1 Thursday, 11 November 2004
2 [Open session]
3 [The accused entered court]
4 --- Upon commencing at 9.05 a.m.
5 JUDGE ROBINSON: Mr. Nice or is it Mr. Kay?
6 MR. NICE: Your Honour, with Your Honour's leave, I would seek to
7 add to the arguments I made yesterday. In anticipation of making the
8 application to be able to add arguments, I served on -- well, I attempted
9 to serve on Mr. Kay last night a skeleton argument. In fact, I gather he
10 didn't receive it until this morning, and I made it available to your
11 legal officer, and the skeleton argument has been made available to the
12 accused this morning.
13 The topic that we are dealing with is extremely --
14 JUDGE ROBINSON: We have to consider that.
15 MR. NICE: Yes, of course.
16 MR. KAY: May I say, I've read the skeleton argument this morning,
17 and in my view it's highly significant in the content and material that is
18 to be put before the Trial Chamber by the Prosecutor, and I have no
20 JUDGE ROBINSON: And has it been served on the accused?
21 MR. NICE: This morning it has, yes.
22 MR. KAY: I think if Your Lordships, Your Worships -- bad day.
23 There are so many different courts, I suppose, you -- and I haven't been
24 in a rural traffic court for many years, so where "Worships" came from I
25 don't know. Your Honours, I don't know whether -- I think time should be
1 taken to read the skeleton argument before deciding anything because it is
2 of great importance.
3 JUDGE BONOMY: But it deals largely with the issue of further
4 procedure rather than the assignment of counsel, with the exception of a
5 couple of sentences at the end, doesn't it?
6 MR. KAY: No. It's rather looking at the whole problem that we're
7 -- we're dealing with and the expression of it by the Prosecutor may well
8 assist us in having to deal with the issues contained within it.
9 [Trial Chamber confers]
10 JUDGE ROBINSON: Mr. Nice, we have considered the matter. We'll
11 hear you on it briefly. We had the advantage of reading it, and you need
12 not spend too much time on it. I would say ten minutes, and then we'll
13 hear from Mr. Kay and the accused, if he has anything to say on it.
14 MR. NICE: I'm grateful. The stimulus for this additional
15 argument was the broadening of the discussion yesterday and the sensation
16 that, although there was much to say, I wasn't able to take Your Honours
17 to a conclusion that was really helping you, and I know at the end of the
18 argument I may have been saying things that weren't fully understood,
19 partly for reasons of limitations of time. And I suspect that, to use a
20 cricketing analogy, my eye was off the ball because I'd been disturbed by
21 -- not disturbed. Because of the timing of the serving of Mr. Kay's
22 letter. Had it been served before the appeal hearing, then the Trial
23 Chamber would have faced the situation that that created. Had it come
24 immediately after the appeals hearing, we would have looked at the appeals
25 hearing in isolation. As it is, we've been looking at the application
2 In summary, for those who haven't had advantage of reading the
3 skeleton argument, it seems clear to us that the order of the Appeals
4 Chamber so emasculates the original order of this Trial Chamber for
5 assigned counsel that assigned counsel really can have almost no function.
6 And I've set out that. To some degree I argued that yesterday.
7 JUDGE BONOMY: Mr. Nice, that may well be a sound argument - I
8 don't mean to begin to pre-judge it - but in paragraph 5 of your skeleton
9 proceeds on the basis that it's something rather unforeseen. But my
10 recollection of the debate, the original debate about the assignment of
11 counsel, was that what the Appeals Chamber has put in place was more or
12 less what the Prosecution suggested at that stage.
13 MR. NICE: I think that what we suggested at that stage was the
14 modalities as ordered by the Trial Chamber. We checked that following the
15 hearing and following a question by Your Honour. But of course, the --
16 the precise questioning of witnesses was not associated with the full
17 control of the case by the accused. Not at all. It was always envisaged
18 by us, on the issue of imposition of counsel, that counsel would be
19 running and managing the case even if, in court, the accused would be
20 involved, whether first or second, in the questioning of witnesses, and it
21 was never envisaged that the whole control of the case would lie with the
23 Now --
24 JUDGE BONOMY: Well, I have to say that -- and no doubt you'll
25 correct me if I'm wrong, but my impression is that stand-by counsel was
1 more or less the arrangement you were proposing, that someone would come
2 in if things broke down at a later stage. And even the Prosecution
3 position wasn't -- wasn't as firm as that that was ultimately taken by the
4 Trial Chamber.
5 MR. NICE: Your Honour, I think -- I would, I think, differ. Our
6 position was that there should be stand-by -- imposed counsel -- counsel
7 should be imposed and should be completely in charge.
8 Now, Your Honour's recollection of the way we put it may be a
9 reflection of this: That we said that being the default position, it
10 would always be open for the accused to say, "Well, can I actually have my
11 own lawyers?" It's always be open for the Court to say, Well, stand-by
12 counsel is running this -- not stand-by counsel. Imposed counsel is
13 running this, and the next question is what witnesses are to be called,
14 but the accused can take part in that, if he wishes, and to try and engage
15 him. At the time when witnesses were called, it was always envisaged in
16 our model that it would be possible for him to take part in the
17 questioning of witnesses, but this was under the overall fully imposed
18 counsel. That was our intention. And I think and I hope that our
19 pleadings bear that out, and Ms. Graham will either take me to them or
20 correct me if I'm wrong.
21 So when the order of the Chamber came out, it was indeed our
22 understanding and interpretation that you had indeed pretty well followed
23 what we were asking. So recollections may differ, but that's certainly
25 And had it been known at that stage that the modalities as ordered
1 by the Trial Chamber were unacceptable to the Appeals Chamber in the
2 circumstances of this case, we would, I hope and indeed I'm sure, have
3 considered alternatives, because the modalities as ordered and interpreted
4 leave almost no authority in the hands of assigned counsel. And as I
5 suggested in one of the paragraphs, even if there come periods of time in
6 which, in theory, assigned counsel could take over, he would in practice
7 be thwarted by the accused's witnesses or by the accused, and the -- to
8 pick up the analogy that's been used yesterday, it will be a permanent
9 change of drivers in the driving seat, which is completely unacceptable.
10 And so the modalities as ordained by the Appeals Chamber really
11 make assigned counsel not a useful concept, which therefore brings us back
12 to how, in light of the particular problems manifested by the accused, in
13 particular his ill health but everything else, I suppose, how can we get
14 to a satisfactory conclusion of this trial at a time scale when the Court
15 won't find itself facing almost all people who have never been involved in
16 the trial from the beginning? Because that's the real risk we're facing.
17 This trial has, in our respectful submission, to be brought to an end in a
18 reasonable time.
19 Now, our conclusions, and I'll leap straight to those because of
20 the time limitations, our conclusions are that if assigned counsel can
21 offer no real use under the ordained, permitted modalities of the Appeals
22 Chamber, the better course is -- or may be -- the better course may be to
23 fix times in one of two different ways which I've articulated and to say
24 to the accused, it's up to you. Use this time as you can.
