JUDGE VAN DEN WYNGAERT: The Trial Chamber is sitting today to
23 deliver its sentencing judgement in the case of Mr. Ivica Rajic. The case
24 concerns his involvement in October 1993 in the attacks against the
25 village of Stupni Do, which caused the death of approximately 31 civilians
1 and the destruction of the village. The sentencing judgement also
2 concerns the rounding up of more than 250 Muslim men in Vares town and
3 their subsequent inhumane treatments.
4 What follows is only a summary of the written judgement and does
5 not in any way form part of it. The only authoritative account of the
6 findings of the Trial Chamber is in the written judgement which will be
7 available to the parties and the public today at the end of this session.
8 The Trial Chamber will briefly set out the context and facts of
9 the case before going on to review the factors which it took into
10 consideration in determining the sentence.
11 The contents and facts of the case. Ivica Rajic was born on 5 May
12 1958 in the village of Jehovac in Bosnia and Herzegovina. From May to at
13 least November 1993, he was a commander of the 2nd Operational Group of
14 the HVO's Central Bosnia operative zone based in Kiseljak.
15 On 29 August 1995, Judge Sidhwa confirmed the indictment issued
16 against Ivica Rajic. Initially he was charged with two grave breaches of
17 the Geneva Conventions of 1949, wilful killing and destruction of
18 property, and two violations of the laws or customs of war, deliberate
19 attack on the civilian population, and wanton destruction of a village.
20 On 5 April 2003, Ivica Rajic was arrested and was subsequently
21 transferred to the detention unit of the Tribunal. On 27 June 2003, he
22 appeared before the Tribunal and entered a plea of not guilty.
23 On 14 January 2004, the Prosecution filed an amended indictment
24 against Ivica Rajic. It charged him with five grave breaches of the
25 Geneva Conventions, wilful killing, inhumane treatment, unlawful
1 confinement of a civilian, appropriation of property, and extensive
2 destruction not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully
3 and wantonly. It also charged him with five violations of the laws or
4 customs of war: Murder, outrages upon personal dignity, cruel treatment,
5 plunder of private or public property, and wanton destruction of a city or
6 devastation not justified by military necessity.
7 On 29 January 2004, Ivica Rajic pleaded not guilty to all 10
8 counts of the amended indictment.
9 More than a year and a half later, on 25 October 2005, Ivica Rajic
10 entered into a plea agreement with the Prosecution. He agreed to plead
11 guilty to four of the 10 charges in the amended indictment: Wilful
12 killing, inhumane treatment, extensive destruction and appropriation of
13 property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully
14 and wantonly. All the charges constitute grave breaches of the Geneva
15 Conventions under Article 2 of the Statute of this Tribunal. In exchange
16 for his guilty plea, his complete cooperation with the Prosecution and the
17 fulfillment of all his obligations under the plea agreement, the
18 Prosecution agreed to recommend to the Trial Chamber the imposition of "a
19 single combined sentence in the range of 12 to 15 years. With the accused
20 able to argue for a sentence of the bottom of this range, 12 years, and
21 the Prosecution able to argue for a sentence at a top of this range, 15
23 At a plea hearing on 26 October 2005, Ivica Rajic pleaded guilty
24 to these four counts. The Trial Chamber accepted the plea after being
25 satisfied that it was voluntary, informed and unequivocal and that there
1 was a sufficient base for a conviction.
2 The Prosecution and the Defence filed their respective sentencing
3 briefs on 15 November and 16 December 2005.
4 On 16 December 2005, the Trial Chamber issued a decision
5 clarifying that a conviction had been entered on the basis Article 7(1) of
6 the Statute only, thereby excluding any modes of responsibility under
7 Article 7(3) of the Statute.
8 The sentencing hearing was held on 7 April 2006. The Prosecution
9 and the Defence made submissions regarding the factors that they
10 recommended to the Trial Chamber's attention when determining the
11 sentence. In addition, Ivica Rajic made an oral statement depicting the
12 broader context in which the crimes occurred and apologising to the
14 What follows is a summary of the facts which form the basis of
15 Ivica Rajic's conviction. The facts are described in the factual basis
16 attached to the plea agreement.
17 On 21 October 1993, following an attack of the army of Bosnia and
18 Herzegovina in Vares municipality, the deputy head of HVO armed forced
19 ordered Ivica Rajic to cease control with the HVO forces of the situation
20 in Vares town and surrounding area.
