1 Tuesday, 7 December 2010
2 [Open session]
3 [The accused entered court]
4 --- Upon commencing at 9.02 a.m.
5 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Good morning to everybody in the courtroom.
6 The witness should be brought in, please.
7 [The witness entered court]
8 WITNESS: MITAR LAZAREVIC [Resumed]
9 [Witness answered through interpreter]
10 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Good morning, sir. Please sit down.
11 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you.
12 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Welcome back. I have to remind you that the
13 solemn declaration you made yesterday still applies. And Mr. Tolimir is
14 now commencing his cross-examination.
15 Mr. Tolimir.
16 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you, Mr. President. Good
17 morning to everyone. May God speed us on our way today and may God bless
18 us. I bid you all welcome back to the courtroom and may we have a
19 successful day.
20 Cross-examination by Mr. Tolimir:
21 MR. TOLIMIR: [Interpretation]
22 Q. Witness, since we speak the same language I'll ask you a question
23 and please try to make a pause so we don't overlap in order to allow the
24 interpretation to proceed, and I'll try to do the same. Thank you.
25 My first question is from page 1 of the interview that you gave
1 to this Tribunal in Banja Luka on the 27th of June 2009, if you remember.
2 This is D336.
3 Could we please have that displayed in our e-court system.
4 1D336. Thank you, Aleksandar.
5 1D336. So that everyone can see what I'm basing my questions on.
6 We can't see that yet. All right, we have it in the English and
7 it's about to come up in our language too, the Serbian. Please look at
8 lines 19 through 21. What is discussed there is the status of a witness.
9 You handed over to the Prosecutor a summons which states that you are a
10 suspect. My question is: Were you under any sort of mental duress when
11 you received a summons as a suspect since you know as a fact that you did
12 not commit any crimes for which you might be prosecuted by this
13 international tribunal?
14 A. I was under no pressure at all. We've clarified that already. I
15 asked them when I came there, they said it was a mistake. I do remember
17 Q. I know you tried to clarify that point during the interview but
18 what about since?
19 A. No. I have no reason to feel any sort of pressure at all because
20 my conscience is clear.
21 Q. Thank you very much. Can we please go to page 3 of the
22 interview, line 26. Page 3, line 26. In the English, it should be page
24 At line 26, you say, "I was a general administrator." Do you see
1 A. Yes.
2 Q. In that position, did you have an overview over the mail being
3 exchanged by the brigade or the codes being used and things like that?
4 A. Yes. That would most often be the case, but it was by no means a
5 rule as such.
6 Q. Thank you very much. Perhaps we didn't understand each other
7 properly. I was asking whether an administrator like that would have an
8 insight into the mail being exchanged between the brigade and the
9 battalion, codes and such.
10 A. I said yesterday that all the members of the brigade had an
11 insight into all the mail that was coming from the brigade to the
12 battalion, and that included me.
13 Q. What about any written documents that were mailed to you?
14 A. That sort of thing would normally be opened by the commander, not
15 us. Nevertheless, whatever came by phone we would normally get to look
16 at it. As a rule, there were no special secrets that were kept from us.
17 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Before Mr. Vanderpuye gets the floor I would like
18 to remind both speakers to slow down and not to overlap. You are
19 starting with your answers immediately after you have heard the question
20 of Mr. Tolimir, but the interpreters must catch everything what you are
21 saying and what Mr. Tolimir is saying. Please pause a little bit between
22 question and answer.
23 Mr. Vanderpuye.
24 THE WITNESS: Fine, thank you.
25 MR. VANDERPUYE: Thank you, Mr. President. Good morning to you
1 and Your Honours and everyone. I think there is a -- maybe we can have
2 the witness clarify this. At page 3, line 8, his answer to General
3 Tolimir's question was that, "All members of the brigade had an insight
4 into all of the mail that was coming from the brigade to the battalion,
5 and that included me." I just wanted to make sure that his reference to
6 the insight that was had by brigade members is what he intended to say,
7 as opposed to battalion members. So maybe we can have that clarified for
8 the record.
9 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Sir, you have heard what the Prosecutor has said.
10 Could you clarify your answer, please.
11 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Members of the battalion. Perhaps
12 I misspoke and said brigade. The members of the battalion command saw
13 all the telegrams that were being received.
14 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you. Mr. Tolimir.
15 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you very much, Mr. President.
16 Thank you very much, Mr. Vanderpuye. For the record, my question was: A
17 general administrator, such as the witness, would a person in that
18 position normally look at all the mail being exchanged between the
19 brigade and the battalion? General administrator. That was my question.
20 A person in his position and not any members of that unit.
21 A. I might --
22 THE INTERPRETER: Interpreter's note: One speaker at a time,
23 please. Thank you.
24 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] E-court, please, page 5 of your
25 statement, sir. Can you please look at line 20, page 5. Page 7 in the
1 English, please.
2 MR. TOLIMIR: [Interpretation]
3 Q. You say at line 20:
4 "In July 1995, the line shifted and there were some movements in
5 July, movements of our battalion because there was this column of people
6 coming from Srebrenica, so engagement of the battalion was 100 per cent."
7 That's lines 21 and 22 of your statement. Based on what you said
8 there, my question: Can you explain to the Trial Chamber what sort of
9 movement was at stake. How was the line moved? And what about stepping
10 up engagement up to 100 per cent, what was behind that?
11 A. I know that some of the people were operating on the ground and
12 that those other men came out and were to protect that area. As far as
13 we were concerned. I don't know what areas this was in relation to. I
14 know that the presence along the line of those mobilised in the battalion
15 was 100 per cent, and that's about that.
16 Q. Thank you very much. You said, "I don't know which area they
17 were going to, and so on and so forth." Please, for the record, when you
18 say I don't know which line they were off to, who, where, who was going
19 through these defence lines and why was combat readiness stepped up?
20 Could you please explain to the Trial Chamber a little bit, because they
21 weren't there, they were not there in the middle of the war, like you and
22 me. Thank you very much.
23 A. This column leaving Srebrenica and then they were securing all
24 these settled areas so they could pass through them, they were protecting
25 certain areas towards the rear of the area, all the villages that were
1 there, and that was about that.
2 Q. Thank you very much but I do have to apologise yet again. Thank
3 you very much, Mr. Interpreter.
4 Again, I have to ask you those leaving Srebrenica were securing
5 these villages. We have to try to distinguish here who was doing the
6 securing and who was leaving Srebrenica. We need to draw some sort of
7 distinction there. Who was leaving Srebrenica, can you tell us that?
8 Which unit did those men belong to and who was securing the villages and
9 settlements along the way? Thank you very much.
10 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I stopped you because you started too early. It
11 is very difficult for the interpreters today. You are both very fast and
12 you should slow down and pause between both speakers. Your answer,
14 THE WITNESS: The villages and the rear area, that was the VRS
15 and the rest the army and the people from Srebrenica, the people who
16 lived in Srebrenica, and the VRS were securing our villages that were in
17 our territory.
18 MR. TOLIMIR: [Interpretation]
19 Q. Thank you very much. You said they were leaving Srebrenica. Did
20 they come under attack or were they attacking the villages that you, the
21 men of the Zvornik Brigade, were defending? Thank you very much.
22 Please can you wait up a little bit before you provide your
23 answer. Thank you very much. Look at the screen before you, look at the
24 transcript, and once it's done, once it stops rolling, you can start
25 answering the question.
1 A. I wasn't there to know myself who was attacking whom. There was
2 firing on both sides, but I wasn't there myself to be able to tell you
3 what exactly went on.
4 Q. Thank you very much. I don't know if you have the transcript in
5 front of you. As soon as the transcript stops, please start answering
6 your question, but wait for the transcript, for the letters, to stop.
7 Again I have to ask you the same question because of the record.
8 Why did your brigade step up its combat readiness, and what about
9 the people -- you called them people -- were they free to leave
10 Srebrenica or were there some special circumstances there under which
11 these people were leaving as well as their army? Thank you.
12 A. We all know there was fighting inside Srebrenica and they had to
13 get out somehow. How were they getting out? Of course, there was firing
14 along the way on their way out. It wasn't a peaceful situation, there
15 was firing all over, but again I'm telling you I wasn't there myself,
16 therefore I'm unable to judge the situation.
17 Q. Thank you. That wasn't my question, really, was it? You said
18 people were leaving. Can you please explain to the Chamber how exactly
19 people were leaving. And now you've answered. It wasn't some sort of
20 free passage or free movement by the civilians and the people leaving.
21 It was a column trying to get through across your territory, and did that
22 column include both civilians and soldiers? And when I say "soldiers"
23 I mean armed Muslim soldiers.
24 A. Not in our area of responsibility. Not in the area covered by my
1 Q. What about the area of responsibility of your brigade? Were
2 these Muslim armed forces trying to achieve a breakthrough along with the
3 civilian population coming along across the area of responsibility of
4 your brigade?
5 A. Yes.
6 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Sir, you will have seen that now the question has
7 stopped, but your answer was long time ago. This is not possible to
8 catch that by the interpreters, and for the sake of the record it is
9 necessary to pause. Please wait -- I appreciate that you want to tell
10 everything you know, but please slow down.
11 THE WITNESS: Okay.
12 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Tolimir.
13 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Thank you very much, Mr. President.
14 MR. TOLIMIR: [Interpretation]
15 Q. Please, sir, can you please tell the Trial Chamber what this was
16 all about and what was it that was passing through the area of
17 responsibility of your brigade, and why did your commanders order you to
18 step up your combat readiness up to the 100 per cent level?
19 A. Probably the consequences of the attacks coming from the other
20 side and that's probably why the order came to mobilise 100 per cent.
21 You're asking me some questions. I can't answer all these questions,
22 I wasn't a commander myself.
23 Q. Thank you very much. I understand why you're answering the way
24 you are, but when you say "the other side" what that means to the Trial
25 Chamber, "the other side," maybe you're talking about the cardinal points
1 as long as you're not specific. Who was this other side?
2 A. The Muslim army. That's what I mean when I said "the other
4 Q. Thank you very much. Sir, what about the members of your
5 battalion? Did they have any contact whatsoever with the Muslim column
6 trying to achieve a breakthrough across the territory that was also the
7 area of responsibility of your brigade? Thank you very much.
8 A. My battalion had no contact. As for the brigade, I don't know.
9 Q. Thank you very much. We will move on, given the nature of your
10 answers. I never asked you anything about the brigade, did I? Can you
11 please go to page 6 of your statement, line 27. Page 6, line 27, thank
13 This is page 9 in the English. Thank you.
14 Thank you very much. I'll read this, if you can see it. Lines
15 27 and 28. You say there existed a telephone link and some couriers were
16 bringing orders. My question to you, based on what we can see here: Did
17 you receive most of your orders by phone? Was it an uncoded conversation
18 or was it an encrypted conversation? Was this a protected line or not?
19 Thank you very much. And please wait for the transcript to stop.
20 A. Orders would come by the induction telephone line most often.
21 Rarely they arrived as coded messages.
22 Q. Thank you. Since we are talking about telephone connections and
23 induction telephone lines, could you please explain, were those wire
24 lines? So that the Trial Chamber knows what you're talking about. Did
25 you have a wire telephone line with the brigade command where your orders
1 came from or did you have a radio connection with them? Thank you.
2 A. It was a wire connection. We also had a radio communication
3 line, but we used it only very rarely.
4 Q. Could you explain to the Trial Chamber, when you say coded
5 messages, because you used the word "coded," would you say that codes
6 were only used in teletyped messages or are codes any figures and symbols
7 used in any communication? Thank you.
8 A. As far as I know, the very rare coded telegrams, save for the one
9 that arrived in 1995, I don't know anything about codes. I know that
10 signalsmen or, rather, a signalsman came to decode that message. I was
11 not able to do it; I don't know anything about code system.
12 Q. Thank you. You've just told us that the telegram was coded by
13 signalsmen. Were they members of your battalion, of your brigade, or
14 were they borrowed from somewhere else to decode the telegram? Thank
15 you. Please wait for the transcript to stop.
16 A. They were from our battalion. Nobody else arrived from anywhere
17 else. Our own men came to decode the message.
18 Q. Thank you. Does that mean that they knew how to decipher the
19 code, that they had that from before? Thank you. Please wait for the
20 transcript before you start giving your answer.
21 A. I cannot tell you what the system was, what system was in place
22 for decoding messages.
23 Q. Thank you. How long did it take the signalsman to decode the
24 message? Do you know that? Are you aware of that fact? Thank you.
25 A. I really don't know. I can't remember.
1 Q. Thank you. Look at lines 7 and 14 on page 7 in the Serbian
2 version, which is page 10 in the English version. Thank you. The
3 Prosecutor asked you about your combat readiness. That's in line 7. And
4 then in line 14, you said, "Yes, we were prepared for a possible attack
5 from the other side. What do I know?" So what did you mean when you
6 say, "The other side"? And what did you mean when you said, "What do I
7 know?" We can't leave the Trial Chamber in the dark about anything that
8 you said. Please wait for the transcript to stop before giving your
9 answer. Thank you.