25 Now, it would be, for example, by my calculations and if the Court
1 were to say to a defendant representing himself, an accused representing
2 himself, you've got a year from now, five days a week, up to you how you
3 use them. But if you choose to have lawyers doing the work and just using
4 the court days, you'll have about 180 days.
5 The reality is -- or the unreality is that it is absurd for
6 somebody in a case of this scale to think that he should be allowed a
7 timetable that enables him to prepare witnesses and to take them and do
8 everything else. As I explained in the skeleton argument, Prosecution
9 doesn't do that. It has lawyers to do all the preparation, and I take the
10 witnesses in court, typically.
11 The accused has lawyers. He's not without lawyers. It's up to
12 him what resources he chooses to deploy. It's up to him what reasonable
13 decisions he makes.
14 And so he could either be given, in our respectful submission, a
15 year and given the responsibility that he says he craves. He doesn't need
16 to be - and this is a word I haven't notified the interpretation booths of
17 in advance - he doesn't need to be mollycoddled. He can be trusted to get
18 on with it himself. And if within a finite period of time he works
19 himself, knowing full well what his medical condition is, too hard and
20 suffers the consequences, that's his choice. If, on the other hand, he
21 makes the sensible decision to delegate work in a way that any other
22 person facing the trials he faces would, then he will have more efficient
23 use of his time.
24 But what's likely to happen, in our respectful submission this was
25 rather visible yesterday, is that one way or another, the accused will now
1 expect indulgence of time so that he can do the unrealistic, namely to
2 prepare witnesses and call them himself, he will drive the Chamber to a
3 timetable of one or two days a week, and this case will become quite
4 unacceptably long by any measured standard.
5 And so, Your Honours, our respectful submission to the Court, and
6 I'll try to stick within my ten minutes, is that the appropriate question
7 to ask now is, one, bearing in mind Mr. Kay's application, in light of the
8 modalities as approved by the Appeals Chamber, is there any realistic,
9 useful function that may be served by assigned counsel? Depending on the
10 answer to that question, the Chamber is faced with the original question
11 it asked of all parties about the future conduct of the trial, and in our
12 respectful submission, the answer to that question may be one of the two
13 answers that I've proposed; namely, fix the time, make court available
14 subject to the accused giving notice of how much of that available time he
15 will use, and do not allow an extended period of time, he being
16 intelligent enough, able enough, and in all ways potentially equipped
17 enough to make sensible and best use of that time.
18 Your Honours, the only other two points I make, as Your Honour
19 Judge Bonomy observed, were matters of detail, and that is that -- so
20 there's the one quotation from Mr. Kay that you can see at paragraph 21.1,
21 where he dealt with the Code of Conduct point and where he said that his
22 priority as a source of his function was the order of the court. And I
23 make a point about the approach that may have been in the minds of the Bar
24 Council of England and Wales should this Chamber be concerned about what
25 Mr. Kay has said about their reaction. But those are ancillary matters.
1 In our respectful submission, the time has come to ensure that
2 this accused is given a clear understanding of how much longer this trial
3 is going to last.
4 I don't know if I can help further.
5 JUDGE ROBINSON: Thank you, Mr. Nice. Mr. Kay, and then the
6 accused, if he has anything to say.
7 MR. KAY: Thank you. Your Honours, the issue presented this
8 morning by the Prosecution we see great merit in this Court following.
9 The Court will remember we did file a document when we were amici curiae,
10 asking for directions as to where the amici curiae went at the end of the
11 Prosecution case, and it was envisaged at that stage that we would have a
12 limited performance and function and not the function that had been to the
13 same extent that we had during the Prosecution phase of the case when we
14 were dealing with issues concerning their evidence and case presentation.
15 Submissions made by Mr. Nice this morning that hands the entire
16 case over to the accused with responsibility to him and his advisors is
17 entirely consistent with the position that we have always presented to
18 this Trial Chamber and the Appeals Chamber in relation to the conduct of
19 his Defence.
20 When the Prosecution raised the issue yesterday who is running
21 this Court, we felt that that was an unhelpful statement. It's who's
22 running his case that is the issue before the Court. That has to be
23 decided. Who is running this Court puts a pressure on Your Honours in a
24 form of public statement that has been cited against the accused as him
25 making public statements that -- it's the two of them doing -- making
1 statements about issues and each blaming each other. That is not helpful.
2 Who is running this Court? It is Your Honours who are running
3 this Court, and we acknowledge that quite firmly, and we believe that when
4 the issues are considered that we present before you, that on the two
5 issues, first the issue of our withdrawal and then the future of assigned
6 counsel, that what we have said and put before you as to the future
7 conduct of the case enables you to run your Court appropriately, properly,
8 and fairly.
9 We were concerned yesterday about statements concerning the Code
10 of Conduct and it not being applicable to assigned counsel. In
11 yesterday's argument, Mr. Nice started from that position, but by the end
12 of the morning, he had considerably resiled from that. I believe he was
13 perhaps thinking about what the consequences were.
14 It is quite right, I have received advice from my Bar Council.
15 That came in yesterday afternoon, after the adjournment, in the form of a
16 letter to me, and I would like to direct Your Honours' attentions to a
17 couple of issues within the Code of Conduct that I have to work under.
18 And I turn your attention first of all to the International Practice
19 Rules, which are found at page 39425 in the bundle put before the
21 JUDGE ROBINSON: Mr. Kay, I'm sorry to interrupt you. Let me tell
22 you how I see the issue.
23 MR. KAY: Yes.
24 JUDGE ROBINSON: There are Codes of Conduct, and of course they're
25 applicable to you. The question is how the codes are to be interpreted in
1 the light of substantive law as it develops.
2 The Trial Chamber has a right and an obligation under the Statute
3 and customary international law to ensure a fair and expeditious trial.
4 It has been determined that a Trial Chamber has the right to assign
5 counsel even against the will of an accused person. The codes do not
6 specifically address that situation, but the codes still remain applicable
7 to you. It is a matter for the Court to determine how to interpret the
8 codes in the light of the substantive law, that it is proper and right for
9 a Court, in certain circumstances, to assign counsel against the will of
10 an accused. That's an ordinary function of a Court. A Court's main
11 function -- a lawyer's main function, in my view, is an interpretative
12 one. The fact that the codes do not address it doesn't mean that there is
13 no answer. And in my estimation, the interpretation, the fundamental
14 guide to the proper interpretation is the right and duty of the Court to
15 ensure a fair and expeditious trial. Arising out of that right and duty,
16 the Appeals Chamber has decided that it is lawful to assign counsel in the
17 circumstances of this case, and in those circumstances that decision must
18 be implementable in some way. I mean, whether the Trial Chamber chooses
19 to implement it is another matter. There is no order from the Appeals
20 Chamber to implement it, yet the Appeals Chamber made what can be called
21 an enabling order. It is for the Trial Chamber to determine how to
22 implement it.