21 On the same day, Ivica Rajic left the town of Kiseljak with
22 approximately 200 HVO soldiers. He reached Vares the following day. On
23 23 October 1993, the head of HVO Main Staff ordered Ivica Rajic "to sort
24 out the situation in Vares, showing no mercy towards anyone." On the same
25 day, Ivica Rajic ordered HVO forces under his command to round up
1 military-aged Muslim men in Vares town and to detain them. As a result,
2 based on Ivica Rajic's order, HVO forces rounded up more than 250 Bosnian
3 Muslim men and detained them in two schools, the Ivan Goran Kovacic school
4 and the Vladimir Nazor school. During the process of rounding up these
5 men, the HVO commanders and soldiers entered houses, abused their
6 inhabitants and robbed them of their valuables. HVO soldiers also beat
7 and abused male Bosnian Muslim detainees. Still on the same day HVO
8 soldiers under Ivica Rajic's command attacked the village of Stupni Do.
9 They also forced the civilians out of their homes and hiding places,
10 robbed them of their valuables, sexually assaulted Muslim women and
11 wilfully killed at least 37 Bosnia men, women, elderly persons and
12 children. Among the men, there were approximately six combatants. On 23
13 and 24 October, most of the village was destroyed.
14 The Trial Chamber will now give an overview of the factors that it
15 took into account in assessing the gravity of the crimes committed in
16 order to determine the sentence to be imposed on Ivica Rajic. It will
17 then briefly discuss the aggravating and mitigating circumstances
18 applicable in the present case.
19 In determining the gravity of the crimes, the Trial Chamber took
20 into account the scale and brutality of the crimes, the role of Ivica
21 Rajic as well as the impact of the crimes upon the victims and their
23 In relation to the scale and brutality of the crimes, the Trial
24 Chamber found that a sentence should reflect that the crimes were
25 committed on a large scale, were of a particularly violent nature and
1 caused severe pain to the victims and their relatives. For example, the
2 Trial Chamber noted that two elderly women, one of whom was invalid, was
3 found burned inside a house and that seven members of the same Muslim
4 family, two men, three women, and two children aged two and three years
5 old, were found burned inside their shelter.
6 However, in determining the gravity of these crimes, the Trial
7 Chamber also took into account the general context in which they occurred.
8 Indeed, according to the agreed facts between the parties, approximately
9 35 defenders of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, who had dug trenches
10 in and around parts of Stupni Do, were present in the village during
11 the attack.
12 In this regard, the Trial Chamber rejects the submission of the
13 Prosecution according to which the crimes were serious because they were
14 widely broadcasted and received immediate attention from the UN Security
15 Council. Indeed, the seriousness of a crime is not related to such
16 coverage or attention. Where it is the case, the gravity of two identical
17 crimes would differ depending on their media coverage or international
19 As for Ivica Rajic's role, he was the commander of the HVO's
20 2nd Operational Group of the Central Bosnia operative zone based in
21 Kiseljak. In this capacity, he played a significant role in ordering HVO
22 soldiers and commanders to attack Stupni Do and to round up more than 250
23 Muslim men in Vares town. He did so, knowing the substantial likelihood
24 that criminal acts would ensue following his orders. According to the
25 agreed facts between the parties, Ivica Rajic was indeed aware that the
1 soldiers had previously committed serious crimes against Bosnian Muslims,
2 including rape, murder, destruction of property, arbitrary arrest and
3 physical assault.
4 Lastly, the Trial Chamber evaluated the seriousness of Ivica
5 Rajic's crimes in the light of their impact on the victims and the effect
6 upon the victims' families. In doing so, the Trial Chamber examined the
7 evidence submitted by the Prosecution and found that the victims and their
8 families suffered severe pain as a direct result of the crimes. It
9 concluded that this factor should therefore be taken into consideration
10 when determining the seriousness of the crimes.
11 Let me now turn to the aggravating and mitigating circumstances.
12 The Trial Chamber has examined the four aggravating circumstances
13 put forward by the Prosecution; namely, Ivica Rajic's position of
14 authority and as a superior, the impact of his crimes on particularly
15 vulnerable victims, Ivica Rajic's participation in a cover-up, and the
16 fact that he absconded and obstructed justice for almost eight years.
17 With regard to Ivica Rajic's abuse of position of authority under
18 Article 7(1) of the Statute, and his position as a superior under
19 Article 7(3) of the Statute, the Trial Chamber first noted that it was not
20 bound to consider these elements as aggravating factors pursuant to the
21 Stakic, Momir Nikolic and Naletilic appeals judgements. Furthermore, in
22 light of the same jurisprudence, the Trial Chamber found that in this case
23 Ivica Rajic's abuse of his position of authority and his position as a
24 superior could not be taken into account as aggravating factors, since
25 these factors had already been taken into account when examining the
1 gravity of the crimes.