10 A. I suppose we were expecting an attack from the Muslim side.
11 I suppose that our commanders knew what they were doing. Please do not
12 ask me questions that only a brigade commander can answer. I suppose
13 that they were expecting an attack to come from the Muslim side and
14 that's why they stepped up our combat readiness to full readiness, to 100
15 per cent combat readiness.
16 Q. Thank you. Please do not be angry. I'm not asking you any
17 personal questions. Whatever I ask you are things that need to be
18 clarified for the transcript. I'm not trying to trick you and ask you
19 questions that you're not in a position to answer. And I apologise if
20 you misunderstood my intentions.
21 Could we please display page 8 in your statement, which is page
22 12 in English. Lines 22 and 32. Please look at the lines in question,
23 line 22 and line 32. In order to avoid reading the entire statement, I
24 have only chosen some characteristic lines on which I'm going to base my
25 questions. You say in line 22, "I believe that that was in the afternoon
1 and I know that he came back in the evening and told us all that." And
2 then in line 32, you say, "That was the gym of the elementary school."
3 Please, can you tell us for the record, who was it who came? Because
4 your subject in the sentence is missing. And then you said, "He told
5 us." You did already say something about that in the cross-examination,
6 but could you now tell us what that person said, who was there to listen
7 to him, and was the entire battalion command there to listen to that
8 story? Thank you.
9 A. That was our commander, Srecko Acimovic, and he addressed the
10 entire command staff in the evening when he arrived.
11 Q. Thank you for your explanation. During the examination-in-chief
12 yesterday, the Prosecutor showed you some photos, and he showed you photo
13 number 2 on page 121. As he explained, that was the second photo of the
14 gym of the elementary school that you had attended, and you said that you
15 had never entered the small building next to the gym and that that small
16 building was probably used as a changing room, as lockers for the kids
17 who attended the school. Do you remember that?
18 A. Yes, yes.
19 Q. Thank you. My question is this: At the relevant time, were you
20 in the gym about which Mr. Vanderpuye asked you yesterday? Thank you.
21 Please wait for the transcript to stop.
22 A. No.
23 Q. Thank you. Here you -- on page 10 in the Serbian version of your
24 statement, which is page 14 in English, in line 30, you resumed this
25 statement, and the Prosecutor told you, and this is on page 15 in
1 English, I apologise to everybody -- thank you, Aleksandar, for
2 correcting me -- and while we are waiting for that, I believe you all see
3 it now, the Prosecutor says, "We continue our interview with
4 Mr. Lazarevic and during the break we spent --" thank you -- "during the
5 break -- we spent a few minutes during the break just discussing general
6 issues with the witness and we told him why he had been invited to come
7 here today, and also we invited questions from him."
8 And then we move on to the following page, which is 16 in
9 English -- thank you, Aleksandar -- and the investigator says here, "The
10 witness was wondering why there was the low level people and not the high
11 level people that we were interested in." There was no discussion about
12 his particular evidence.
13 Thank you. In view of this, I would like to know the following:
14 You had several other breaks, did you not? Did you use those breaks to
15 discuss your concerns and issues that were of some interest to you? Did
16 the investigators encourage you to raise those concerns during the
17 breaks? Thank you.
18 A. No. There was nothing. That was right at the end, when I said
19 to this gentleman, the investigator, that there was no justice. First of
20 all we were mobilised to go to war, and now you are investigating me
21 here, you're interviewing me here, so there is no justice in this world.
22 That's what I said to the investigator.
23 Q. I apologise. Yesterday, during the examination-in-chief, you
24 answered several questions put to you by Mr. Vanderpuye and you told us
25 that your commander disobeyed the order and wouldn't assign any of your
1 men to execute men who were detained in the elementary school of the
2 village where he resided. Now my question: Did anybody from your
3 battalion command have to face charges for disobeying an order which was
4 contrary to rules and prevalent laws? Thank you. Please wait for the
5 transcript to stop.
6 A. No. Nobody was ever in a position to face charges because of
8 Q. Thank you. Please answer the following question: Since you have
9 mostly related things that you heard from others, since you personally
10 did not participate in any of the events, my question is this: Is your
11 evidence second-hand evidence and do you know -- well, first answer that,
12 and please wait for the transcript to stop before giving your answer.
13 Thank you.
14 A. I told you what I heard from my commander, but I believe that the
15 essence of my evidence are the telegrams that arrived in the brigade when
16 I was there. This is what I am here for, in my view.
17 Q. Thank you. My question is this: Did you personally see the
18 telegram that you are testifying about? Thank you. And do you know who
19 recorded the telegram in the logbook?
20 A. I've already said that I don't know who had received the
21 telegram. It may have been me. But we were all present while the lads
22 were decoding it, and everybody was wondering about its content. So
23 everybody knew about the telegram.
24 Q. Thank you. Could you now tell me and the Trial Chamber: Do you
25 know whether your commander, battalion commander, testified? And if not,
1 do you know if he's ever going to come here to testify about the same
2 events you are testifying about? If you don't know, you can just simply
3 say that you don't know.
4 A. I know that he was here once. I don't know whether he will be
5 called to testify again. I don't know.
6 Q. Thank you for the answers that you have provided. Thank you
7 about the information provided about your commander. I hope that he will
8 come to testify in these proceedings so we will have questions for you
9 [as interpreted]. Thank you very much for coming here today to clarify
10 things that I was not clear about, neither me nor the OTP nor the Trial
11 Chamber. God bless.
12 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Your Honours, this was my
13 cross-examination. I would like to thank you, thank everybody who have
14 been following, and I apologise on my part and on the part of the witness
15 because the two of us have been speaking very fast. Thank you very much.
16 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you very much. It was indeed a very hard
17 morning for the interpreters and the Court Recorder. Thank you for the
19 Mr. Vanderpuye, do you have re-examination?
20 MR. VANDERPUYE: No, Mr. President, I'm sure you'll be relieved
21 to know what I don't. I would point out, though, in respect of General
22 Tolimir's question that the commander of the 2nd Battalion is on our
23 witness list. He's a 92 bis with cross witness and we do expect to have
24 him available for the Trial Chamber to hear evidence from him.
25 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you for this information.
1 Sir, you will be pleased to hear that this concludes your
2 examination in this trial. Thank you very much for your attendance here
3 and that you came to The Hague again. Now you are free to return to your
4 normal activities and to travel home. Thank you very much again.
5 The Court Usher will assist you.
6 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you.
7 [The witness withdrew]
8 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Vanderpuye, can you tell us, is the next
9 witness ready for testifying?
10 MR. VANDERPUYE: He is, Mr. President. I know that my colleague
11 Mr. Thayer has been following the proceedings, and so I expect him down
12 momentarily, and I believe the witness is already in the witness room.
13 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you very much.
14 MR. VANDERPUYE: Mr. President, could we go into private session
15 for just a moment, please?
16 JUDGE FLUEGGE: We turn into private session.
17 [Private session]
3 [Open session]
4 THE REGISTRAR: Your Honours, we are back in open session. Thank
6 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I take the opportunity -- I take the opportunity
7 to indicate that at the moment, the Chamber is planning -- perhaps this
8 is important for Mr. McCloskey, if he could listen to what I'm talking
9 about. At the moment, the Chamber is planning to sit on Friday afternoon
10 instead of the cancelled hearing on Wednesday because of the plenary of
11 the Judges. That means, if we have such progress as yesterday and today,
12 I would like to ask the Prosecution if the next witness for Monday would
13 be available if we are finishing the current witness, which is the
14 upcoming witness, earlier. Perhaps you can give an indication.
15 MR. McCLOSKEY: Yes, good morning, Mr. President, Your Honours.
16 That witness, I'm informed, has -- is not scheduled to come here in time
17 to be able to testify for Friday afternoon. That -- and based on the
18 estimates of this particular witness, it looks like we would be going
19 into Friday, though, as you may be correct, we may end up finishing
20 early, but given who this witness is, he's a brigade commander, we think
21 it's going to go into Friday.
22 Perhaps -- as we do, Mr. Gajic and I did speak about the length
23 of time last night, for Colonel Trivic, and Mr. Gajic could perhaps --
24 perhaps he has more information. He thought it was going to be over the
25 three hours he estimated, that's why we thought it would go in,
1 especially looking at today, but today was a little shorter than we
2 thought, so perhaps Mr. Gajic can help us with that estimate.
3 JUDGE FLUEGGE: The original scheduling was that the witness
4 Trivic should testify two days. If you start with him now, if we are
5 sitting on Friday, nearly three days of testimony available, and
6 therefore you should consider the possibility to call another witness for
7 Friday to save court time. That was the intention of my questioning.
8 Mr. Gajic, could you say anything in relation to that witness?
9 Mr. Tolimir?
10 THE ACCUSED: [Interpretation] Mr. President, if the OTP wants to
11 wrap up within this week with Mr. Trivic, we will not be opposing that.
12 Of course, as long as their examination-in-chief is not too long. We
13 should have sufficient time to finish him on Friday if they take up the
14 whole of today and tomorrow, or, rather, the Thursday. The main thing is
15 to keep him available over the weekend so that Mr. McCloskey does not
16 need to call another witness. It really depends on the time the OTP
17 takes with their examination-in-chief. Thank you very much.
18 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. McCloskey.
19 MR. McCLOSKEY: Mr. President, we are aware of this potential
20 gap. Mr. Thayer has been aware of it, as have I, and we have been
21 working with Ms. Gallagher to see if she may be able to help fill it by
22 an exhibit that I have talked briefly about with Mr. Gajic. I haven't
23 talked to him recently about it but of course I will as it looks like if
24 that is going to be an opening. Mr. Thayer is fully aware of it, as am
25 I, that this may be appearing, this opening, and we are doing our best to
1 fill it, and we understand the Court's concern and agree with it, of
3 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you very much. I raised this matter only
4 because we have -- we are really quite fast in this -- at the beginning
5 of this week.
6 Now we should call the next witness. He should be brought in.
7 MR. VANDERPUYE: Mr. President, I just wanted to clarify
8 something. I just wanted to clarify that I misspoke with respect to the
9 two witnesses that I spoke about on page 16 of today's transcript. They
10 are not live witnesses, they are both 92 bis witnesses, so their evidence
11 is before the Trial Chamber already.
12 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you very much.
13 MR. VANDERPUYE: Thank you, Mr. President. May I be excused?
14 JUDGE FLUEGGE: You are, and I wish you a successful working day.
15 MR. VANDERPUYE: Thank you very much.
16 [The witness entered court]
17 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Good morning, sir. Welcome to the Tribunal. Do
18 you receive interpretation?
19 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes, yes.
20 JUDGE FLUEGGE: The ear-phones should be moved a bit. I am
21 afraid that you will lose them. That seems to be much better. Would you
22 please read aloud the affirmation, the solemn declaration on the card
23 which is shown to you now.
24 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I solemnly declare that I will
25 speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
1 WITNESS: MIRKO TRIVIC
2 [Witness answered through interpreter]
3 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you very much. Please sit down.
4 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Thank you very much.
5 JUDGE FLUEGGE: First the Prosecutor will examine you, and later
6 on, the accused, Mr. Tolimir.
7 Mr. Thayer, please go ahead.
8 MR. THAYER: Thank you, Mr. President. Good morning to you and
9 Your Honours, good morning to the Defence, good morning to everyone in
10 the courtroom.
11 Examination by Mr. Thayer:
12 Q. Good morning, sir. Would you please state your name for the
14 A. Thank you very much. My name is Mirko Trivic, born 1949 in
15 Gradiska municipality, which used to be called Bosanska Gradiska at the
16 time and was part of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
17 Q. Sir, do you recall testifying in this courtroom over a period of
18 four days in May of 2007?
19 A. Yes. I remember that.
20 Q. And since you arrived on Sunday, have you had an opportunity to
21 listen to your testimony, or parts of it?
22 A. Most of it. Most of my testimony. I listened to it again.
23 I think there remains a third, and that was on my last courtroom day.
24 There was a lot of material to deal with, it's as simple as that, and
25 perhaps it would have required a little more time to listen to the entire
2 Q. Yes, sir, we are moving a little bit more quickly than we had
3 anticipated, so unfortunately, you haven't had an opportunity to review
4 or listen to your entire testimony. Can you first attest that what you
5 have listened to, the first three days, if I understand you correctly,
6 accurately reflects what you said during your testimony in the Popovic
8 A. Yes, yes. Those are the materials and those are the statements
9 that I made. There is nothing contentious about it, from my perspective,
10 in terms of the way I reflected on those issues and the assertions that
11 I made.
12 Q. And based on the three days of your testimony which you've
13 listened to so far, do you have any reason to believe that the remaining
14 testimony that you haven't had a chance to listen to again doesn't
15 accurately reflect what your testimony was in 2007?