23 So I don't understand Mr. Nice to have been saying that the codes
24 don't apply to you. What he said I think followed upon an intervention
25 that I made that the codes have no explicit provision on the question of
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French and
13 English transcripts.
1 assignment against the will of an accused, and I think that is generally
2 true. But there is no lacuna, because the Court has to discharge its
3 interpretative function, and that is what will provide the answer in these
4 circumstances; how the codes are to be interpreted in light of the
5 substantive law that it is proper and right in certain circumstances for a
6 Trial Court to assign counsel against the will of an accused. Because if
7 that is so, if it is proper and right to do so in certain circumstances,
8 then it must be envisaged, since it is being done against the will of an
9 accused, that the assigned counsel will nonetheless have some function
10 notwithstanding the failure of the accused to communicate with you or to
11 give instructions to the assigned counsel.
12 So I think if you are going to cite provisions in the code which,
13 when you read them, put certain obligations on you, to my mind that is not
14 helpful to me. It's not taking me any further. The question is how are
15 those provisions to be interpreted in the light of the substantive law,
16 because they don't exist in a vacuum.
17 And Mr. Nice referred you to several passages in Blagojevic where
18 the Appeals Chamber expressed its view on issues that are similar to the
19 ones that we face here today where an accused person did not instruct or
20 failed to communicate with assigned counsel, and the Appeals Chamber
21 nonetheless held that there was no breach of the -- there was no breach of
22 the code in those circumstances.
23 MR. KAY: As I mentioned yesterday, and there was an exchange
24 between the Bench and myself, that the Court is not bound by assigned
25 counsel at this stage in considering issues in the future conduct of the
1 case. As Your Honour has rightly observed, all the Appeals Chamber have
2 said is that -- it's given a judgement that's an enabling provision for
3 assigned counsel. As I said yesterday, you're entitled to go back and
4 review the whole system of the future conduct of the trial, whether you
5 have stand-by counsel, amici, or whatever.
6 But the Blagojevic case, which arose because the accused wanted a
7 different co-counsel in the case and lead counsel didn't accept that the
8 co-counsel could join the case and therefore there was a dispute between
9 them, and he'd never criticised the function of his lead counsel, was an
10 entirely different set of facts to the issues that we have before us. And
11 that counsel in Blagojevic never raised the ethical issue for
12 consideration. He was so far down the line, he may have thought he didn't
13 have to.
14 In Barayagwiza, the assigned counsel didn't raise the ethical
15 issue although there was comment about it.
16 The issue of the codes is of more importance to us than maybe Your
17 Honours because it determines our function within the system. In my
18 International Practice Rules -- because it's the only Bar I'm a member
19 of. There isn't a Bar like we have in the UK for the ICTY; we're assigned
20 as counsel. It says at paragraph 2 of my International Practice Rules at
21 page 39425: "In connection with any international work, a barrister must
22 comply with any applicable rule of conduct prescribed by the law or by any
23 national or local Bar of the place where the work is or is to be performed
24 or the place where the proceedings are unless such rule is inconsistent
25 with any requirement of part 3 of this code."
1 And the fundamental principles of the UK Bar are set out at page
2 39436, and those articles cite that I mustn't diminish public confidence
3 in the legal profession, administration of justice, must promote and
4 protect fearlessly and by all proper and lawful means the lay client's
5 best interest, owe my primary duty between the lay client and any
6 professional client.
7 307: "A barrister must not: (a) permit his absolute independence
8 --" and it's the independence that may be a fundamental issue here.
9 "... must not permit his absolute independence, integrity, and freedom
10 from external pressures to be compromised; (b) do anything ... in such
11 circumstances as may lead to any inference that his independence is
12 compromised; and (c) compromise his professional standards in order to
13 please his client, the Court, or a third party."
14 If there is no code for me under the International Practice Rules,
15 I have to look to my Bar code, which is the accepted practice everywhere
16 in the international tribunals.
17 JUDGE BONOMY: And what you were given, Mr. Kay, was a complete
18 authority to run the case in absolutely consistently with the principles
19 that are fundamentally stated there by English and Welsh Bar.
20 MR. KAY: But it states that I must withdraw from a case and
21 return instructions if my instructions are withdrawn or my professional
22 conduct is being impugned.
23 JUDGE BONOMY: No, you may. Sorry. It says you may, not you
25 MR. KAY: Well, I'm exercising that option. I am exercising that
2 JUDGE ROBINSON: Yes, but the question is whether you're doing so
3 on reasonable grounds.
4 MR. KAY: Article 9 of the code here says --
5 JUDGE ROBINSON: -- got to determine.
6 MR. KAY: Article 9 here gives me a right to terminate.
7 JUDGE ROBINSON: And how is that right to be determined? It must
8 be determined in accordance with ordinary principles of law. It's a
9 question of reasonableness.
10 MR. KAY: Yes, but --
11 JUDGE ROBINSON: It's a question of whether the exercise of your
12 discretion in those circumstances is reasonable and proper. It's a matter
13 for the Court to determine.
14 MR. KAY: If we are saying that I'm bound by the Code of Conduct
15 here, there is no difficulty with that and that is not in conflict with my
16 Bar, because we have a Code of Conduct, it's a proper Code of Conduct, it
17 has fundamental principles consistent with what I have in the UK, and that
18 is a matter that I am subject to.
19 If I don't have a Code of Conduct here, I'm subject to this Code
20 of Conduct here. And when it says "may," it is my exercise of my decision
21 whether I withdraw or not, the Judge may not accept it, but I can still
22 withdraw. The Judge may then report me to my Bar Council and they will
23 investigate the matter and decide whether I'm right or wrong. I'm
24 actually confident in my position on this issue.
25 JUDGE ROBINSON: You can withdraw on whimsical grounds?
1 MR. KAY: That is why within our code it says that I must stand up
2 to a Court at times.
3 JUDGE ROBINSON: I'm asking you, can you withdraw on whimsical
5 MR. KAY: It's not whimsical grounds. The full papers of this
6 matter have been provided to my Bar Council, and I have been in receipt of
7 advice. And as I say, I am subject to a Code of Conduct.
8 JUDGE ROBINSON: Mr. Kay, if I understood what you just said, are
9 you then saying that the Court has no jurisdiction in the matter of
11 MR. KAY: It's a personal decision. And if the barrister decides
12 to take that course of conduct, he can be reported. And if he is
13 reported, there is a hearing and the matter is investigated. Many times
14 Judges disagree with a position of counsel and there is a referral to the
15 Bar Council. And the authority is exercised by the Bar Council and the
16 Judge's complaint may be substantiated or may be refused.
17 JUDGE ROBINSON: So then you need not have gone to the -- to the
19 MR. KAY: I do need to go to the Registrar because I'm subject to
20 the Code of Conduct here. But if you're saying I'm not subject to the
21 Code of Conduct here, then I only have this Code of Conduct, which is
22 under the international rules of my Bar, the one that would apply.