2 As to the vulnerability of the victims, the Trial Chamber
3 considered that certain victims, five children, and two elderly women, one
4 of whom was invalid, were indeed in a situation of special vulnerability
5 during the attack on Stupni Do. The Trial Chamber therefore found this
6 element to be an aggravating factor.
7 The Trial Chamber was not, however, convinced by the arguments of
8 the Prosecution according to which absconding from justice and
9 participation in cover-up activities should aggravate the sentence. The
10 Prosecution did not prove that these elements were aggravating
11 circumstances pursuant to customary international law or general
12 principles of law. However, the Trial Chamber accepted that these factors
13 could be taken into account when appraising the weight to be attributed to
14 certain mitigating circumstances, especially when evaluating Ivica Rajic's
15 good character.
16 The Trial Chamber also reviewed four mitigating circumstances
17 submitted by the Defence and the Prosecution; that is, the guilty plea,
18 Ivica Rajic's remorse, his cooperation with the Prosecution, and his
19 personal circumstances.
20 The Trial Chamber held that Ivica Rajic's guilty plea helped to
21 establish the truth surrounding the crimes committed in Stupni Do and
22 Vares. This may contribute to the reconciliation of the peoples in the
23 former Yugoslavia and to the restoration of a lasting peace in the region.
24 Such recognition of responsibility also saved valuable court time and
25 resources. The Trial Chamber therefore found that Ivica Rajic's guilty
1 plea was indeed a mitigating factor.
2 As to his remorse. The Trial Chamber, after listening to Ivica
3 Rajic's statement at the hearing, felt that Ivica Rajic's expression of
4 remorse was real and sincere and must therefore be taken into account in
6 In respect of his cooperation, in the light of the assessment made
7 by the Prosecution in its brief and during the sentencing hearing, the
8 Trial Chamber has found it to be a mitigating factor.
9 In relation to Ivica Rajic's personal circumstances, the Trial
10 Chamber observed that the Defence did not submit any evidence regarding to
11 the fact that he had neither been convicted prior to the events nor driven
12 by racial or religious hatred. The Trial Chamber also notes that the
13 Defence's submission according to which Ivica Rajic enabled 2.000 Jews to
14 flee Sarajevo, has not been proven. Moreover, the Trial Chamber considers
15 that when an accused has been convicted of extremely serious crimes his
16 family circumstances can only have a limited bearing on the sentence to be
18 Finally, in accordance constitute and the rules the Trial Chamber
19 took account of the general sentencing practice in the courts of the
20 former Yugoslavia.
21 Mr. Rajic, will you please stand?
22 [The accused stands up]
23 JUDGE VAN DEN WYNGAERT: The Trial Chamber has duly examined the
24 evidence relevant to an adequate determination of the seriousness of the
25 four grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of which you have been found
1 guilty: Wilful killing, inhumane treatment, extensive destruction and
2 appropriation of property not justified by military necessity and carried
3 out unlawfully and wantonly. The sentence should reflect the fact that
4 these crimes were committed on a large scale, were of a particularly
5 violent nature, and caused severe pain to the victims and their relatives.
6 The sentence should also reflect the importance of the role you played in
7 these events when following orders of your own superiors, you planned and
8 ordered the attacks and further ordered the rounding up of Muslim
9 civilians, knowing he substantial likelihood that criminal acts would
10 ensue following your orders.
11 The Trial Chamber considered that the special vulnerability of
12 certain victims is an aggravating factor. However, the Trial Chamber
13 found that your position of authority and as a superior were not
14 aggravating factors in the present case but inherent in the gravity of the
16 Finally, the Trial Chamber rejected the Prosecution's submissions
17 that the participation in a cover-up and obstructing justice for almost
18 eight years constituted aggravating factors. Furthermore, the Trial
19 Chamber gave consideration to a number of mitigating circumstances: Your
20 guilty plea before the trial, your remorse and your cooperation with the
22 Finally, the Trial Chamber accorded some additional weight in
23 mitigation of sentence to your personal circumstances.
24 The Trial Chamber hereby sentences you, Ivica Rajic, to 12 years
25 imprisonment. You are entitled to credit for time spent in detention,
1 namely 1.130 days.
2 You may sit down.
3 [The accused sits down]
4 JUDGE VAN DEN WYNGAERT: The Trial Chamber stands adjourned.
5 --- Whereupon the hearing adjourned at 5.57 p.m.