16 A. I don't think one should expect that I would change anything.
17 I finished listening to the material as far as the portion that concerned
18 the war zones was concerned. I think that is the last part of day 3, so
19 that wasn't completed either, then. I don't think there was anything
20 that might be misleading. I don't think there is anything that might
21 lead me to a different conclusion or a different opinion on all those
22 theoretical issues, which is what I choose to call them, regarding the
23 rules and such like.
24 Q. Okay. And based on what you've listened to thus far, I take it
25 there were no misinterpretations or technical errors that you noticed in
1 the audio of your testimony?
2 A. None that I noticed. It's not that I went back to anything
3 specific. I'm sure you have the transcript yourself and there were some
4 corrections being made as we went along during my testimony. There may
5 have been some misinterpretations there on the spot that were corrected,
6 but regarding your questions or the questions of the Defence team, some
7 corrections were being made in our stride, as it were, and that's all
8 I noticed.
9 Q. Okay. I think you've pretty much answered my next question, but
10 just so it's clear on the record, can you attest before this Trial
11 Chamber that were you asked the same questions today that you were asked
12 during those four days in 2007, would your answers be the same?
13 A. I have to be precise with my answer. I'll try not to
14 oversimplify. My opinions have not changed in terms of the way the facts
15 were interpreted at the time or the facts themselves. Now, would
16 I answer the very same question in the very same way? That is open to
17 debate. One would have to analyse the substance of an answer before one
18 could provide a response to that. I do, however, assume that my
19 responses at the time would cover over 95 per cent of the same questions
20 today. I would tend to agree with at least 95 of those answers, but it's
21 been some time and it's very difficult for me to ascertain that my
22 answers would be verbatim what they were those -- all those years ago.
23 I hope you understand the point I'm trying to make.
24 Q. I think that's clear for everybody.
25 MR. THAYER: Mr. President, the Prosecution would tender P1196
1 and 1197, the witness's testimony in the Popovic trial, the former
2 exhibit being under seal.
3 JUDGE FLUEGGE: These documents will be received as exhibits.
4 THE REGISTRAR: Your Honour for the record, I'd like to indicate
5 that P1196 shall be admitted as Exhibit P1443, under seal, and P1197
6 shall be admitted as Exhibit P1444, under seal. Thank you, Your Honours.
7 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I think we have a problem to understand. Have
8 these documents been preliminarily MFI'd at a former stage of these
10 [Prosecution counsel confer]
11 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Gajic? I see you want to assist us.
12 MR. GAJIC: [Interpretation] Indeed. Good morning to all.
13 Mr. President, I'm looking at our e-court and I see that the numbers have
14 been MFI'd. Mr. Thayer also gave us the corresponding P number and not
15 the corresponding 65 ter number. I think that might lead to some
16 confusion, if we were to renumerate, to assign new numbers to these
17 exhibits. One thing that I find particularly confusing, and perhaps
18 someone can clear that up for me: Why are the smaller numbers being
19 transformed into bigger numbers? Because there might be a void that
20 would require filling at a later stage. I fail to understand the
21 situation, I'm afraid. It might be a good idea to keep the numbers that
22 have been used for the MFI'ing of these exhibits.
23 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Indeed, that would be the position of the Chamber
24 as well.
25 MR. THAYER: Mr. President, I was under the impression that for
1 the witnesses for whom we have gone through the labourious process among
2 all the parties of submitting the exhibit list and having the P numbers
3 assigned, we would retain those until those witnesses are exhausted. So
4 P1196 is formerly 65 ter number 6738. P1197 is formerly 65 ter number
5 6739. And indeed, they have been both been MFI'd, according to our prior
6 procedure, that I think we are escaping shortly.
7 JUDGE FLUEGGE: The problem was that I didn't have this list of
8 MFI numbers in front of me, and indeed both exhibits should be received
9 and will be received with the numbers 1197 and 1196, and I think the
10 first one is under seal -- the second one is under seal. 1196. Mr.
11 Registrar, please?
12 THE REGISTRAR: Yes, Your Honour. For the record, I would like
13 to indicate that the previous numbers given to P1196 and 1197, which is
14 P1443 and 1444, is hereby withdrawn and P1196 is admitted under seal
15 while P1197 is also admitted under the same number. Thank you, Your
17 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I think now we have it clear on the record.
18 Please proceed, Mr. Thayer.
19 MR. THAYER: Thank you, Mr. President. The Prosecution would
20 also tender -- Mr. President, maybe I could benefit from a little bit of
21 guidance from the Court. Does Your Honour have the Registrar's internal
22 memorandum for the old regime? Because I'll be working with that list,
23 hopefully that will assist the Trial Chamber in seeing what our exhibits
24 precisely are, and if I can hand my copy up to the court officer --
25 [Trial Chamber and Registrar confer]
1 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Just wait a moment. We hope to clarify the
2 situation. Now I have it in front of me and I think we can proceed as
3 usual. As you will have realised, on a request by the Registry, we
4 changed the system a bit and hopefully -- hopefully with -- to the
5 benefit of both parties and the Chamber and especially the Registry, to
6 avoid complications. Before you are tendering these documents,
7 Mr. Thayer, could you indicate if they are all on the 65 ter exhibit
9 MR. THAYER: I think they all are with the exception of two,
10 Mr. President. Actually, sorry, please, Mr. President.
11 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Your previous list, you added a star to the 65
12 ter number 06745 and 65 ter 06747. Usually -- and to three others at the
13 end, two others at the end of the list. That was normally an indication
14 that they were not included into the 65 ter exhibit list but now I was
15 told that 65 ter 06740 and 06746 are not on the 65 ter list.
16 MR. THAYER: That's right, Mr. President. What the asterisk
17 typically denoted were exhibits which were part of the original 92 bis
18 package. And during this whole process of numbering, we found additional
19 exhibits that needed to be put on the exhibit list for the witness, and
20 that's what the asterisk is.
21 As to your first question, which documents were not on the 65 ter
22 list, basically the documents that are the 6700 series on this list were
23 not on the 65 ter list. These are documents that were primarily Defence
24 exhibits that were shown to the witness during his cross-examination. So
25 they were made part of the 92 bis package, as I think everyone is aware,
1 but typically they would not be added wholesale to the 65 ter list
2 because they were part of the 92 bis package, so frequently those
3 exhibits we waited until the decision of the Trial Chamber before
4 assigning them 65 ter numbers. So we can see that there are a number of
5 exhibits here beginning with, if we just look at the list, 6740,
6 6741, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, 6749, 6750, and I think that is the total
7 of the exhibits which weren't on the 65 ter list, so per our usual
8 procedure we would move orally to add them to the 65 ter list given their
9 integral part of the prior record being primarily Defence exhibits shown
10 to the witness during his examination.
11 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Gajic, is there any concern on the part of
12 the Defence?
13 MR. GAJIC: [Interpretation] I have just checked the documents we
14 are talking about and I have no concerns to raise.
15 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you very much, they will be added to the 65
16 ter exhibit list. And I'm referring to those Mr. Thayer has mentioned on
17 page 25 of today's transcript.
18 Mr. Thayer?
19 MR. THAYER: Now, Mr. President, working with the P numbers that
20 are on the list, if I could, that will save a little bit of time. I
21 don't know if the Registrar needs me to read out the actual 65 ter
23 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Please don't do that, to save some time.
24 MR. THAYER: Good. Thank you, Mr. President. Then the
25 Prosecution would tender P1198 to P1208.
1 JUDGE FLUEGGE: These are all documents used with this witness in
2 the -- and admitted in the Popovic case?
3 MR. THAYER: That's correct, Mr. President.
4 JUDGE FLUEGGE: They will be received with these numbers.
5 MR. THAYER: The Prosecution will withdraw its tender of P01209,
6 which is 65 ter 6745. That is, frankly, mooted by the witness's presence
7 now. This was a stipulation that was entered into between one of the
8 accused's Defence teams in the Popovic trial. After the close of
9 evidence, there was a technical issue concerning a document that I will
10 be spending some time with Colonel Trivic on, and rather than opening up
11 both the Defence and the Prosecution cases in that case, we simply
12 arrived at a stipulation which I think will, frankly, be mooted by the
13 witness's testimony, so we would withdraw that particular exhibit.
14 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Gajic?
15 MR. GAJIC: [Interpretation] Mr. President, Mr. Thayer beat me to
16 the punch. I was about to raise the issue myself. As far as the exhibit
17 that has been MFI'd P1208 [as interpreted], this was stipulated in a
18 previous case between the OTP and the Defence. P1209. Could that be
19 stricken from the record, then, please.
20 May I just put forward the position of our Defence? We shall
21 always be raising objections whenever a document is being tendered into
22 evidence from a previous case, a previous trial. Thank you.
23 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I'm not sure if I understood you correctly,
24 Mr. Gajic. Please help me. You have mentioned P1208. Did you misspeak
25 or what is -- what was it about?
1 MR. GAJIC: [Interpretation] Mr. President, P1209. I'm not sure
2 if I misspoke or it was misrecorded. Mr. Tolimir claims that I said
4 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Okay. Then we have it clear on the record.
5 I take it that you don't object that the Prosecution is
6 withdrawing this document from the list.
7 MR. GAJIC: [Interpretation] I absolutely agree that that should
8 be withdrawn.
9 JUDGE FLUEGGE: This request is granted.
10 MR. THAYER: Mr. President, the Prosecution would additionally
11 tender P1210 to P1223.
12 JUDGE FLUEGGE: They will be received with these numbers.
13 MR. THAYER: And we will also move to withdraw P1224, which is 65
14 ter 6747, the document that was not included in the 92 bis package. It
15 was only a very brief portion, as it turns out, was read to the witness,
16 and I don't think, given the Trial Chamber's practice of requiring us to
17 use the document somehow with the witness, I'd rather just save some
18 court time and withdraw that exhibit. The pertinent part, as I said, is
19 in the record, it was read to the witness, and I don't think we need to
20 go through any motions to admit the document itself.
21 JUDGE FLUEGGE: There is no need to decide about that at the
22 moment. Mr. Gajic?
23 MR. GAJIC: [Interpretation] Mr. President, if I remember
24 correctly, and I don't have a specific reference at hand, the document
25 that Mr. Thayer is addressing was used in the Popovic case with a
1 witness. I believe that deserves to be admitted. This is P1224, unless
2 I'm mistaken.
3 JUDGE FLUEGGE: It was admitted in the Popovic case through
4 another witness, not with the current witness. There is no need to
5 discuss this at the moment. Please carry on.
6 MR. THAYER: And Mr. President, the Prosecution would tender
7 P1225 to 1226.
8 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I was expecting this problem. Mr. Thayer,
9 pursuant to our Rules and the procedure in this trial, we should see if
10 you are dealing with that with this witness. Because it was not used
11 with this -- and admitted, especially not admitted, through this witness
12 in the Popovic case.
13 MR. THAYER: I apologise, Mr. President. I confused this
14 category with the other categories. You can see we have a number of
15 primarily Defence exhibits which were shown to this witness in the
16 Popovic trial but which were admitted through other witnesses. They are,
17 as I said, primarily Defence witness -- Defence exhibits. I do think,
18 for the sake of Your Honours' ability to fully have the record before
19 you, and the documents, they should be admitted. Again, he was shown
20 each of those documents, questioned on them by Defence counsel, and in
21 some cases by the Prosecution. In this case, I would ask the Trial
22 Chamber to permit the admission of these documents without having to use
23 each one of them with the witness. Or, in the alternative, to maintain
24 them in MFI status so that the Trial Chamber can refer to them at its
25 leisure in the future. But it will entail a substantial repetition of
1 the witness's prior testimony to have to use these documents individually
2 in order to have them admitted under the current procedure.
3 In the alternative, I suppose I could just pop them up on e-court
4 and ask him if he remembers seeing it in the Popovic case, and if that
5 suffices for the Trial Chamber, that will expedite matters somewhat as
6 opposed to engaging in a substantive discussion with him about each
8 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Thayer, your position is clear. We will come
9 back to that later. We have time enough with this witness to make a
10 finding. Please go ahead.
11 MR. THAYER: Thank you, Mr. President.
12 The Prosecution would similarly tender in this category, given --
13 recognising our colloquy, 1227A through D, 1228A through C, 1229A and C,
14 and 1230 to 1232, and that constitutes the remainder of the documents in
15 that category.
16 JUDGE FLUEGGE: The position of the Chamber is the same. Go
17 ahead, please.
18 MR. THAYER: Mr. President, I would just note a couple of
19 corrections to the transcript and to our exhibit list just so there is no
20 confusion. The first is with respect to P1227C, an intercept used by one
21 of the Defence teams, the time is 6 -- 0658 hours, not 0656 hours. The
22 same goes for the next exhibit, P1227D. It is the same conversation but
23 I think, as the Trial Chamber will recall, occasionally different
24 intercept operators were a minute or two off, and that explains the
25 difference here.
1 Similarly, with respect to P1228B, the time of that intercept is
2 0755 hours, not 0748 hours.
3 I'd also like to note that in the transcript there was an
4 incorrect exhibit number called out by Defence counsel for General
5 Pandurevic, and this is at transcript page 1196. There is a reference to
6 Exhibit 7D425, and that exhibit is actually 7D550, which is the exhibit
7 listed on our exhibit list. Defence counsel simply mixed up his numbers
8 but it's clearly referring to 7D550, and that, in this case, is P1207.