23 JUDGE ROBINSON: I have no difficulty in saying you're subject to
24 a particular Code of Conduct. It's a question of how the code is to be
25 interpreted in the light of substantive law. A code, in my view, is very
1 much like subsidiary legislation. It's like a regulation: At all times
2 it has to be construed in the light of what the substantive law is. It
3 can't disallow you to do something which substantive law allows you to do.
4 MR. KAY: We have many --
5 JUDGE ROBINSON: You can't deny your right which you have under
6 substantive law. It has to be intra vires substantive law.
7 JUDGE BONOMY: Can I be clear about this? Are you saying you
8 don't need authority to withdraw?
9 MR. KAY: Yes. We'll look at Article 9 --
10 JUDGE BONOMY: So why are you here?
11 MR. KAY: Well, there are two routes of doing it. There's
12 withdrawal which can be consensual, and then there's termination, which is
13 without consent. There are two ways of doing it when you look at Article
14 9. But I have to start now with the English code, because I have to know
15 what code I'm acting under. If I'm not under the Code of Conduct --
16 JUDGE BONOMY: So you're starting the argument afresh from the
17 beginning again, are you? We're starting on a different basis from the
18 basis on which we heard this yesterday?
19 MR. KAY: No. We're -- I'm putting the issues before this
20 Court --
21 JUDGE BONOMY: On the same basis as yesterday or on a different
23 MR. KAY: On both bases, Your Honour. Sometimes these issues
24 arise and the Court disagrees, and then you say, well, as a result of
25 what's happened, my position changes. And I heard the accused yesterday.
1 It often comes to that.
2 If you are in your UK court and you make an application and you
3 say, "Judge, I'd like you to consider this," and he either agrees or
4 disagrees, and then you have to make your professional decision. But the
5 position we're in, if we're not subject to the Code of Conduct here, as I
6 have told the Court, I have to be subject to a Code of Conduct. It is not
7 subsidiary regulation. It's how I have to function. And without it,
8 there aren't lawyers. All courts require this form of regulation, and
9 it's to do with the independence of the Bar from the judiciary. That is
10 why all the codes cite integrity, independence, and deal with the issue in
11 a way that permits counsel to exercise his judgement, because sometimes,
12 if there are positions that are not understood by the Courts, you have to
13 exercise your own personal judgement.
14 But I've pointed out to you there the position in relation to my
15 obligation under my Bar, and that I have to put before this Court.
16 If we look at the Code of Conduct here, then, and go back to
17 Article 9, which is the basis of the application, the Court will be aware
18 that we sought advice from the Association of Defence Counsel, and they
19 have filed a document with the Registrar. Again, I received a signed copy
20 after the close of proceedings yesterday. I believe this may have gone to
21 the Trial Chamber. I don't know. It's an important document. Perhaps I
22 can hand it ...
23 JUDGE BONOMY: I would like to know its status, first of all,
24 Mr. Kay.
25 MR. KAY: This document is drafted by the Association of the
1 Defence Counsel, which practices before the International Criminal
2 Tribunal. It is officially recognised by the Registrar. It has a
3 disciplinary council, and it has, in the same way that any Bar Council
4 has, a constitution, and it is mandated under its constitution to provide
5 advisory opinions.
6 JUDGE BONOMY: Can you imagine circumstances in which you would
7 present a document like this in a court in England?
8 MR. KAY: Yes.
9 JUDGE BONOMY: You would?
10 MR. KAY: Yes.
11 JUDGE BONOMY: The Bar Council writes whatever this is --
12 MR. KAY: Advisory opinions.
13 JUDGE BONOMY: -- and that's presented in the course of argument
14 by counsel?
15 MR. KAY: Yes. They write advisory opinions. They're available
16 for consultation by members of the Bar. They have an entire department
17 working on these issues daily. They frequently receive, during the course
18 of proceedings on ethical issues, a communication either by telephone or
19 letter for a consultation.
20 We have had a consultation in London some weeks ago.
21 JUDGE BONOMY: And then they present a document to the counsel
22 involved who can take it into court and use it as part of his argument.
23 MR. KAY: Yes. Yes. And it's a perfectly proper form of
24 procedure, in our view, because it is an essential part for understanding
25 the appropriateness and correctness of the position of counsel.
1 Otherwise, you may think I'm just coming here with a particular issue that
2 might not be recognised by others in practice or others who have a duty
3 and an obligation under a constitution to review disciplinary issues.
4 JUDGE BONOMY: So it's not your practice for an office bearer of
5 the Bar to be instructed by the counsel involved or to come into court and
6 represent him so that the matter can be properly debated and the Court can
7 be satisfied that all relevant factors have been taken into account.
8 MR. KAY: You may seek an advisory opinion from the Bar and call
9 for the guidance of an officer. Our professional conduct committee at the
10 Bar of England and Wales is a committee of 46 comprising of all level of
11 practitioners, a professional staff, meeting regularly. All reports and
12 issues are discussed.
13 The entire issue in this case, all the papers, all the
14 transcripts, were submitted before them on our behalf, including the
15 letter to Mr. Holthuis.
16 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Kay --
17 MR. KAY: Full documentation.
18 JUDGE KWON: Mr. Kay.
19 MR. KAY: Yes.
20 JUDGE KWON: Their opinion is not that one which tells you that
21 you have to resign, but even if you resign, it would not be in breach of
22 the Code of Conduct.
23 MR. KAY: Yes. What it says is there are grounds to assert that
24 an irreconcilable conflict exists between Mr. Kay and Mr. Milosevic such
25 that the request to withdraw is a course of action which is fully
1 consistent with the ethical obligations imposed on counsel.
2 JUDGE KWON: They are not saying that there are grounds, but there
3 are grounds to assert.
4 MR. KAY: Yes. "In such circumstances, the disciplinary council
5 is of the view unanimously that by withdrawing from this case, Mr. Kay
6 would not be in breach of the Code of Professional Conduct of counsel
7 appearing before the International Tribunal."
8 You will know that they have been produced with all the
9 documentation that was sent to Mr. Holthuis. They were copied on the
11 As I said, my Bar would view me as being subject to this Code of
12 Conduct, and that is the one that operates. Otherwise, if I'm not subject
13 to this Code of Conduct, I would have to be subject to their code.
14 And if this Court felt it necessary to call or receive for
15 themselves an advisory opinion on the issue, then that would be available.
16 As I say, I'm putting this before the Court on the basis initially
17 of withdrawal, allowing the Court to consider that matter. Termination's
18 another issue down the road, and that is a personal issue. The issue for
19 this Court is the withdrawal.
