TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Findings

1. Dragoljub Kunarac

2. Radomir Kovac

3. Zoran Vukovic

B. Appeal

1. Dragoljub Kunarac

(a) Convictions

(b) Sentencing

2. Radomir Kovac

(a) Convictions
(b) Sentencing

3. Zoran Vukovic

(a) Convictions
(b) Sentencing

C. Findings of the Appeals Chamber

1. Convictions
2. Sentencing

II. STANDARD OF REVIEW

III. COMMON GROUNDS OF APPEAL RELATING TO ARTICLE 3 OF THE STATUTE

A. Submissions of the Parties

1. The Appellants
2. The Respondent

B. Discussion

1. The Existence of an Armed Conflict and Nexus therewith
2. Material Scope of Article 3 of the Statute and Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions

IV. COMMON GROUNDS OF APPEAL RELATING TO ARTICLE 5 OF THE STATUTE

A. Submissions of the Parties

1. The Appellants
2. The Respondent

B. Discussion

1. Nexus with the Armed Conflict under Article 5 of the Statute
2. Legal Requirement of an ďattackĒ
3. The Attack must be Directed against any Civilian Population
4. The Attack must be Widespread or Systematic
5. The Requirement of a Policy or Plan and Nexus with the Attack
6. Mens rea for Crimes against Humanity

V. GROUNDS OF APPEAL RELATING TO THE TRIAL CHAMBERíS DEFINITION OF THE OFFENCES

A. Definition of the Crime of Enslavement (Dragoljub Kunarac and Radomir Kovac)

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellants (Kunarac and Kovac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

B. Definition of the Crime of Rape

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellants
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

C. Definition of the Crime of Torture (Dragoljub Kunarac and Zoran Vukovic)

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellants (Kunarac and Vukovic)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

(a) The Definition of Torture by the Trial Chamber
(b) The Requirement of Pain and Suffering
(c) Subjective Elements

D. Definition of Outrages upon Personal Dignity (Radomir Kovac)

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kovac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

(a) Definition of the Acts which may Constitute Outrages upon Personal Dignity
(b) Mens rea for the Crime of Outrages upon Personal Dignity

VI. CUMULATIVE CHARGING

VII. CUMULATIVE CONVICTIONS

A. General Principles

B. The Instant Convictions

1. Inter-Article Convictions under Articles 3 and 5 of the Statute
2. Intra-Article Convictions under Article 5 of the Statute

(a) Rape and Torture
(b) Rape and Enslavement

3. Article 3 of the Statute

(a) Scope of Article 3 of the Statute
(b) Intra-Article Convictions under Article 3 of the Statute

4. The Appellant Kovacís Separate Ground of Appeal

VIII. ALLEGED ERRORS OF FACT (DRAGOLJUB KUNARAC)

A. Alibi

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

B. Convictions under Counts 1 to 4

1. Rapes of FWS-75 and D.B.

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

2. Rape of FWS-95

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

C. Convictions under Counts 9 and 10 - Rape of FWS-87

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

D. Convictions under Counts 11 and 12 - Rape and Torture of FWS-183

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

E. Convictions under Counts 18 to 20 - Rapes and Enslavement of FWS-186 and FWS-191

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

F. Conclusion

IX. ALLEGED ERRORS OF FACT (RADOMIR KOVAC)

A. Identification

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kovac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

B. Conditions in Radomir Kovacís Apartment

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kovac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

C. Offences Committed against FWS-75 and A.B.

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kovac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

D. Offences Committed against FWS-87 and A.S.

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kovac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

E. Outrages upon Personal Dignity

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kovac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

F. Sale of FWS-87 and A.S.

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Kovac)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

G. The Rape Convictions

H. Conclusion

X. ALLEGED ERRORS OF FACT (ZORAN VUKOVIC)

A. Alleged Omissions in Indictment IT-96-23/1

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

B. Rape of FWS-50

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

C. Issue of Identification

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

D. Discussion of Exculpatory Evidence

1. Submissions of the Parties

(a) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(b) The Respondent

2. Discussion

E. Conclusion

XI. GROUNDS OF APPEAL RELATING TO SENTENCING

A. The Appellant Dragoljub Kunaracís Appeal against Sentence

1. Whether the Single Sentence is in Conformity with the Rules

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

2. The Recourse to the Sentencing Practice in the Courts of the Former Yugoslavia

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

3. Aggravating Factors

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

4. Mitigating Factors

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

5. Credit for Time Served

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kunarac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

6. Conclusion

B. The Appellant Radomir Kovacís Appeal against Sentence

1. The Issue of a Single Sentence and the Severity of the Sentence

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kovac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

2. The Recourse to the Sentencing Practice in the Courts of the Former Yugoslavia

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kovac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

3. Aggravating Factors

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kovac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

4. Mitigating Factors

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kovac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

5. Credit for Time Served

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Kovac)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

6. Conclusion

C. The Appellant Zoran Vukovicís Appeal against Sentence

1. Retroactive Application of the Rules that Resulted in a Single Sentence

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

2. The Recourse to the Sentencing Practice in the Courts of the Former Yugoslavia

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

3. Aggravating Factor

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

4. Mitigating Factors

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

5. Credit for Time Served

(a) Submissions of the Parties

(i) The Appellant (Vukovic)
(ii) The Respondent

(b) Discussion

6. Conclusion

D. Conclusion

XII. DISPOSITION

A. The Appeals of Dragoljub Kunarac against Convictions and Sentence

1. Convictions
2. Sentence

B. The Appeals of Radomir Kovac against Convictions and Sentence

1. Convictions
2. Sentence

C. The Appeals of Zoran Vukovic against Convictions and Sentence

1. Convictions
2. Sentence

D. Enforcement of Sentences

ANNEX A: PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND

ANNEX B: GLOSSARY