9 And lastly, we have a -- as an exhibit, P94, the book of
10 photographs from Mr. Ruez. The relevant page number for this Trial
11 Chamber's purposes is page 250. The pagination changed just a little bit
12 between the Popovic version and the version that's before the Trial
14 Mr. President, I think I've got enough time to read the 92 ter
15 summary before the break.
16 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Yes, please go ahead.
17 MR. THAYER: In July 1995, the witness was serving as the
18 commander of the 2nd Romanija Motorised Brigade, based in Sokolac. He
19 retired from the VRS with the rank of Colonel in 2002.
20 Prior to the Srebrenica operation in July 1995, he received a
21 preparatory order from the Drina Corps commander, General Zivanovic,
22 according to which the witness pulled approximately 200 men from his
23 brigade's battalions to form a combat group for the operation.
24 His combat group also included a tank platoon and a mortar
25 platoon. His combat group arrived in the Zeleni Jadar area on 5 July,
1 and the witness reported first to the command of the Bratunac Brigade and
2 then to an observation point near the Drina Corps forward command post as
3 Pribicevac. At this observation point General Krstic issued instructions
4 to the witness and the other brigade commanders regarding the Krivaja 95
5 operation. In addition, Drina Corps intelligence officer Lieutenant
6 Colonel Kosoric, per customary procedure, briefed them about the
7 estimates of the enemy's strength and deployment.
8 The witness testified that the main objective of the Krivaja 95
9 operation was to separate and narrow the size of the protected areas of
10 Srebrenica and Zepa, in view of the sabotage and terrorist actions from
11 them. The witness said that he was not aware of any plan or operation
12 directed by the VRS to cut off the resupply of DutchBat and to restrict
13 the inflow of humanitarian aid to the Srebrenica enclave. The witness
14 further testified that the VRS forces participating in the Krivaja 95
15 operation were supposed to avoid conflicts with the UN personnel at their
16 check-points and that the target of the operation was not the UN, the
17 town of Srebrenica itself, or the population.
18 The witness's command post during the Krivaja 95 operation was in
19 the village of Jasenova, where he slept each night during the operation.
20 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] May I? I believe that the
21 interpreter has not interpreted you correctly, and as I'm looking at the
22 transcript, I'm looking at the part where you were talking about the
23 objective of the operation. The witness says, and so on and so forth,
24 that operation 1995 was not targeted at the United Nations but the
25 population of Srebrenica. I believe that's what I heard in the
1 interpretation. So could you please repeat that portion in order for the
2 interpreter to repeat the interpretation of that portion.
3 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Thayer?
4 MR. THAYER: I'll pick up with that sentence, Mr. President.
5 The witness testified that the VRS forces participating in the
6 Krivaja 95 operation were supposed to avoid any conflicts with the UN
7 personnel at their check-points and that the target of the operation was
8 not the UN, the town of Srebrenica itself, or the population.
9 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Much better. That was actually now
10 correct. The first time round, the interpreter used a wrong word which
11 gave a totally different meaning. At least, that's how I understood it
12 in the interpretation.
13 JUDGE FLUEGGE: To avoid any misinterpretation, Mr. Thayer, you
14 are saying in your summary that the target was not the UN, and it was not
15 the town of Srebrenica itself, or the population of Srebrenica.
16 MR. THAYER: Correct, Mr. President.
17 JUDGE FLUEGGE: It could be understood in a different way,
18 indeed. Please carry on.
19 MR. THAYER: The witness's command post during the Krivaja 95
20 operation was in the village of Jasenova, where he slept each night
21 during the operation. He described the activities and movement of his
22 forces between 6 and 11 July 1995 as they headed in a northerly direction
23 towards Srebrenica with forces from the Zvornik Brigade's Drina Wolves on
24 his right and forces from the Birac Brigade on his left. He identified
25 himself in video footage of VRS forces as they approached, then entered
1 Srebrenica town. He testified that his unit did not fire upon the town
2 of Srebrenica and that he did not observe, notice, or hear of any other
3 units firing upon the town itself, nor did he observe any artillery
4 damage to the town when he entered it. He further testified that the
5 people who went to the UN base in Potocari did so of their own will, and
6 that when General Mladic offered the Muslim population a choice of
7 whether to stay or leave, they decided to evacuate themselves from
9 In the morning of 12 July, at the location in Bojna near a TV
10 repeater, he was given the assignment to move toward the Jahorina feature
11 via the village of Vijogor. At Vijogor that afternoon, General Krstic
12 ordered him to report to the Bratunac Brigade command post for a meeting
13 at 2100 hours that evening. He arrived at that meeting on time, having
14 passed through Potocari en route and seeing crowds of people there.
15 About an hour later General Mladic arrived, congratulated them, and gave
16 Krstic the order to prepare for an operation against Zepa. Orders were
17 also given to Drina Corps units, in cooperation with the MUP, to secure
18 the road from Srebrenica towards Vlasenica via Bratunac. The
19 intelligence they had at the time indicated that several thousand members
20 of the 28th Division were attempting to cross through VRS-held territory
21 to reach ABiH-held territory. Also during this meeting, Pandurevic
22 suggested that the troops be rested and replaced, but Mladic overruled
23 him. However, Mladic agreed to address the troops the next morning, 13
24 July, before they moved to Zepa.
25 Mr. President, I see we are slightly over the time for the break.
1 I have three more paragraphs to read and I can interrupt the summary.
2 JUDGE FLUEGGE: You should conclude that and we have the break a
3 little bit later.
4 MR. THAYER: Okay.
5 The witness testified that he does not recall any mention during
6 this meeting of what the procedure would be if any military-aged men were
7 captured or surrendered to VRS forces. He stated that he was not aware,
8 at the time of this meeting, that Muslim men had been separated from
9 their families that day in Potocari, nor did he receive any information
10 that there may have been as many as a thousand military-aged men in
11 Potocari. He further testified that there was no discussion at this
12 meeting about placing captured or surrendered Muslim men in detention
13 locations in and around Bratunac, nor was there any mention of a decision
14 to kill all the men of military age. Following the meeting, the officers
15 present were served an organised dinner in the Bratunac Brigade command
17 In the morning of 13 July, Generals Mladic and Krstic addressed
18 the witness's troops to motivate them for the impending Zepa operation,
19 after which Krstic ordered the witness and his forces to be in the
20 village of Krivace in Zepa by 1900 hours that day. The witness again --
21 JUDGE FLUEGGE: You should slow down a bit, I think, for the sake
22 of the interpreters.
23 MR. THAYER: Will do, Mr. President.
24 The witness again travelled through Potocari en route to Zepa and
25 observed people being loaded onto vehicles. He passed by the football
1 field in Nova Kasaba which was filled with prisoners seated on the ground
2 and guarded by MPs from the Main Staff's 65th Protection Regiment. When
3 the witness arrived in the Krivace area, he communicated his arrival to
4 the Drina Corps forward command post located at an elevation called
6 The witness then described his participation in the Zepa
7 operation, including the movements of his forces and the forward command
8 post from Solila to Godjenje village. He also described a cease-fire on
9 19 July and a lunch the next day in honour of General Zivanovic's
10 retirement and General Krstic's promotion in his place as commander of
11 the Drina Corps.
12 That concludes the summary.
13 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you very much. We must have the first
14 break now. We will resume five minutes past 11.
15 --- Recess taken at 10.35 a.m.
16 --- On resuming at 11.13 a.m.
17 JUDGE FLUEGGE: First of all, our apologies for the delay. All
18 judges were occupied by another commitment during the break which took
19 more time than expected.
20 Secondly, the Chamber would like to confirm that we will sit on
21 Friday in the afternoon, instead of Wednesday, that means tomorrow, this
22 week, because of a plenary of the Judges.
23 Thirdly, the motion, Mr. Thayer, to admit those documents which
24 were not used -- not admitted through this witness in the previous case,
25 in the Popovic case, is -- will not be accepted. We will deny it,
1 because you know since 21st -- 24th of February this year the course the
2 Chamber will take, that for those documents not admitted through the
3 witness, it is necessary to show that they are an indispensable part of
4 the testimony in the prior case, and there must be a certain showing to
5 be able to accept that. There is no need to go into details because we
6 have dealt with that several times, and the Chamber is in a certain way
7 surprised that this problem arises now again.
8 Mr. Thayer, please carry on with your examination-in-chief.
9 MR. THAYER:
10 Q. Good morning again, sir.
11 A. Good morning.
12 Q. I noted that while I was finishing up your summary, you were
13 taking some notes and I just wanted to make sure that you didn't hear
14 anything that you thought was incorrect or that needed clarification. So
15 before I go on to my next series of questions, I just wanted to give you
16 the opportunity, in case there was something. If not, then that's fine.
17 I'll just proceed.
18 A. Thank you. Yes, I would like to say something. Not because
19 things were incorrect but because of some terms, two or three terms,
20 which are disputable. The first one was that there was no fire opened on
21 Srebrenica, and that's something that I didn't use. When you say fire
22 being open, it can be construed as a game. As a soldier, I conclude that
23 there were no operations targeting Srebrenica.
24 The second term that was used was something that contained the
25 word "artillery destruction" or something to that effect. Maybe it would
1 be better to use there was no destruction in town. There were no
2 destroyed facilities. That's what I said in my statement.
3 And the third term that was used by yourself, I may have used it
4 myself in answering your questions in my previous testimony, concerned
5 the football pitch in Nova Kasaba. You used the term there were
6 "detainees" who were sitting in the football pitch, and I believe that a
7 better term to use, or something that I would use. Was "disarmed enemy
8 troops," because those were not people from Potocari, those who had
9 surrendered. Those were disarmed troops that were on their way to link
10 up with the BiH army. In the meantime, they were prevented from doing
11 that by men who disarmed them and who confined them in an area where they
12 would be confined until further proceedings.
13 That's the remarks I wanted to share with you, and I'd like to
14 say that the rest of what you have read out was pretty much correct.
15 Q. Okay, Colonel. We'll perhaps get to some of those issues in a
16 little while. Let me begin by showing you a couple of maps.
17 MR. THAYER: If we could have P104, please. And if we could go
18 to page 12 first.
19 Q. I can tell you, Colonel, in a moment we'll look at a portion of
20 this map a little closer. What I wanted to do was start with this map,
21 which obviously is a slightly larger view. Take a moment, if you would,
22 and see if you can acquaint yourself, reacquaint yourself, with some of
23 these locations as they are marked here and just moving from left to
24 right. I would just draw your attention to where the map indicates the
25 Jela restaurant, the 65th Protection Regiment base, the command post of
1 the VRS's Main Staff, and then moving from north to south, the Krivace
2 forward command post, the Podzeplje forward command post, the Godjenje
3 forward command post, all the way down to the Okresanica check-point and
4 the Borike forward command post and what is referred to as the Borike
6 Please just take a moment and orient yourself. This is a VRS
7 map, no doubt you can identify it as such, perhaps not exactly which map
8 it is, but my first question is: Can you tell the Trial Chamber, number
9 1, whether you recognise and are familiar with the locations depicted
11 A. Yes, I'm familiar with all the locations depicted here, and they
12 were exactly as you can see them. The Borike villa was a motel, which is
13 why it is called the Borike villa.
14 Q. Indeed, and for the record, this is ERN 0701-3282.
15 Now if we could go to the next page in e-court, please, and we'll
16 look at a slightly enlarged image here. You referred in your testimony
17 to reporting to the Krivace IKM by radio communications as opposed to in
18 person. Do you recall that in your testimony?
19 A. Yes. I believe that that's -- that was upon my arrival. As
20 I arrived at the Krivace sector, together with my unit, or rather, my
21 unit and myself, I reported at the sector where the forward command post
22 had been established. I don't see the Solila feature here and I didn't
23 report there personally. I radioed in that the unit had arrived at the
24 location where it was to be deployed.
25 Q. Okay. Maybe if we could blow up the portion just around the
1 Krivace IKM and Podzeplje IKM that will help a little bit.
2 A. Yes, now I can see the Solila feature. It is in the village of
3 Krivace. The village obviously comprises a larger area than the Solila
5 Q. Indeed, sir, can you confirm that the word "Solila" is in fact
6 inside this little purple circle where the Krivace IKM has been
7 identified? Can you see the word "Solila"?
8 A. Yes, yes. I can see that.
9 Q. And can you describe for the Trial Chamber what the IKM there
10 actually consisted in when you had occasion to personally report there?
11 Was it a pre-existing building? Was it a command post that had been used
12 previously, or just tents or -- just give the Trial Chamber an idea.
13 A. I have just said, and I said it before, in answering either your
14 questions or questions from the Defence, I arrived in the village of
15 Krivace and I visited the IKM at the Solila sector two days later or
16 maybe even three days later. On the day when I arrived at the sector
17 where my unit was deployed, I radioed in at the command post that the
18 unit had arrived. When I visited the forward command post, I noticed
19 that elements had been developed which are normally developed for the
20 corps command in order to enable the functioning of the unit. There were
21 tents for the commander, for the ops room; in other words, everything
22 that was conducive to the command function of the units and -- was there.