20 But these are the kind of appropriate steps, in our submission,
21 that should be expected of us, given our consideration of the issues that
22 have arisen in this case. And it's in the light of what took place during
23 the eight weeks of the phase of the Defence case, and indeed what was said
24 by Mr. Milosevic yesterday, that puts us in this position.
25 JUDGE BONOMY: Can I ask you a specific question about Article 9.
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13 English transcripts.
1 You'll see that (c) of Article 9 anticipates leave from the Chamber in
2 either circumstance, either termination or withdrawal. Or perhaps not.
3 Perhaps that's leave in the context in which I'm going to ask you the
5 MR. KAY: Yes.
6 JUDGE BONOMY: "That counsel shall not either terminate or
7 withdraw until a replacement counsel is engaged by the client or assigned
8 by the Registrar, or the client has notified the Registrar of his
9 intention to conduct his own Defence."
10 MR. KAY: Yes.
11 JUDGE BONOMY: Now, let's apply that to this case where the Trial
12 Chamber has decided that counsel should be assigned.
13 MR. KAY: Yes.
14 JUDGE BONOMY: And let's assume for the moment that we believe
15 that should remain the position --
16 MR. KAY: Yes.
17 JUDGE BONOMY: -- albeit the modalities are different. The effect
18 of that, if we did allow a withdrawal would be that you would remain here
19 until a replacement was found; is that right?
20 MR. KAY: Absolutely. As I said, I do not want to breach anything
21 within this code. I would follow every requirement.
22 JUDGE BONOMY: Can I supplement that, then, on a different area,
23 but it is related.
24 If we were to follow one of the suggestions made by the
25 Prosecution this morning, it would be necessary for Mr. Milosevic to make
1 use of assistance, not in court but out of court, and we know that there
2 are associates available. You also have a team. At least, there are four
3 on the Defence bench today, I think there may have been five at one stage
4 in the course of this week. To what extent would they be available to him
5 as a resource?
6 Now, I assume the answer is simple in relation to at least three
7 of your team, and that includes one that's missing. What about counsel?
8 Should he be seeking to make use of you as a resource in preparing for
10 MR. KAY: Yes. Perhaps I should explain the team. They're
11 interns who have worked with us over -- since September. One B/C/S
12 speaking, another who worked on the Blagojevic case. Another of the
13 interns has had a bereavement and has had to return to America yesterday.
14 There's also a pro bono member of the English Bar who has flown over to
15 help us out in case preparation. So the team is volunteers, but I'm -- I
16 can't speak for them in that they're not under my employ, but I'm sure
17 they would obviously help. I'm not sure -- well, perhaps I shouldn't
18 speak for them, but they are such good, willing people, in my experience,
19 and I would be very surprised if they refused to help anyone out.
20 JUDGE BONOMY: Well, what's your position, then, in relation to
21 doing that job?
22 MR. KAY: I would certainly help until someone was appointed. It
23 depends on Mr. Milosevic, in relation to Ms. Higgins and myself, whether
24 he wanted us behind the scenes.
25 JUDGE BONOMY: I quite understand --
1 MR. KAY: Yes.
2 JUDGE BONOMY: -- what you say about that, but if the reality is
3 that because time is significant here and there's an allocated period for
4 use of court and, therefore, other assistance must be utilised without of
5 court, what you're indicating is a willingness to, for example, proof
6 witnesses in advance of their giving evidence, subject to getting
7 instructions from Mr. Milosevic to do that.
8 MR. KAY: If the terms and conditions were right and appropriate,
9 and one always has to consider that, it may well be that my services could
10 be used. It's very much a matter for him. I mean, at the moment, we are
11 in conflict so I'm not sure that would happen. It's a matter for him, but
12 if the terms and conditions were right, we could be engaged. And I've
13 always said that, that I would be available if he wanted to engage me and
14 the terms and conditions were right.
15 We believe that, in relation to our position under Article 9, B
16 (iii), "the client fails to substantially fulfil an obligation to counsel
17 regarding counsel's services ..." I don't know in what context that
18 particular Article should be considered. It may be the provision of
19 instructions. It may be communicating. It may be providing information
20 as to case objectives. But we feel that (iv) "other good cause for
21 termination or withdrawal exists," and that is because of the conflict
22 that has offended us in the way that we have offended him over the last
23 eight weeks.
24 So what criticism we have been subject to, which you've seen
25 throughout the other codes, have been to impugn one's professionalism -
1 that's within the English code - matters such as that. We have a
2 complaint filed by him with the Dutch Bar. We have criticism of our
3 conduct, we have a lack of a relationship between attorney and client, we
4 have a refusal to cooperate, an inability to advise him, a statement that
5 I know nothing about Yugoslavia.
6 So all those criticisms, we feel, in any case would amount to good
7 reasons for saying this is not a relationship that is going to work. It's
8 a breakdown of the overall position between us.
9 JUDGE BONOMY: Mr. Kay, I appreciate that you're your own man and
10 that comparisons can be invidious, but every one of the points you've
11 mentioned there, with the exception of the complaint to the Dutch Bar, and
12 I don't have anything to indicate that a complaint has been made against
13 him, but every other one of these complaints was made against Mr. Karnavas
14 by Blagojevic, and he remained throughout the trial and completed it.
15 MR. KAY: He had a successful relationship as attorney and client
16 and had instructions. The issue arose because the accused wanted a
17 co-counsel into the case, and Mr. Karnavas to sack the co-counsel --
18 JUDGE BONOMY: I do not know the facts, but on these issues there
19 isn't anything to choose here.
20 MR. KAY: I think there is. Mr. Karnavas didn't take the ethical
21 point, and that was for him. And that has been a subject of debate, but
22 that was for him. He'd invested time and effort in that case and did not
23 take -- I've had to discuss these issues with the ADC and learn more about
24 problems in cases and how far they've gone in setting my position before
1 JUDGE BONOMY: But the outside observer might say that there's a
2 lot more to be said for his position than what might be said to be the
3 rather weak position that you're displaying.
4 MR. KAY: I think criticism from Mr. Milosevic as the accused in
5 this case is of such an important feature when he's conducting his own
6 Defence, that it is a matter of great importance.
7 In Blagojevic, of course, it was to substitute a counsel. And as
8 I said yesterday, in the UK he would have -- that may have happened, or if
9 not, he would have been told to represent himself. He would have been
10 down in 9(3)(c), representing himself. And that's how they would do it,
11 rather like the position Mr. Nice has put before the Court today which, in
12 my view, there's a lot to be said to say that the Court has provided as
13 much as it has but he so wants his own responsibility and his own belief
14 in the justness of his cause and his ability to handle these issues he
15 doesn't need my services. He doesn't care whether I file as an amici on
16 issues of the law or -- I suppose he did need my services for the appeal
17 over the instant matter, but in the conduct of his case. And this Court
18 can make a decision about that and say, "Right, it's down to you."