23 So there were no pre-existing buildings or any fixed features, there were
24 just tents and everything that went with the tents in terms of equipment.
25 Q. Now, you just told us that you radioed in, basically, when you
1 arrived in the Krivace area. Can describe what types of communications
2 facilities were located at this Krivace IKM. You described all the
3 necessary elements of a forward command post. What kind of communication
4 facilities were there?
5 A. The organisation of communication facilities is something that a
6 communications officer could tell you about. However, I can confirm that
7 there were things there such as the mobile communication centre on a
8 vehicle. The chief of communications in the corps command was the one
9 who established the communication system by moving from one place to
10 another the mobile communications centre. There was a relay in Veliki
11 Zep nearby and through that he linked up the entire system to make it
12 possible to communicate with all the IKMs in the area. There was nothing
13 else, just that vehicle that had arrived and that made it possible to
14 establish the entire system, to put the entire communications system in
16 Q. Just on that topic, sir, can you describe for the Trial Chamber
17 what types of communication equipment you are talking about when you
18 describe this mobile communications vehicle. What type of actual
19 communications equipment, mechanisms, are we talking about? If you can
20 just put it in simple terms for us, as simple as you can, please.
21 A. I'll try to put it in very simple terms. The equipment that the
22 vehicle had was very specific equipment that is necessary and that is
23 linked to certain relays. There was Veliki Zep and there was also
24 Zlovrh, a feature where I was injured. That was a facility that belonged
25 to the former JNA which was built as part of the system of the former
1 state and it was used for All People's Defence, for communications across
2 Yugoslavia. And there was another facility in Han Pijesak, there was one
3 in Veliki Zep, or rather, in Zlovrh. Now, let's go back to that vehicle.
4 That vehicle also had teletype equipment for coded messages and, to put
5 things even in more simple terms, that was predecessor of pagers or the
6 current mobile telephone system. For subordinated brigades, there were
7 other types of communications, for example, wire connections, which were
8 used to protect data, to intercept other communications. But it was not
9 the signals officer in the corps command who made those decisions, it was
10 the subordinated units who made those decisions. And if it is planned
11 for the units to be deployed for a longer time, then wire communications
12 are established with the command for a more simpler communication. The
13 units, the brigade commands and the corps command, had systems of
14 protection. We could establish protected communication through the
15 mobile communication system because there were radio sets in the
16 subordinated command and in that vehicle, so we could talk freely without
17 disclosing the contents of that conversation for anybody who may have
18 been listening in. And could you please not ask me any more about the
19 communications profession, because this is the extent of my knowledge
20 about the matter.
21 Q. I think that certainly your experience as a professional officer
22 has enabled you to give us a pretty good idea of what the guts of the
23 communications capabilities were when you were in Zepa. Let me just ask
24 you a couple of other follow-up questions. This mobile communications
25 vehicle, I take it from what you've told us, was dealing with radio
1 communications as opposed to you just referred to wire communications.
2 Is that correct? And if so, can you just explain to me a little bit
3 about what the difference is.
4 A. That vehicle, when the command post is developed further -- the
5 objective of every system of communications or the centre of
6 communications, is to use open communication as little as possible, in
7 order to prevent interception and the disclosing information to the
8 enemy. The vehicle that we had also had the telephone capabilities to
9 all the units and within the command, with the Vlasenica command post and
10 the staff. This was a very specific vehicle which also provided for the
11 development of telephone lines, wire lines. The difference between
12 certain systems of communication lies in the fact that wire communication
13 or telephone combination -- communication is connected to a small
14 switchboard that every command has, and from there lines, wire lines, are
15 extended to our main switchboard in the brigade commands. So the
16 different lines indicate that coded messages are sent via teleprinter
17 messages, radio communications that we used, those of us who were not
18 signalsmen, we talked to each other verbally, whereas coded messages were
19 printed. Radio communications enabled us to protect the voice or the
20 contents of the conversation so the recipient would receive the message
21 but not -- nothing was on air for anybody who may have been listening in.
22 There were special types of equipment that would be connected to both
23 ends. And wire communication lines was what they were. I don't think
24 that I have to go into details of those.
25 I don't know if I've answered your question, sir.
1 Q. You have, Colonel. Just one other question: The Trial Chamber
2 has heard occasional references to, for example, an induction phone. Can
3 you explain what that is?
4 A. Well, this is the telephone that I described. All units had
5 them. And when you developed wire connections, the end user could call
6 the switchboard. He would turn a handle, he would create induction, and
7 then the telephone would be -- would ring at the switchboard that you
8 wanted to call, and the switchboard operator would pick up and the person
9 who made the call then says who they want to be put through. So it's
10 like any other switchboard, a very classical switchboard. I believe that
11 you're familiar with the situation. For example, you call a hotel
12 reception, and then you say, Can you put me through to a certain room.
13 Now things have gone -- have been modernised, but in the army we had
14 switchboards which were connected to, for example, ten different
15 induction telephones.
16 Q. And, again, does that induction phone require a wire connection
17 or is that ultimately a radio wave communication at some point?
18 A. Yes. It was a wire connection. It was a wire connection. I
19 don't know whether you heard me.
20 Q. Yes, we did. Thank you.
21 Now, let's just move down this map a little bit. We can just
22 keep it where it is. Thank you. We can just keep it where it was, I'm
23 sorry. We can just go back, thanks.
24 Moving, drawing your attention to the Podzeplje IKM, can you tell
25 the Trial Chamber what that was?
1 A. Krivace was the IKM of the Drina Corps, and Podzeplje I believe
2 was my own IKM. At the moment when I took over the role from the Zvornik
3 Brigade and engaged in active combat, it was necessary for my reserves to
4 be deployed for combat, for engagement, and I had to rearrange my command
5 post in order to be able to monitor the deployment and combat activities
6 of my units. The Podzeplje IKM did not function as an IKM of the Drina
7 Corps. And I'm taken by surprise at the moment. So far, I've not seen
8 in any of the documents this feature called Podzeplje IKM. I believe it
9 was my own command post when it was moved from Jasenova to this area.
10 Q. We can certainly look at a document that you were shown in the
11 Popovic trial, which refers to, I think as you've just --
12 A. One more thing, if I may?
13 Q. Let me just finish my question, then I'll let you answer. We can
14 certainly show you a document where this IKM is specifically referred to,
15 I think, as you've noted, as your IKM. So if you like, I can show that
16 document to you. It was shown to you in the Popovic trial.
17 A. I would like to see that, to jog my memory. It could have been
18 part of the command of another unit. Yes, I would like it to jog my
19 memory. I don't want to arrive at erroneous conclusions or erroneous
21 Q. Okay. Well, while we're pulling that document out, can you tell
22 us what facilities, if any, were present at this location, this Podzeplje
23 IKM, when you arrived there? Had it been used previously, for example,
24 by any other unit as some kind of command post? Was there a fixed
25 structure there or not?
1 A. I believe that one part of the command of a unit from the 65th
2 Protection Regiment was there, and I believe that my command arrived in
3 that sector, as far as I can remember. My memory would have to be
4 refreshed and I would like to see the document that I may have seen
5 before. I would like to see it described. I believe that something was
6 already there, that some communications facilities already existed in the
7 area, that something had already been developed there.
8 Q. Okay, and just to clarify, that something that may have already
9 been there, are you referring to the presence of 65th Protection Regiment
10 elements being there previously, or were you telling us that this 65th
11 Protection Regiment presence at this Podzeplje IKM was only during the
12 Zepa operation when you were there, as far as you know?
13 A. I believe that some of their troops were already there and the
14 command elements of an inferior unit were there, and as you can see in
15 the map, there were some troops that protected the area in the direction
16 of [indiscernible] and Krivace. In other words, there were those
17 elements pre-existing, not only at the time when I was there.
18 Q. Okay, let's look at P1225. This is one of the notorious group of
19 documents that I tendered previously, so we are having a chance to use
20 it. Sir, if you would take a moment and refamiliarise yourself with this
21 document. If we could scroll up just a tad so we can catch the -- I'm
22 sorry, the other way, please. Yeah. There we go. We can see the
23 operational name, Stupcanica 95, in the upper right-hand corner, but take
24 a moment, Colonel, when you're ready for the page to be turned, and just
25 for the record, this is 13 July 1995, attack order, emanating from the
1 Drina Corps command, forward command post in Krivace, sent to various
2 commands of the Drina Corps.
3 A. I've read this.
4 Q. Okay. I just note before we turn the page, if we look at the
5 bottom of paragraph 4, it refers to the objective of liberating and
6 clearing the Serbian Podrinje of Muslim forces and eliminating the
7 enclaves with combat readiness at 0800 hours on the 14th of July. And I
8 believe you've testified previously that that was the order that you were
9 given, that there was to be combat readiness for 0800 on the 14th of
10 July; is that correct?
11 A. Yes, that's right.
12 Q. And at the very bottom of the page here, we see the heading,
13 "Krivace command post" with tasks. And if we could go to the next page,
14 we can see the various tasks enumerated, 2, 3, and 4. And if we could
15 scroll over to the left, please, in the B/C/S version, just -- I'm sorry,
16 the other way, to the left. Thank you. Do you see right above -- and we
17 need to scroll down in the English version, please. We can see right
18 above item 5, the heading, "Command post in the village of Podzeplje."
19 Number 5 --
20 A. Point 5 -- point 4.
21 Q. Yes. Right below point 4, above point 5, the heading, "Command
22 post in the village of Podzeplje." And it indicates that the Romanija
23 Motorised Brigade in reserve in the village of Podzeplje area. That's
24 you; is that correct, Colonel?
25 A. Yes. But I am the Romanija brigade, that's my brigade, but what
1 it says right above, the command post in the Podzeplje area, that is in
2 reference to the Zvornik Brigade. That is the last thing you see in item
3 4. They are establishing a command post in Podzeplje. But my own unit,
4 as you see in item 5, has not had an assigned post assigned to it yet.
5 The only thing that it said is I'm in the reserve in the Podzeplje area,
6 which automatically means that my command post is in Podzeplje. My
7 command post too is in Podzeplje but we don't see that specially pointed
9 Q. Okay.
10 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Thayer, you should perhaps with the witness
11 try to find out the original B/C/S version, which is where this seems to
12 be, this third paragraph of item 4, and not the headline for item 5. The
13 design of the page is different in B/C/S and English.
14 MR. THAYER: That's correct, Mr. President. The command post in
15 the village of Podzeplje is a heading that refers, if you like -- well,
16 we can go back. Let's go back to the prior page, page 1. We can see
17 items 1, 2, 3 and 4, and that portion ends with combat readiness at 0800
18 hours on the 14th of July 1995.
19 The next heading is Krivace command post. And the task of the
20 units begins at paragraph 5 with subs 1 through 4, if we go to the next
22 Q. And just to clarify, who was based at the Krivace command post,
24 A. If I may, in relation to the remark that the Presiding Judge
25 made, I would still like to clarify one thing. Item 4, the command post
1 in Podzeplje village is not in reference to the next item. That's not
2 the title of the next paragraph. That is the end of item 4. It is not
3 that I'm trying to preach here or necessarily explain anything to you,
4 but could we please go back to page 1? There is something else that
5 I wish to clarify.
6 Q. Now, Colonel, please, let me just stop you right there. Let's
7 stick with the task at hand. If we go to page 1 -- let's go back to page
8 1, please -- let's just try to make this crystal clear. There is a
9 reference to the Krivace command post, and again my question to you is:
10 What does that heading or footer or however you want to refer to it, what
11 does that pertain to, the Krivace command post? Why is that phrase
13 A. Thank you for your understanding. Just to make this perfectly
14 clear, up to item 4, everything that is there, up to item 4 and before
15 item 5 begins, it's all in relation to the corps. Item 1, the assessment
16 of the situation as far as the enemy is concerned. Item 2, the
17 assessment of the situation among one's own ranks and the ranks of the
18 neighbours. 3, corps units; 4, corps commander decision. And then,
19 within that decision, the commander determines readiness and also the
20 corps's command post. Item 5 begins with something in relation to the
21 subordinate units, and each of the items have one final sentence
22 designating the command post of the unit that the paragraph or the item
23 is in relation to. Each paragraph or item ends with a sentence that
24 determines the command post of the unit in question.
25 Q. Exactly. Now, if we can go to the next page, and let's just do
1 this systematically. This is why I just wanted to take our time and go
2 through each of these elements. If we see number 1, which actually
3 begins on the prior page in B/C/S -- if we can go back just for Colonel
4 Trivic's benefit in the B/C/S to page 1. We see under number 5, there
5 appears to be a number 1, and that indicates the first Milici Light
6 Infantry Brigade and the Bratunac Light Infantry Brigade shall attack,
7 and then it gives an axis and then it gives a task.
8 And if we go to the next page in B/C/S, we see a number 2, a
9 similar provision for the Vlasenica Brigade; a task and an axis. Number
10 3, the 5th Podrinje Light Infantry Brigade, an axis and a task. But so
11 far we don't see any command post indicated for any of these units. We
12 get to number 4, we have the Zvornik Brigade and then we have this
13 reference to the command post in the village of Podzeplje. So the
14 question is: First, does that reference to the command post in the
15 village of Podzeplje mean that only the unit in number 4 had its command
16 post there, or all of the units in numbers 1 through 4, or does it mean
17 something else? Because, as we can see from items 1 through 4, there is
18 only one listing of any command post. Each of those individual brigade
19 assignments doesn't have its own command post listed here in this
20 document. So that is my question to you, is: What is this reference,
21 command post in the village of Podzeplje, referring to?
22 A. I think I understand. Subitem 1 within item 5, the Milic,
23 Vlasenica, Podrinjska, 5th and all the way up to the Zvornik Brigade,
24 there is no reference to the command post there. What is meant is that
25 they used their own command post which, up until this point in time in
1 the combat operations, while holding the lines in the defence areas, they
2 were using the existing command posts. In relation to the Zvornik
3 Brigade, it was necessary to determine a location. Why? Because the
4 Zvornik Brigade used some of its forces to leave its defence area. A
5 component left my area and went to a new area. Of course, my superior
6 command had to determine a new location but not in a formal way. They
7 didn't formally determine a place where I was to establish a command
8 post. It had to be determined in such a way that we could establish an
9 appropriate system of communications so that one could get the command
10 system off the ground, in a manner of speaking. That's why it was
11 necessary to determine for the Zvornik Brigade the area in which it would
12 be establishing its command post. And you see if you look at the next
13 thing, the Romanija brigade, which also arrived from somewhere outside
14 its existing defence area, if I can put it that way, outside its base, no
15 command location was determined in Podzeplje although they were outside
16 their own Defence zone, but suffice it to say that the Romanija brigade
17 was in the reserve in the Podzeplje area. As soon as I knew that, I as a
18 commander and my signals officer knew that they would be setting up a
19 system of communications where they were in the reserve. I'm there, I'm
20 on stand-by, and my units are waiting to be included in the combat
21 disposition, if you get my point, and that is the gist of the discrepancy
22 between these two. Some place you find it and some place you don't.
23 Throws who were outside their zones had to be given a general area to
24 establish their command post. Those who were operating from within their
25 own zones had no need of a new command post being determined.
1 Q. Okay. So if we go to item 7, then, and if we could go to the
2 next page in English, we see here the 1st Bratunac Light Infantry
3 Brigade. Now they had to travel a certain distance, did they not,
4 Colonel, to get to this area of responsibilities?
5 A. Yes.
6 Q. So what is the command post that's applicable to this group which
7 sent its soldiers all the way from Bratunac?
8 A. That is the question? All right. Let's take it like this. The
9 1st Bratunac brigade also left, or some of its forces left its own zone
10 or their own zone or his own zone, and if you look at this, you see that
11 the 1st Bratunac Brigade determines a unit that is to join the Milic
12 Brigade. This is the gist. It carries out a task that was originally
13 given to the Milic Brigade. It has now joined the Milic Brigade, and if
14 you look at subitem or subparagraph 1 you see that it's got its own -- it
15 reports to the commander of the Milic brigade and then it brings it
16 there, a part of the Bratunac Brigade. And there is no need to establish
17 a command post for the Bratunac Brigade. Rather, it carries out the
18 tasks and uses the command post already established by the Milic Brigade
19 in order to have communications with its own command, its own superior
20 command. That is why nothing is determined.
21 Q. And where is Bracan?
22 A. Believe me, I don't know. One should look it up on a map, but if
23 we go to subparagraph 1 it's probably something to do with the Milic
24 Brigade. They mention Bracan as an area there.
25 Q. Now. We've gone through this whole exercise, but in fact I don't
1 think there is any disagreement that I think you've said twice now that
2 you were in reserve in the village of Podzeplje, correct?
3 A. Yes, that's right.
4 Q. Okay. There is no dispute there. If we could go back to P104.
5 We would just like to tender P1225, please.
6 JUDGE FLUEGGE: It will be received as P1225.
7 MR. THAYER: And page 13, please.
8 Q. Now, how long were you actually based at Podzeplje?
9 A. You mean the unit as a whole or just the forward command post of
10 the Romanija Brigade?
11 Q. Just you and your unit, sir, your forces.
12 A. The units came after part of the Zvornik Brigade left the area.
13 My unit was given the following task, based on the original decision:
14 I was to follow it within the combat disposition and I was supposed to be
15 introduced as needed. Since he left, I think my unit was introduced on
16 the 16th, pursuant to an order following the departure of the Zvornik
17 Brigade. As far as the forward command post, it remained in Podzeplje
18 until the day it was moved, transferred to the Godjenje sector. And then
19 there was another relocation on or about the 27th, to the Borike sector
20 in reserves. The command element, until the transfer or relocation,
21 stayed until it moved to Godjenje. As far as the combat element,
22 following the departure of the Zvornik Brigade, it was moved to a part of
23 the ground occupied by the forces of the Zvornik Brigade on what I
24 believe was the 16th.
25 Q. And briefly, Colonel, could you tell the Trial Chamber what the
1 reason for the Zvornik Brigade's departure from the Zepa operation was.
2 A. At the briefing, then, which appears to be the popular term these
3 days, while we were reporting to the commander, I think it was the 16th,
4 the 7th, the command post of the corps in Solila, it was said that the
5 Zvornik Brigade had to leave because of certain problems that had
6 occurred in the defence zone of the Zvornik Brigade. There had been a
7 breakthrough at the front end, resulting in casualties on both sides,
8 weapons being seized and so on and so forth, the regional command of the
9 Zvornik Brigade ws sent back with some of his men. I think it was the
10 16th. Those were the reasons. The forces of the 28th Division that were
11 moving towards Kladanj or whatever area that was in order to link up with
12 the BH Army, on a massive scale, broke through the lines using the
13 weapons they had. The estimates at the time said 2.000 men got through
14 the front end of the Zvornik Brigade and then the forces from Zepa
15 returned to give them a hand and to also take over command in order to
16 deal with the problem which was becoming an obvious problem in the
17 defence zone.
18 Q. So clearly, Commander Pandurevic had been in communication with
19 his home brigade based in Zvornik such that he was apprised of these
20 developments and then made the decision to return to his own area of
21 responsibility; is that fair to say?
22 A. Well, I wouldn't quite put it in such simple terms. The brigade
23 commander cannot simply leave this area just because he found out and he
24 took the decision. He got an order to go back, to leave this area
25 because he couldn't take the decision himself, whether he would stay
1 there for this long or that long and how long he would spend on a certain
2 mission regardless of any problems that his subordinates in his command
3 post were telling him about. But it's also about what you said in the
4 first part of your question: Yes, the brigade commander did have a link
5 to his command but not a direct link to his command. Whoever informed
6 him about the problems, this was the command post of the corps in
7 Vlasenica which had received their report on what was going on in the
8 defence area of the Zvornik Brigade and then they in turn informed the
9 forward command post, the communication centre there. And then General
10 Krstic, who was in command of the operation overall, took the decision to
11 pull them out and ordered Pandurevic to go back and deal with the
12 situation. That is the essence. It's not like he had a direct link and
13 then the other man told him I'm facing some problems here, come over and
14 give me a hand. It's not quite like that, if you see what I mean. No
15 commander would have been able to make decisions of that nature.
16 Q. Of course not, Colonel. And what I want to focus on is what you
17 just focused on, which is the communications link at the Drina Corps
18 command in Vlasenica. I take it that's the same link that you testified
19 you were able to avail yourself of when you were operating in the
20 Srebrenica area. For example, when you were in Bojna and you needed to
21 contact another unit, perhaps your home brigade in Mezina [phoen], you
22 would have had to contact your brigade through that Drina Corps command
23 link or switchboard; is that correct?
24 A. Yes. The communication lines were functioning as envisaged based
25 on a plan drawn up especially for that mission. Other units were
1 organising combat equipment, men, logistics, and our own logistics
2 officers or communications officers were drawing up a plan for that area
3 for that particular mission, and then, among other things, we had the
4 code name, and that's why, for example, this task was code named Krivaja
5 95, and it was under that name that everyone knew about it and then there
6 was some manipulation going on.
7 The signals plan, the communications plan that we received from
8 the communications chief, in this case the corps commander, and this was
9 sent to each of the brigades, it detailed the frequencies that we would
10 be using, the fall-back frequencies, what to do when there were problems,
11 what the stand-by systems were to be used, and also the substance of our
12 encrypted communications. We had these codes, we had the call signs, so,
13 for example, the village was Krivaca but we would call it Razvalina.
14 It's just something that we agreed on. Or a different name perhaps,
15 whatever they came up with. And certain features, for example. You
16 could have a certain features marked in the same way for each of the
17 units on the map and then everybody would know that it's Zlovrh number
18 31, for example. But this is something that each of us needed to get
19 from our signals officer, as well as a communications plan. Therefore,
20 the communications plan was used for the Srebrenica operation. I think
21 it was also used for Stupcanica operation because there were no changes
22 that were introduced because not all of the same units were involved and
23 maybe no changes were made. It might have been reservists I think from
24 the 65th regiment or something like that, maybe that was introduced as a
25 reserve participant, and saw the frequencies and they operated like that
1 in much the same way, but the plan had to be there, there had to be a
3 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Sir, may I interrupt you. You are speaking very
4 fast. And it's a big problem for the interpreters and the Court Recorder
5 to catch everything what you are saying. Please slow down while giving
6 an answer. Mr. Thayer, please carry on.
7 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I'll do by best, thank you.
8 MR. THAYER:
9 Q. Colonel I just note page 56, line 10, the transcript didn't catch
10 the second operation's name. You said, "Therefore the communications
11 plan was used for the Srebrenica operation. I think it was also used for
12 --" and then we have a gap. I think you said the name of the second
13 operation, the Zepa operation. If you could just put that on the record
14 so we have it clear, please.
15 A. Well, I personally didn't use it at the time but I read the order
16 today, the order for attack. I think the name was Stupcanica. It is
17 possible that the same communications plan was used in the Zepa
18 operation, but I don't know, but I think the name here was Stupcanica.
19 Q. Just while we are on this topic, and this will be my last
20 question on this subject, I think. You -- and I'll paraphrase you a
21 little bit, but you testified in the Blagojevic case - and this is
22 transcript page 7479, if anybody wants to check - you testified that if
23 you couldn't maintain communications, you couldn't command operations.
24 Can you give the Trial Chamber, please, a little bit of an idea of how
25 important maintaining communications is to an operation or, indeed, the
1 proper functioning of an army.
2 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Thayer, please repeat the reference to the
3 transcript in the Blagojevic case. It was not recorded.
4 MR. THAYER: That's transcript page 7479, Mr. President.
5 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you. And now, please, your answer, sir.
6 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] I still adhere by that statement.
7 If the communication system had not functioned, when it comes to such
8 complex operations within any system that exists, it can be in finances,
9 in judiciary, and especially in such situations and in such events, it
10 would not have been possible to engage in combat because the command that
11 organised those activities was duty-bound to also coordinate, to listen
12 to reports, to react to the events, in order to prevent unnecessary
13 losses and problems that might have arised if we didn't know where people
14 were, how far people had reached, and there were all sorts of weapons,
15 shells and explosives, that could have been perilous for the troops.
16 Even if we had not planned to go somewhere, if we lost contact with the
17 units and elements that provided logistic support, the entire operation
18 would have to come to a halt on those lines and in such conditions, until
19 such moment when the system was operational again. When we were being
20 prepared for work in military schools, in peacetime and in complex
21 activities, this communication system is the central nervous system of
22 any army, if I may put it that way.
23 Q. Okay. Let's move on to a new topic, Colonel. In the Popovic
24 trial, you may recall you were shown a very large map that had been
25 signed by General Krstic, it had a cross drawn over the Srebrenica and
1 Zepa enclaves, and four Cyrillic Ss and some statements by General Krstic
2 on the map. Do you recall that from the last trial?
3 A. Yes. You have refreshed my memory. I think -- not only do
4 I think but I'm sure that you have refreshed my memory. I remember
5 having seen that again. But I can't really remember what was written on
6 the map.
7 Q. Okay. Well, if we could quickly have 1499 -- I beg your pardon,
8 that's the old number. It's the 2007 number. If we could have P106,
9 please. We don't have the translated version at the moment to show while
10 we're looking at it blown up, but can you just again read what is written
11 to the right of first the Srebrenica enclave here?
12 A. "Srebrenica was Serbian and is Serbian again, on the 12th of
13 July 1995, General Major Krstic."
14 Q. Okay. And below that, next to the Zepa enclave portion of the
15 map, what does it say?