19 And on a personal level, we can't advise him, we can't consult
20 with him, we can't give him direction. We've had none of that with him.
21 As he said yesterday, there never was a relationship. The position of the
22 amici was entirely different. It was more of a service to the Court on
23 his behalf that managed, over the three years, to somehow work, and it got
24 us to the end of the Prosecution case.
25 The issue that we now face is a breakdown in this counsel position
1 that is very unfortunate, and no doubt it was tried with the best will in
2 the world to make his Defence work and this case to work. But we have to
3 come now, whatever issues of foreseeability there may have been, to say
4 that the experiment has not worked. The Court made decisions that we feel
5 caused a breakdown that have put us here. And if we would have been able
6 to have approached it in a different matter -- a different way, maybe this
7 would not have arisen. But the whole structure of this case, the liaison
8 office that was provided to enable a channel of communication, systems of
9 working that were set up to assist by using assigned counsel, his Defence
10 case, a great deal of effort that went into that, but absolutely foundered
11 because of a breakdown in -- in the approaches and his wishes and desires.
12 And that, as I said, leaves us in a tortuous ethical position. I know
13 Mr. Karnavas didn't take the issue, but there has been debate about this
14 and there is debate about it.
15 JUDGE ROBINSON: What did you mean when you say the issue wasn't
16 taken, wasn't addressed in Blagojevic, the ethical issue, as you call it?
17 MR. KAY: He wasn't raising these ethical issues nor sought advice
18 from the ADC.
19 JUDGE ROBINSON: I asked the question because it seems to me that
20 once the Court was passing on the question of the consistency of counsel's
21 conduct with the code, it was in effect passing on the ethical question,
22 even if it wasn't raised.
23 MR. KAY: He wasn't citing it in his defence. He was keeping the
24 case. He wasn't relying on it. And again, it's a question of how you --
25 it's not criticism in the sense of saying, oh, this didn't go well or that
1 -- this is a breakdown. This is a hostility to us that is simply, in my
2 position, unacceptable, and it -- the Court --
3 JUDGE ROBINSON: Well, Mr. Milosevic said it's wrong to
4 characterise it as a breakdown because it never existed.
5 MR. KAY: Yes.
6 JUDGE ROBINSON: But that's a simplistic approach. In Blagojevic,
7 the Court clearly said that an accused person does not have a unilateral
8 right to take action that leads to a breakdown in relationship. Well,
9 clearly that also applies to an accused person taking action which does
10 not lead to the creation of the kind of relationship that should exist
11 between counsel and an accused.
12 MR. KAY: And the difference being in that Blagojevic, of course,
13 he wanted another counsel in and wanted the Registry to have to fund that,
14 and he wasn't saying he was going to represent himself, which thereupon
15 the issues may have well have been different. Probably would have been in
16 those circumstances if the counsel had raised these matters.
17 Again in Barayagwiza, the new ones came in, thanked the Court for
18 allowing them to be a part of the historical media trial but didn't
19 actually think of the interests of the accused. The interests of the
20 accused within this code require me to acknowledge what he wants, and what
21 he wants is us out of it. Assigned counsel is not the route.
22 A way round all this, which was raised yesterday and we gave it
23 thought overnight, is that Your Honour Judge Robinson said, well, the
24 codes are deficient in these matters, is the code for Defence counsel
25 isn't deficient. What you need is a code for stand-by counsel.
1 JUDGE ROBINSON: I never said that they were deficient, I simply
2 said that they had no express provision dealing with the assignment of
3 counsel against an accused person. But that does not mean that we are at
4 a loss as to what to do, because a lawyer's function is 95 per cent an
5 interpretative one.
6 I believe, Mr. Kay - I don't know whether Judge Bonomy has a
7 question - but I think we have been at this issue for a very long time,
8 and for my own part, I think I have heard enough.
9 MR. KAY: I was going to close it down, Your Honour, but we got
10 into Blagojevic again and that tends to send us off, as you will have
11 noticed, because there are issues about it.
12 JUDGE ROBINSON: Well, thank you very much, Mr. Kay, for your
14 Mr. Milosevic. Just on the issues that were raised by Mr. Nice,
15 because the right of response really belonged to Mr. Kay. But since
16 Mr. Nice raised some additional issues, you may wish to address them
18 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Of course, Mr. Robinson.
19 Mr. Nice, during the appeals proceedings, pathetically put the
20 question of who is running this Court. This was wrong, and at the time I
21 said that was not the question that needed to be put but the question
22 needed to be put is who is running the Defence. It is obvious from what
23 Mr. Nice is reiterating this morning that he has pretensions to run the
25 JUDGE ROBINSON: Mr. Milosevic --
1 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I quoted yesterday --
2 JUDGE ROBINSON: I'm stopping you, and I'm going to address both
3 Mr. Nice and yourself. I have noticed a tendency that is developing into
4 a kind of hostility between Mr. Nice and yourself, and I want to let you
5 know that I will not have it. The proceedings in the Court will be
6 conducted with the decorum that is appropriate proceedings of this kind.
7 And counsel on both sides will display courtesy to one another. The
8 language is important. I find inappropriate the language that you just
9 used in relation to Mr. Nice. And I want to let Mr. Nice know that the
10 same thing applies to him when he's making submissions that affect you.
12 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Very well, Mr. Robinson. As far as
13 Mr. Nice's observations are concerned, you could have warned him countless
14 times before, but this is not something that is important to me.
15 I would like to quote what you cited in your decision of November
16 2nd: "To the least, the regime must be based on an automatic assumption
17 that when he's physically able to do so, Milosevic has the main word in
18 producing evidence, questioning witnesses, and so on." The passage ends,
19 "and to make basic strategic decisions in presenting the Defence case."
20 Therefore, it is not in dispute and it cannot be in dispute of who
21 is running the Defence. The decision is there. I don't know on which
22 basis Mr. Nice is now attacking the decision which has been adopted
23 contrary to his view, but it's a decision that should be respected.
24 And what are we facing now? Attempts to evade this decision by
25 combining and manipulating with time and calculating the time that you
1 have set aside. You have set aside 150 days to hear witnesses, but not
2 150 calendar days. And this absurd proposal being put forward by Mr. Nice
3 is counter to not only what has already been allotted, these 150 days, but
4 also to the elementary role. And I would say many other things, but I do
5 not want to be too harsh. Because as you know, Mr. Nice used 300 days to
6 present his case, and during those 300 days we did not see any worthwhile
7 evidence because there is none. And that is why they are making up some
8 kind of phantom idea about joint criminal enterprise and so on, because
9 they don't have evidence. A Prosecutor who had evidence would have no
10 need to resort to such things. But this is going to the merit of the
11 case. I'm talking about something else now.
12 You have told me, Mr. Robinson, as far as I can recall, in any
13 case I think it was one -- a Judge from the Trial Chamber, but I think
14 that it was you. When I was protested why I was only being given 150 days
15 while Mr. Nice had 300 days available, I was told that it was calculated
16 exactly how many minutes Mr. Nice used during those 300 days and that I
17 would be given exactly the same time.