16 A. "Zepa also is Serbian, on the 27th of July 1995," again General
17 Major Krstic.
18 Q. Now, when you looked at this map in the Popovic trial you
19 testified that the movements, the military movements indicated on this
20 map didn't correspond with your recollection of the actual movements on
21 the ground during the operation. But you testified that you do believe
22 that you saw a Krivaja 95 map with General Mladic's signature on it. Is
23 -- have I summarised your prior testimony fairly, sir?
24 A. I believe that that was the case. Maybe I could be shown the
25 map. In any case, this is not a combat document. This map does not
1 represent an official combat document. It is not a map on which
2 decisions were based. This is possibly a working map that was
3 established after the events, and the ones where I saw all those
4 signatures, I believe that that was the decision for Krivaja.
5 Q. Okay. Well, I've got a little surprise for you, but before we
6 leave this exhibit, again we can see that General Krstic has, on both of
7 these enclaves, drawn a cross with these four Ss. Can you tell the Trial
8 Chamber what significance that has for you, if any, and if you have any
9 idea of what significance those symbols had for General Krstic?
10 A. Is that the surprise?
11 Q. No. There is more.
12 A. What that meant to him, I don't know. But I know that this
13 symbol has been taken from the Serbian flag or the coat of arms of the
14 Republic of Serbia. The four Ss represent the Serbs; the cross and the
15 four Ss symbolise the Serbs. And the coat of arms is now used in Serbia,
16 and those Ss reflect the significance. The graphical symbolism also is
17 reflected in what is written here.
18 Q. And in your understanding, do those four Ss stand for any words
19 in particular? Are they abbreviations for anything, that you know of?
20 A. This is not how I interpret this symbol. I personally don't have
21 an interpretation. There are all sorts of theoreticians or
22 quasi-theoreticians, when all the notorious things started happening,
23 they provided all sorts of interpretations. I'm not an expert, but in
24 any case I have not interpreted the four Ss in any way. There is no
25 symbolism in the cross. And this is what Krstic drew, and in graphical
1 terms this is a product which was taken from Serbia, and then the wording
2 to the right of the symbols are reflected in the symbols.
3 Q. And have you ever heard the saying or the phrase, "Only unity
4 will save the Serbs"?
5 A. I've just told you that there have been all sorts of
6 interpretations. Some proposed your version, and there have also been
7 others that studied the history of Orthodox Church in our area, who have
8 proposed other interpretations. I will repeat: I have heard what you
9 have just mentioned but I don't think that even Krstic was among those
10 who would have drawn the symbol because of the meaning. The symbol
11 itself signifies something that belongs to the Serbs, and in this case
12 the sector here depicted in this way is what it is and the interpretation
13 I could provide is that there was no longer any need for any lines
14 because everything belonged to the Serbs. There may be other
15 interpretations of that, but I don't see a context in which the words,
16 "Only unity will save the Serbs" would be necessary given the fact that
17 both ethnic groups died in the area. And now everything is over, the
18 battle is over, and the description is given, this is now Serbian
19 territory, there are no more combat positions or lines in the area.
20 That's how I see it.
21 Q. And it's also fair to say, sir, is it not, that there were no
22 more Muslims in the area of Srebrenica and Zepa at that time.
23 A. Perhaps. You have suggested you have a surprise for me. I don't
24 want any such surprises but I would not put forth any positions or
25 opinions on that. I'm not going to speculate that somebody on that -- on
1 their side drew their own map and put words on it, "We are no longer
2 there." Let's not speculate with symbolism and things like that. Let's
3 stop right there. This is just an explosion of satisfaction that one
4 segment is over. So if there were five of us here, each of us would be
5 able to propose their own interpretation, and I don't think that it is a
6 good subject for discussion here in this courtroom.
7 Q. Let me just follow up on one thing you said, Colonel. When
8 I asked you that it's also fair to say that there were no more Muslims in
9 the area of Srebrenica and Zepa at that time, your answer was "Perhaps."
10 Is there a question in your mind about whether there were Muslims left in
11 Srebrenica enclave and Zepa enclave after these two operations?
12 A. What you have you just asked me today, is that what you're
13 referring to? Just a minute ago, in the previous question?
14 Q. Indeed, I can repeat it again, if you want, but I think it's a
15 pretty simple question.
16 A. Very well. Well, we started talking about the map that had
17 already been admitted previously. Well, I don't think that any of them
18 were left there. There is no need to conclude anything differently.
19 After the two operations and the evacuation of people from the area, save
20 for those who had scattered across the area, at the time when I was
21 hospitalised, I must say that there were still soldiers being killed in
22 the zone of defence of my brigade, from those people who hurried through
23 the woods trying to find a way to link up with their own forces, so
24 I would not rule out the fact that there were still Muslims in the area.
25 Well, it's possible that there were still Muslims there because not all
1 of them came out the road, there were still people roaming around trying
2 to link up with their forces. During that time on those days it is
3 possible that there were still Muslims moving about. You may have not
4 understood me when I told you that we shouldn't go along that way. On
5 the 29th, when I was hospitalised, people came to visit and every time
6 they would tell me a few more soldiers were killed in the area where the
7 zone of responsibility of my brigade was.
8 Q. And during that period of time that you're speaking of, Colonel,
9 you're referring to what I think is commonly known as a mopping up
10 operation or a search operation, are you not?
11 A. Well, yes. In any case, none of the two operations ended with
12 the full evacuation of the population, or the entrance into the enclave
13 which were not only narrowed down but even stopped functioning. The
14 scouring of the terrain is a normal activity that follows any combat
15 activity when the area is placed under the control of the unit that was
16 engaged in active combat. It is a rule. It is not only normal but it is
17 a rule to look at the area, to inspect the area, to inspect the roads
18 that could be used by the remains of the enemy elements from which they
19 could open fire on us once we were relaxed; they could kill our command
20 or launch some sabotage activities. This is a normal activity undertaken
21 by every military in the world when territory is placed under control.
22 This is a logical sequence of the events.
23 Q. And I think as you said before, the scattered elements of
24 whatever Muslims were left were trying to get out of the enclaves, were
25 they not? They were trying, as you said, to reach free territory.
1 A. Well, in any case, those who did not want to surrender looked for
2 possibilities to reach what they considered free territory. To be very
3 precise: A territory under the control of the Republika Srpska was also
4 free but they did not want to surrender to the Republika Srpska army,
5 they wanted to link up with their own forces.
6 MR. THAYER: Mr. President, I see we are beyond the break.
7 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Indeed, we have to adjourn for the second break.
8 I would like to invite you, Mr. Thayer, to consider the length of the
9 examination-in-chief. We got an estimation that you will need one hour.
10 You are beyond that time already and you should consider the remaining
11 examination-in-chief carefully, taking into account that most of the
12 evidence of the witness is already in evidence.
13 We adjourn and resume at five minutes past 1.00.
14 --- Recess taken at 12.35 p.m.
15 --- On resuming at 1.07 p.m.
16 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Yes, Mr. Thayer. Please continue and take the --
17 please be aware of the time.
18 MR. THAYER: Thank you, Mr. President.
19 Q. Colonel, I promised you a surprise, and we can look at it on
20 e-court but also in full size. About 18 months ago, the OTP interviewed
21 General Zivanovic, and he provided us with a map that we are about to see
22 on e-court, but I want to show you the full-size version because it's
23 much easier for you to see and to assess. And the number is 5519,
24 please, in e-court.
25 JUDGE FLUEGGE: At the moment, we have some problems with
1 e-court, and with the transcript. Perhaps somebody can assist Judge
2 Nyambe and Judge Mindua. Now I'm back.
3 MR. THAYER:
4 Q. Colonel, is that close enough or can you read it well enough from
5 where you are?
6 A. Yes.
7 MR. THAYER: May I proceed, Mr. President?
8 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Yes, please, go ahead. We have resolved the
9 problems on the screens. It's okay.
10 MR. THAYER:
11 Q. Colonel, as I said, we received this map from General Zivanovic
12 about 18 months ago. We did not have it in our possession when you
13 testified in the Popovic case. Does it look familiar to you?
14 A. No, no.
15 Q. We can see that it has General Mladic's signature in the upper
16 right-hand -- upper left-hand corner, with the code name Krivaja-95 in
17 the upper right-hand corner.
18 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Thayer, may I interrupt you for a moment?
19 Mr. Gajic.
20 MR. GAJIC: [Interpretation] Mr. President, could we please get
21 the same thing in e-court? I don't have it on either of my screens.
22 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Thayer?
23 MR. THAYER: Again, it's 65 ter 5519, please.
24 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Thank you very much.
25 MR. THAYER: If we could, on e-court, upload the translation
1 version, please.
2 Q. Again, we can see that in the upper right-hand corner, the
3 operation code name, Krivaja-95, General Mladic's handwriting, saying,
4 "Completed. This was Serbian and it's now Serbian" with a date of 12
5 July 1995. General Zivanovic's signature at the lower right-hand corner.
6 Do you see that, sir? With the Drina Corps stamp, lower right-hand
8 A. Yes.
9 Q. Again, General Mladic's --
10 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I don't see a signature there.
11 MR. THAYER: Okay. We need to scroll down a little bit, please.
12 JUDGE FLUEGGE: We are at the bottom.
13 MR. THAYER: And in the upper left-hand corner, General Mladic's
14 signature and approval.
15 Q. Now, my first question for you, sir, is: Do the axes of attack
16 that are depicted on this map more closely reflect the events on the
17 ground, as you experienced them, when compared to the other map that we
18 showed you?
19 A. I would like to ask you one thing: Before I answer this
20 question, may I respond by presenting you with a surprise? This is not a
21 map for the operation that was carried out. This is a map for active
22 actions planned for the Drina Corps units holding the lines facing the
23 Srebrenica enclave. You see that the 2nd Romanija Brigade is not shown
24 on this map. I believe "military secret, strictly confidential,
25 Krivaja-95" was added later on. You can tell if you look closely at the
1 marks of the pen that was used. And then in the right corner, something
2 was added also. There is a pointer that I can use, could I please have
3 one? It reads, "forces for active actions or operations" and in the 1st
4 Infantry Battalion of the 1st Zvornik Brigade, that's what it says but
5 I don't see it up there, the 1st Infantry Battalion of the 1st Zvornik
6 Brigade, I don't see it marked anywhere around Srebrenica, just in the
7 additional text further down on the map. And then the infantry battalion
8 from the 1st Vlasenica Brigade, 2nd Romanija Brigade, 2nd Company or MUP
9 station, and so on and so forth. I think these are later additions, not
10 contemporaneous. Because if you look at the deployment of forces around
11 the Srebrenica enclave you can see where my unit was introduced but it
12 doesn't say the 2nd Romanija Brigade. It says the Independent Infantry
13 Battalion Skelani, the 1st Light Infantry Brigade to the right, and the
14 2nd Light Infantry Brigade to the left. I think the whole thing was
15 added later on, as part of the decision for Krivaja operation.
16 If I may continue, if you have a map that reflects a decision for
17 a certain action at a certain time, you have to see the period in time
18 which that refers to. Active operations decision, for example, the 6th
19 of July, 1995, and that constitutes a combat document for that particular
20 activity. I'll say it again: I think it was General Zivanovic who did
21 this because this map was probably somewhere or other in his office just
22 lying around and then the map was designed based on directive number 7 in
23 which the Drina Corps was told to be carrying out active operations over
24 the following year, and this is a fair reflection of that but it is not a
25 fair reflection of the actual operation.
1 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Thayer, we see on the map on the screen a
2 different version than that which is originally put to the witness. This
3 is a problem because here are these entries in English which obviously
4 are translations. But it would be more helpful for the Chamber to have
5 the original version on the screen, and when I ask, I can't see a
6 signature by Mr. Zivanovic. You didn't dwell on that. I would like to
7 see that.
8 MR. THAYER: I'll point it out, Mr. President. If we could have
9 the original version, please. And it may be useful as well to hand up
10 the full-size to the Trial Chamber so you can see it better. The problem
11 with this version in the original on e-court, Mr. President, is it's not
12 quite as good a copy as the one with the translations, but we can try to
13 blow up that bottom right-hand corner and see if we can catch the
14 signature. As you can see, this map is a little darker than the previous
16 The signature, if you see the stamp, Mr. President, and I think
17 Colonel Trivic can weigh in if he can see it as well on the original but
18 there is a -- you can see some squiggly lines in a bluish colour ink that
19 flow from left to right starting with basically with that circular stamp
20 there. Again, it's harder to see on this version but we can hand up the
21 full-size original for the Trial Chamber to take a look at.
22 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I would like to hear from the witness if he sees
23 the original signature of a person on the right bottom corner. On the
24 original map. Do you see that?
25 THE WITNESS: [Interpretation] Yes.
1 JUDGE FLUEGGE: This is enough.
2 But, Mr. Thayer, again, can you give us an indication of the
3 length of the remaining examination-in-chief?
4 MR. THAYER: Mr. President, I just have one more exhibit, which
5 is the diary of Colonel Trivic, to review some entries with him, and
6 that's it. I'll probably need to the end of the session to complete
7 those questions with Colonel Trivic.
8 JUDGE FLUEGGE: It's only a question of fairness. Several times
9 I asked Mr. Tolimir to give an indication of the length of his
10 examination, and therefore I asked you the same line. Please carry on.
11 MR. THAYER:
12 Q. Now, can you describe for us, Colonel, what the map that you
13 remember seeing looked like and how it differed from this one?
14 A. I can't remember what that map looked like but I'm looking at
15 what this map indicates and, based on what is there as well as in the
16 rules for drawing up this type of map for this task in July, all of the
17 units involved in active operations were supposed to be displayed on the
18 map, based on the order for readiness on the 6th of July 1995. If we
19 wanted to pursue this all the way, and link the whole thing up, it would
20 be necessary to look at the substance of what the order says and then
21 trace every single element of the combat disposition and all of the units
22 mentioned in that document as having a task in July, in terms of active
23 operations. All of these units would have to be graphically represented
24 or depicted on this map, as well as its axes.
25 My unit is not there, which is a clear indicator, to my mind,
1 that this map was produced in order to carry out the task from the
2 directive of a course of active operations being planned but not active
3 operations of this type to narrow down or extend the enclave. Rather,
4 actions involving the forces that were holding the positions facing the
5 enclave, and that's why my unit is not there.
6 Secondly, my observation suggests that there is no depiction here
7 of the elements of the Zvornik Brigade. Have a look for yourself. You
8 can check in the English version too. And some other units, too, that
9 are not there. These are merely the units that were holding those
10 positions facing the Srebrenica enclave. Hence, my inference that this
11 map is not a faithful reflection of the order. What the text of the
12 order says must be graphically depicted on a map. You can talk to one of
13 your experts and I have no doubt that they will confirm what I'm telling
14 you. And you can analyse this all over again.
15 Yes, Mladic's signature is there, but some bits of the text were
16 added later on, and then they added the 2nd Romanija Brigade. I think if
17 you consult a handwriting expert, they can confirm that. Maybe this was
18 done by several different people at different points in time. If you
19 look at the mark that the pen leaves here, where it says, "I hereby
20 approve," and in the lower right corner it is not the same pen being
21 used, it's not the same ink. This is fresh ink and this is old ink, an
22 old pen being used, as far as I can tell. Therefore, this map suffered
23 later editions, in a manner of speaking, in order to have a map that
24 would be a map of this operation, and I can't rule this out. Mladic's
25 signature is there, Zivanovic, and undertaking good relations to the
1 chief of the Main Staff, he probably just showed him this map and, you
2 know, it was just like that; they simply decided to take advantage of the
3 moment, here, let me sign this as well, because he hadn't signed it up
4 until that point in time, and he also put his signature right here where
5 it says "completed." You know, it was just a situation in an office
6 somewhere. Maybe he simply dropped by and met up with Tomo Kovac, maybe
7 it was something like that, in the corps commander's office.
8 Q. If I can just summarise one portion of that answer, sir. The map
9 itself, your testimony is that it reflects the intentions of the superior
10 command at a particular point in time. What you're saying is just not
11 during the actual operations that were conducted in July of 1995. Is
12 that fair to say?
13 A. Well, that would be the basic conclusion, yes. You know the
14 substance of this. I listened to it, we talked about the substance of
15 Directive 7 and 7.1 for that year in 1995 in which the Drina Corps -- and
16 I'm talking about during my proofing, when I was listening to all these
17 materials, that Drina Corps faced the following task -- rather, it was
18 set out for them how they should be carrying out their tasks in the next
19 year. The Supreme Command issued a directive and the Main Staff
20 distributed that to all of the subordinate units. That task, that
21 directive, gives out tasks to all of the units, and the Drina Corps had
22 the enclaves of Srebrenica and Zepa in its own area of responsibility,
23 and then the Drina Corps received the task of carrying out active combat
24 operations, improving their positions, cutting across the enemy's
25 communication lines between Srebrenica and Zepa, as enclaves and so on
1 and so forth, and it was based on that directive that steps were taken in
2 order to be able to say there you go -- you see Zepa -- why is Zepa not
3 there? Was it later on? But then you have the arrows pointing this way
4 and that way meaning there were operations being carried out there as
5 well of one sort or another. Therefore this map probably reflects a
6 directive, probably an order that the corps commander or the corps
7 command added to this map or wrote in addition to this map. When you
8 have active combat operations being carried out, they have to indicate
9 clearly. Where is the Zvornik Brigade Battalion, where is the Romanija
10 Brigade? I'm not saying it was along one of the main roads but it was,
11 you know, somewhere close to the focus of these active operations. All
12 I'm saying is it simply wasn't shown anywhere on this map and that leads
13 me to believe that this map does not reflect the order for July; in other
14 words, Krivaja.
15 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Trivic, may I remind you to slow down while
16 speaking. It was extremely fast. Mr. Thayer.
17 MR. THAYER: Mr. President, the Prosecution would tender 65 ter
19 JUDGE FLUEGGE: It will be received.
20 THE REGISTRAR: For the record, Your Honour, that will be Exhibit
21 P1443, Your Honours.
22 MR. THAYER: I don't want the Trial Chamber to feel left out, so
23 we have a surprise for the Trial Chamber as well today. We have some
24 hard copies of this diary that the Trial Chamber has heard references to.
25 I don't need to belabour the origin of the diary.
1 Q. Colonel, did you bring your diary with you into court today? Do
2 you have it in your briefcase?
3 A. Yes.
4 Q. Okay.
5 JUDGE FLUEGGE: The maps [sic] will be received in the original
6 or original copy, and the Defence -- I see Mr. Gajic has already a copy
7 of that. That's fine.
8 MR. THAYER: If I may hand up a copy to the witness as well,
10 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Yes.
11 MR. THAYER:
12 Q. Colonel, if you would take out your copy, the original of the
13 notebook, and just place it next to this reproduction.
14 JUDGE FLUEGGE: I was erring when I said the maps should be given
15 to the Chamber. It was the copy of the diary. I was not aware of that.
16 I just want to put it on the record. Thank you.
17 MR. THAYER:
18 Q. Now, Colonel, if you would kindly allow the Trial Chamber, if it
19 wishes, just to see what this notebook looks like up close, we can hand
20 it up just for a moment to the Trial Chamber. It's a very delicate
21 document; you'll see that the glue has become undone and the pages are
23 Colonel, will you permit the court assistant just to hand that up
24 to the Trial Chamber to get a sense of what it is? Thank you. Will you
25 agree that it's a fairly standard notebook that you cut down to size to
1 use during these events?
2 A. Yes.
3 Q. And during your testimony in the Blagojevic case, did you place
4 some pages that had come out back in the proper chronological order and
5 then number the pages?
6 A. Yes. After having used the diary, not only in the courtroom but
7 during the proofing session, the notebook just came loose and the
8 chronological order was lost. In order to prevent that from happening
9 again, I marked all the pages with a red felt-tipped pen. I hope I had
10 put all the pages in order. You will see that some of the pages are the
11 summaries of what had happened over the past couple of days, and then you
12 will see that I have written on both sides of the pages and that all the
13 sides on one side contain information about Srebrenica, and the other,
14 the verso, contains information about Zepa.
15 Q. Okay. So basically you wrote on both sides of the pages?
16 A. Yes.
17 Q. And when it came to the Zepa operation, what did you do in terms
18 of starting that section of this diary?
19 A. This is what I just said. I turned the notebook upside down and
20 started writing from the back of the same notebook, and went forward into
21 the notebook. So Srebrenica starts on the right side of the notebook,
22 and Zepa starts on the back side of the notebook.
23 Q. Okay.
24 JUDGE FLUEGGE: We have had the opportunity to have a very brief
25 look at it, and the notebook was -- the diary was given back to the
2 MR. THAYER:
3 Q. Now, if we look on e-court, and this is 65 ter 7108. I just want
4 to take us through, as we go through our copies of the hard copy, so we
5 can explain how this has been reproduced. We see in e-court here ERN
6 number 0648-6772, and is it fair to say, sir, that what this image is of
7 is the cover, the hard cardboard cover, of your notebook?
8 A. Yes.
9 Q. Okay. Now, if we go to the next page in e-court, and if we just
10 open the hard copy to the next page, which is 0648-6773, is what we have
11 displayed here the flip side or the opposite side of that cardboard cover
13 A. Yes.
14 Q. Now, if we go to the next page -- actually, let's just stay on
15 here for one quick sec. I note here there is a date of 15 July 1995 and
16 that you've written this on the back of the cover. Is that in
17 chronological order or does that reference something you wrote down at a
18 different time?
19 A. This is not in a chronological order. This was noted on the 15th
20 of July, in the course of our preparations for active combat around Zepa.
21 These are channels and code numbers for the links to those who were my
22 immediate contacts. I used the flip side of the cover page to note that
23 all the way down to the 0, if you can see that, something that looks like
24 a bull's eye. This is my note of the frequencies that were used; 147275,
25 Veljko was 101; Srna, which was a code unit -- code name of a unit, had
1 different code; and finally Vuk Kosoric had his own channels and I could
2 communicate with him by radio on the channels indicated here.
3 You see Dr. Mira Djeric. Everything up to there was noted on the
4 15th of July. The second part, the bottom part, starting with Dr. Mira
5 Djeric and the telephone numbers, if you allow me to explain the page to
6 you, Dr. Mira Djeric was a doctor who worked in the military hospital
7 where I was hospitalised after having been wounded. Her husband, Miso,
8 and you can see his number here, he's also a doctor, a neuropsychiatrist,
9 in the same hospital. I noted their home number and also the telephone
10 number of Dr. Stojanovic, who admitted me when I was first brought to the
11 hospital, as well as the director of the hospital, Dr. Tausan's number.
12 But that bottom part -- half of the page was filled while I was in the
13 hospital, which means that the bottom half of the page does not concern
14 the time when Srebrenica operation was underway because that was not
15 noted on the same day.
16 Q. So is it fair to say that you've just used this inside cover page
17 as some free space to jot down certain things as you needed them?
18 A. Precisely so, yes.
19 Q. Okay. Now if we go to the next page, which is 0648-6774, we see
20 here a date of 5 July 1995, and the number 1 in red ink. Can you tell us
21 what is going on on this page and what that red numbering is?
22 A. On this page, you can see that this page was filled in the Zeleni
23 Jadar sector, which is where the unit arrived from the Defence sector,
24 and that shows the strength of my unit. And of those who were also
25 deployed there, you can see Sekovici, 140. That is the numerical
1 strength of my unit, and all of the other units of the brigade. And
2 number 1 in red was entered once the pages came loose. I put them back
3 together and then I marked them in red in order to have the pages in the
4 right chronological order, to reflect the flow of events that are
5 described in the notebook, the events that took place during the relevant
6 period of time.
7 Q. Okay. And if we could just go to the next page, which is
9 JUDGE FLUEGGE: There is a technical problem again. Sorry for
11 MR. THAYER: We can work with the hard copies in the meantime,
12 Mr. President, we all have them in front of us.
13 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Indeed.
14 MR. THAYER:
15 Q. So if we look at 0648-6775, I take it that that is the flip side
16 or the other side of the page we just looked at which you had marked with
17 the number 1 at the top; is that fair to say? Is that correct?
18 A. Yes, the flip side of the first page, to put it that way: The
19 following page depicts number 2. It may have been an error on my part.
20 I marked the pages but only on its front side, not on its flip side. And
21 that's how it goes in the notebook all the way to the end.
22 Q. That's exactly what needed to be explained.
23 MR. THAYER: And we are now, Mr. President, at the end of the
24 day. Mr. President, I did have some substantive questions for the diary.
25 It's taken a little longer to explain it. So I will, with the Court's
1 indulgence, have some more substantive questions on specific items that
2 were not raised in the prior trial but which shouldn't take too much
3 longer now that we've kind of got the rhythm. I can just take us to the
4 pages in the hard copy on e-court.
5 JUDGE FLUEGGE: Mr. Thayer, this concerns the Chamber because you
6 indicated some days ago that you will need one hour, I think now you have
7 used two and a half or something like that. I have no exact information.
8 You always should consider to dwell on those parts of the testimony which
9 was not part of the previous case. Are you tendering this document?
10 MR. THAYER: I do intend to tender it, Mr. President. I can do
11 that now. And again, that's 65 ter 7108.
12 JUDGE FLUEGGE: It will be received.
13 THE REGISTRAR: As Exhibit P01444. Thank you.
14 JUDGE FLUEGGE: We have to adjourn for the day. We will resume
15 on Thursday in the morning at 9.00 in this courtroom.
16 Sir, you should be reminded it's not allowed to have any contact
17 with the parties during the break. I think I have to repeat the last
18 piece. Please put your ear-phones on. I just said you are not allowed
19 to have any contact with the parties during the break, and we will resume
20 on Thursday at 9.00 in this courtroom. We adjourn.
21 --- Whereupon the hearing adjourned at 1.47 p.m.,
22 to be reconvened on Thursday, 9 December 2010, at
23 9.00 a.m.