18 Those minutes, of course you yourself know that, I know that,
19 everybody else knows that, do not include many days and weeks of
20 preparations of Mr. Nice's witnesses. Mr. Nice is asking now here that
21 days in which I will be preparing the witnesses be included in these 150
22 days given to me. And he's also asking that days when the witnesses were
23 not available should be discounted from these days. And then he also asks
24 you to set a date by which I need to be finished, and then I could within
25 that time period do whatever I wanted. But it all boils down to an
12 Blank page inserted to ensure pagination corresponds between the French and
13 English transcripts.
1 attempt to manipulate time in order to thwart the Defence. If the idea of
2 taking away my right to question and call my own witnesses did not work,
3 now we are trying to see how we can eliminate the time required to do this
4 and to thwart the Defence in that way.
5 I think that what is written here, I will try to have this
6 published, to have a record of this, this manner in which such absurd
7 proposals are used in order to try to prevent the truth from coming out
8 before this Court. And therefore, I hope, gentlemen, that you will reject
9 these constructions and this type of maths which I think would in every
10 way and by everyone, not only by well-meaning and neutral observers but by
11 everyone would be interpreted as something that is farcical.
12 Therefore, I have an intention of asking you for an extension of
13 these 150 days to bring my witnesses here. Of course, I will do that when
14 I think that that is reasonable and when I believe that also you would see
15 that such a request is reasonable. I don't believe that I have made any
16 unreasonable requests here which you could interpret as being
18 It is therefore completely logical that if my right has been
19 restored to me to call witnesses, to question witnesses, to have a closing
20 statement and to make other decisions, I believe that all of this is a
21 part of that, and I have an intention to exercise that right in the most
22 efficient way that I know how, and I hope that I will do this.
23 This is in relation to this matter, but I do have a couple of
24 other administrative matters for which I requested some time yesterday.
25 Actually, yesterday I didn't request time for both of these matters, but I
1 do have some matters, and you can tell me whether I can go ahead and do
2 that now or if I can do that later.
3 JUDGE ROBINSON: Thank you, Mr. Milosevic.
4 [Trial Chamber confers]
5 JUDGE ROBINSON: Mr. Milosevic, we'll hear now the other
6 administrative matters that you have to raise.
7 THE INTERPRETER: Microphone, please.
8 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I have two additional matters for
9 today. Yesterday, the liaison officer, who is performing a very useful
10 function, which I would like to emphasise here, informed me when we were
11 going over the list of witnesses that I intend to call that I need to ask
12 for your permission in order to call a witness whom I have placed on the
13 list. We are talking about Franz-Josef Hutsch, who was already heard here
14 and who needs to be recalled because there are some very crucial facts
15 that we need to hear from him.
16 I would like to say right away quite openly that I wanted to call
17 again some witnesses who have already been called. But in order to save
18 time, I'm hoping that some things that they were not in a position to say
19 I will be able to compensate for that through witnesses who I intend to
20 call in the future.
21 But when we're talking about Mr. Hutsch, I have no options to
22 augment his testimony in different ways other than to recall him, because
23 he's a person who was present in Kosovo and in Bosnia. And in view of his
24 military training, because as you heard, he attained the rank of major in
25 the army, he was competent to make assessments, and because of his
1 journalistic work, he also acquired some important information. And for
2 this reason, I would like to call him again so that he could give answers
3 to questions I wish to put to him in respect to his personal knowledge
4 about important things which are very relevant for the things that
5 happened in Kosovo and also for some things relating to events in Bosnia
6 and Herzegovina.
7 JUDGE ROBINSON: Is it important to your case that he be called
8 now as against sometime -- sometime later?
9 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I think that it would be useful to
10 call him now. He doesn't have to be the first or second witness to be
11 called. I will coordinate the timing. He's in Germany, after all, it's
12 quite close, and there are no problems if he -- for him to come. I have
13 already spoken to him, and he's prepared to come. I will not keep him
14 here all day, and I think that I would need a couple of hours to complete
15 my questioning of him.
16 JUDGE BONOMY: Mr. Milosevic, does that actually mean you're ready
17 to deal with him so that he could be dealt with next week?
18 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I have to check. I have to check.
19 I'm hoping that you will give me the seven days that I requested. So it
20 would be, then, the week after that. With the exception of Professor
21 Markovic, who would be here next week as planned. So for that part, I
22 would cut down this time period of a week that I requested. But of
23 course, the week after that I would be in a position to do so, unless he's
24 travelling somewhere.
25 [Trial Chamber confers]
1 JUDGE ROBINSON: Yes, Mr. Milosevic. The Chamber will allow you
2 to recall that witness.
3 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you.
4 JUDGE ROBINSON: What is the other point?
5 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I mentioned it yesterday. On the
6 20th of February of this year, I provided a list of witnesses to the
7 liaison officer for whom I would like -- whom I would like the Court to
8 summon to testify. We're talking about William Clinton, Madeleine
9 Albright, Anthony Blair, Gerhard Schroeder, and Rudolf Scharping in the
10 first group. I provided 17 names, but for the dynamics of my
11 presentation, out of those 17 witnesses whose names I gave, these five
12 names I would ask you to issue an order now for them to be heard, if
13 possible, before the Christmas recess. If it's not possible to question
14 them before Christmas recess, then afterwards. But these witnesses,
15 Clinton, Albright, Schroeder and Scharping, are important in order to
16 provide a general overview of the situation, and they pertain to all of
17 the issues that are dealt with in the indictment.
18 JUDGE ROBINSON: It is not clear to me what you are saying, what
19 you are requesting. Are you requesting the Chamber to call them as Court
20 witnesses or to subpoena them on your behalf?
21 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] To order them or to summon them to
22 appear before you as witnesses. This is what I'm asking, to subpoena
23 them. I also mentioned Clark. I'm sorry, I failed to say that. He
24 already testified here, but I think you'll recall, at least as far as you,
25 Mr. Robinson and Mr. Kwon will recall, I was not permitted to ask him any
1 questions about the war, which was incredible, because he was the NATO
2 Supreme Commander at the time, or to ask him any questions about his book,
3 which is also incredible because this is where he discussed his view of
4 the events. And for this reason, I would like you to subpoena these
5 witnesses to appear.
6 Many months have passed from February until now. The
7 correspondence went back and forth. They will obviously not appear based
8 on letters and requests channeled through the embassies, so I would like
9 you to issue an order for them to appear in order to respond to questions
10 which I would like to put to them.
11 JUDGE ROBINSON: And, Mr. Milosevic, you very well know that a
12 subpoena is not issued lightly. You, of course, were present during the
13 Prosecution case. The Prosecution made several applications for
14 subpoenas. There are procedures to be followed.
15 First you have to show that you yourself have made an effort to
16 contact the witness, to get the witness, and the witness is not willing to
17 come. Then you have to satisfy us as to the evidence that the witness is
18 going to give, that it is going to be useful and relevant evidence.
19 If you wish, what you should do is look at the procedures followed
20 by the Prosecution in relation to requests for subpoenas. They followed
21 the procedure in which they outlined the efforts that they had made to get
22 the witnesses and showed the unwillingness of the witnesses, because they
23 may be willing to come, in which case the Court would not issue a
24 subpoena. So you have to make a submission on it. And I told you this
25 when you raised it first several months ago, and the position is no
1 different. You will not be treated any differently. A subpoena is not
2 issued lightly. The Appeals Chamber has said so.
3 In any event, that's the law. So you follow the procedure, and we
4 will consider the application and rule on it when the application is made
5 in the right and proper form.
6 If you need help, you may request help from your associates, from
7 Mr. Kay, or from anybody. But there are procedures that you have to
8 follow if you wish to have a subpoena issued.
9 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] I would just like to say,
10 Mr. Robinson, that what you say I need to do has already been done.
11 Letters have been sent out, information has been passed through the
12 embassies. They asked for clarification of the reasons why they are being
13 asked to testify. They received those clarifications, and this was sent
14 to them. Therefore, it is obvious, as professionals in the legal
15 profession would say, by conclusive action it has been shown that they are
16 not willing to appear.
17 JUDGE ROBINSON: You must make a written submission. I am not
18 going to issue any subpoena on your oral statement. You must make a
19 written submission setting out the circumstances which show that they're
20 unwilling to come and setting out the evidence that you want them to give.
21 That is what the Prosecution had to do, and that is what you will do. So
22 you must set about that.
23 Mr. Kay.
24 MR. KAY: To assist the Court on the matter, I had a meeting
25 Tuesday afternoon with representatives from the US embassy on just this
1 issue. I have a continuing duty, of course, to work on the case, and that
2 was part of my function. And it was indicated to me that they would not
3 obstruct any witnesses coming to this Court to give evidence but that an
4 outline of testimony, in the same way that the Prosecution provided to the
5 US embassy in relation to state officials called by them, would have to be
6 given to show the topics that were to be covered by the witness so that
7 they could consider any issues of state secrecy, confidentiality, the
8 manner and means of testimony, and contact the individuals and make
9 arrangements for them to appear as witnesses. But the phrase used to me,
10 which will be very important for Mr. Milosevic to understand, is that they
11 would not treat the Prosecution any differently from the Defence, and that
12 meant in relation to access to witnesses as well always the terms upon
13 which they were to be brought before the Court. They also wish to
14 consider issues of relevance.
15 JUDGE ROBINSON: In any event, it is not for the USA, it's for the
16 Court. The Court will determine whether they come. And you're quite
17 right. Mr. Milosevic, as he well knows, will have to make a written
18 submission. He will have to satisfy the Court, as I said before, that the
19 witnesses are not willing to come, because if it is not necessary, why
20 should a Court issue a subpoena? Then he has to satisfy us as to the
21 evidence that they will give, not just to satisfy the USA. He has to
22 satisfy the Court.
23 So, Mr. Milosevic, in this regard my advice to you is to follow
24 the procedures used by the Prosecution in securing subpoenas. They had
25 several subpoenas that were issued. You follow that procedure and your
1 applications will receive appropriate consideration.
2 [Trial Chamber confers]
3 JUDGE ROBINSON: Mr. Nice.
4 MR. NICE: Two things, please. The accused said that he wishes to
5 make public the skeleton argument served this morning. I have no
6 objection if he does, but it should be clear that publication of documents
7 served at Court is not a matter for the parties, it's a matter for which
8 there is a regulated process through the Registry. It cannot be right to
9 start a practice where documents served at Court, whether exhibits or
10 anything else, are made available to the public by one of the parties, and
11 I would ask the Court to ensure that the normal procedures are followed.
12 Second, Your Honour observed there was a tendency to discourtesy.
13 I'm afraid that's something I cannot accept. For two and a half years, I
14 have listened to the accused say extremely discourteous things to me as
15 well as the Bench on many occasions, and I have maintained my courtesy to
16 him. I have recently been much more straightforward and blunt in my
17 description of him and in the Prosecution's assessment of what he is
18 doing, because it is my judgment and the judgement of the Prosecution that
19 the time has come to set things out clearly as they are. Discourteous I
20 have not been. If I have left --
21 JUDGE ROBINSON: Mr. Nice, what I had in mind was I see developing
22 an atmosphere which I don't like, an atmosphere of animosity. I come from
23 a system which is quite accustomed to and familiar with vigorous
24 submissions, submissions being made with total vigour, and I understand
25 that. But I don't like the atmosphere of animosity that is developing,
1 and that's what I want to nip in the bud.
2 MR. NICE: I quite understand that. I have no intention to create
3 such an atmosphere. I certainly am not discourteous. I will review the
4 transcript carefully, but I'm afraid I will continue, because I think it
5 is now appropriate, to describe the position that we find ourselves in in
6 straightforward terms when it seems to us appropriate to do so. But I
7 will of course reflect on Your Honour's observations.
8 JUDGE ROBINSON: Thank you very much.
9 [Trial Chamber confers]
10 JUDGE ROBINSON: The court will adjourn for 20 minutes.
11 --- Recess taken at 10.39 a.m.
12 --- On resuming at 11.28 a.m.
13 JUDGE ROBINSON: Many important and difficult issues are raised by
14 the application by Mr. Kay for withdrawal. The Chamber will take time to
15 consider these issues and will give a decision shortly.
16 In the meantime, we express our gratitude to Mr. Kay for
17 indicating his willingness to carry out any reasonable request made of him
18 by the accused, and a good example of the way in which his services could
19 be used is in the work necessary to present applications for subpoenas so
20 as to enable the accused to present arguments before the Court for their
21 issuance. Beyond that, counsel will be required to act in accordance with
22 the modalities order as revised by the Appeals Chamber.
23 The trial will resume on Tuesday next to hear the witness Markovic
24 and thereafter on Monday the 22nd at 2.15 p.m. Thereafter, the 150 days
25 set aside for the Defence will be utilised on the basis of three days per
1 week for the presentation of the Defence case, and all work connected with
2 the preparation of the Defence case and witnesses must be done at other
4 Mr. Milosevic, if you choose to use the time set aside by the
5 Court for sitting to carry out proprietary work, or if for any other
6 reason for which you are responsible the court does not sit at the time
7 allocated, the period lost will be regarded as falling within the 150
8 days. The position in relation to health will be considered if and when
9 it arises.
10 We adjourned until next Monday -- next Tuesday.
11 --- Whereupon the hearing adjourned at 11.31 a.m.,
12 to be reconvened on Tuesday, the 16th day of
13 November, 2004, at 9.00 a.m.